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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 3) online

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WILLIAM DILLER MATTHEW




PRESENTED



BY



The Trustees



OF



THE BRITISH MUSEUM



CATALOGUE

OP THE



UNGULATE MAMMALS

IN THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



VOL. III.

* . * * ' ' **'***

ARTIODACTYLA,

FAMILIES BOVID^,
SUBFAMILIES ^EPYCEROTINJE TO TRAGELAPHIN^E

(PALA, SAIGA, GAZELLES, ORYX GROUP, BUSHBUCKS,
KUDUS, ELANDS, ETC.),

ANTILOCAPKLD^E (PRONGBUCK), AND
GIRAFFID^ (GIRAFFES AND OKAPI).



By R. LYDEKKER, F.R.S.,

ASSISTED BY

GILBERT ELAINE.



LONDON :

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE
BRITISH MUSEUM.

SOLD BY

LONGMANS, GREEN & Co., 39, PATERNOSTER Row, E.G.

B. QUARITCH, 11, GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W.

DULAU & Co., LTD., 37, SOHO SQUARE, W.

AND AT THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, S.W.

1914.

(All rights reserved.)




EARTH

SCIENCES

LIBRARY



LONDON :

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET,



PREFACE

THE third Volume of the Catalogue of Ungulate Mammals
includes the subfamilies ^Epycerotinae, Saiginse, Pantho-
lopinse, Antilopinee, Oryginae and Tragelaphinse, and thus
completes the Bovidse, while It contains also an account
of the Antilocapridae and Giraffidse. Like its predecessors,
it has been prepared by Mr. E. Lydekker, who has
received much assistance, as in the case of Volume II., from
Mr. Gilbert Elaine.

A fourth Volume of this Catalogue is in preparation, which
it is hoped will include the remainder of the Artiodactyla.

SIDNEY F. HAEMEK,

Keeper of Zoology.



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY),
LONDON, S.W.
June 6, 1914.



808431 2



VI INTRODUCTION

Society's copy is mainly followed ; in the present volume
that of the Museum copy is quoted.

Thanks are again due to the Council of the Zoological
Society, as well as to the Smithsonian Institute, Messrs.
Eowland Ward, and various friends, for cliches of published
figures or of photographs.

May 10th, 1914.



CONTENTS

PAGK

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . iii

INTRODUCTION ......... v

ORDER UNGULATA.

SUBORDER I. ARTIODACTYLA.
SECTION A. PECORA.

FAMILY I. BOVID.E . 1

SUBFAMILY UNCERTAIN ....... 2

GENUS AMMODORCAS ....... 2

AMMODORCAS CLARKEI ...... 3

SUBFAMILY xi. ^PYCEROTINJE ..... 4

GENUS ^EPYCEROS ....... 5

^EPYCEROS MELAMPUS ...... 5

A. ^Epyceros melampus melampus ... 8

B. ^Epyceros melampus johnstoni ... 9

C. ^Epyceros melampus katangae ... 10

D. ^Epyceros melampus suara ... 10

E. jEpyceros melampus rendilis ... 11

F. ^Epyceros melampus petersi ... 12

SUBFAMILY xii. SAIGIN.E . . . . . . .12

GENUS SAIGA . . . . . . .13

SAIGA TATARICA ....... 13

SUBFAMILY xiii. PANTHOLOPINJE ..... 17

GENUS PANTHOLOPS ....... 18

PANTHOLOPS HODGSONI ...... 18

SUBFAMILY xiv. ANTILOPIN^E ..... 21

I. GENUS ANTILOPE 22

ANTILOPE CERVICAPRA ...... 23

II. GENUS GAZELLA 28

1. SUBGENUS PROCAPRA ...... 29

I. GAZELLA (PROCAPRA) PICTICAUDATA . . 30



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

II. GAZELLA (PROCAPRA) PRZEWALSKII . .32

III. GAZELLA (PROCAPRA) GTJTTDROSA ... 34
A. Gazella gutturosa gutturosa ... 37
B. Gazella gutturosa altaica .... 39

2. SUBGENUS GAZELLA ...... 40

IV. GAZELLA SUBGUTTUROSA . . . .42
A. Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa . . 44
B. Gazella subgutturosa sairensis ... 45

V. GAZELLA YARKANDENSIS .... 46

VI. GAZELLA SEISTANICA ..... 47

VII. GAZELLA FUSCIFRONS ..... 49

VIII. GAZELLA BENNETTI . . . . . 50

IX. GAZELLA CUVIERI ..... 54

X. GAZELLA GAZELLA ..... 55

XI. GAZELLA ARABICA . . . . .57

A. Gazella arabica arabica .... 59

B. Gazella arabica erlangeri . . .59

C. Gazella arabica rueppelli .... 59

XII. GAZELLA MUSCATENSIS ..... 60

XIII. GAZELLA MARICA ...... 60

XIV. GAZELLA RUFIFRONS ..... 61
A. Gazella rufifrons rufifrons. ... 63
B. Gazella rufifrons laevipes .... 64
C. Gazella rufifrons hasleri .... 65
D. Gazella rufifrons kanuri .... 65
E. Gazella rufifrons centralis. ... 66

XV. GAZELLA RUFINA ...... 66

XVI. GAZELLA LEPTOCEROS ..... 67

A. Gazella leptoceros leptoceros ... 69

B, Gazella leptoceros loderi .... 69

XVII. GAZELLA DORCAS ...... 70

A. Gazella dorcas dorcas .... 73

B. Gazella dorcas Isabella .... 75

XVIII. GAZELLA LITTORALIS ; . . . . 76

A. Gazella littoralis littoralis. . ' . .77

B. Gazella littoralis osiris .... 78

XIX. GAZELLA PELZELNI ..... 78

XX. GAZELLA SPEKEI 80

XXI. GAZELLA TILONURA 81



CONTENTS ix

PAGE

XXII. GAZELLA ALBONOTATA ..... 82

XXIII. GAZELLA THOMSONI ..... 83
3. SUBGENUS NANGER 85

XXIV. GAZELLA (NANGER) GRANTI .... 86
A. Gazella grant! grant! .... 88
B. Gazella grant! roosevelti .... 90
C. Gazella grant! robertsi .... 91
D. Gazella grant! lacuum .... 92
E. Gazella grant! raineyi .... 92
F. Gazella grant! bright! .... 93
G. Gazella grant! notata .... 93
H. Gazella grant! serengetae .... 94
I. Gazella grant! peters! .... 95

XXV. GAZELLA (NANGER) SOEMMERRINGI. . . 96

A. Gazella soemmerringi soemrnerringi . 98

B. Gazella soemmerringi erlangeri ... 99

C. Gazella soemmerringi sibyllae . . . 100

D. Gazella soemmerringi casanovse . . 100

E. Gazella soemmerringi berberana . . 100

F. Gazella soemmerringi butter! . . . 101

XXVI. GAZELLA (NANGER) DAMA .... 102

A. Gazella dama dama ..... 104

B. Gazella dama mhorr ..... 104

C. Gazella dama permista .... 106

D. Gazella dama ruficollis .... 106

III. GENUS ANTIDORCAS ...... 109

ANTIDORCAS MARSUPIALIS ..... 109

A. Antidorcas marsupialis marsupialis . .111

B. Antidorcas marsupialis centralis . . 112

IV. (zENUS LlTHOCRANIUS. ..... 113

LlTHOCRANIUS WALLERI ...... 114

A. Lithocranius waller! waller! . . . 115

B. Lithocranius walleri sclateri . . . 116

SUBFAMILY xv. ORYGIN^: ...... 117

I. GENUS ORYX . . . . . . .118

I. ORYX GAZELLA ...... 119

II. ORYX BEISA 122

A. Oryx beisa beisa ..... 123
B. Oryx beisa gallarum . . . . .124

C, Oryx beisa annectens .... 125

D. Oryx beisa callotis 125



xii CONTENTS

PAGE

V. GENUS TETRACERUS 220

TETRACERUS QUADRICORNIS ..... 220

VI. GENUS BOSELAPHUS ...... 224

BOSELAPHUS TRAGOCAMELUS ..... 225

FAMILY II. ANTILOCAPRID^E ...... 229

GENUS ANTILOCAPRA ...... 230

ANTILOCAPRA AMERICANA ..... 230

A. Antilocapra americana americana . . 232

B. Antilocapra americana mexicana . . 234

C. Antilocapra americana peninsularis . . 234

FAMILY III. GIRAFFIDJE ....... 234

I. GENUS GIRAFFA 236

I. GIRAFFA RETICULATA ..... 236

A. Giraffa reticulata reticulata . . . 238

B. Giraffa reticulata nigrescens . . . 239

II. GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS .... 240

A. Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis . 242

B. Giraffa camelopardalis antiquorum . . 244

C. Giraffa camelopardalis peralta . . . 246

D. Giraffa camelopardalis cottoni . . . 247

E. Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi . . 248

F. Giraffa camelopardalis, subsp. . . . 250

G. Giraffa camelopardalis, subsp. . . . 251

H. Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi . . 251

I. Girafla camelopardalis thornicrofti . . 252

J. Giraffa camelopardalis congoensis . . 253

K. Giraffa camelopardalis infumata . . 253

L. Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis . . 254

M. Giraffa camelopardalis wardi . . . 255

N. Giraffa camelopardalis capensis . . 256

II. GENUS OKAPIA 258

OKAPIA JOHNSTONI . 258



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Head and Neck of Baringo Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis

rothschildi) ......... xvi

Fig. 1. Head of Dibatag (Ammodorcas clarkei). (From

Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891) .... 4

,, 2. Head of Pala (JEpyceros melampus) .... 7

,, 3. The Saiga (Saiga tatarica) . 15

,, 4. Head of Chiru (Pantliolops hodgsoni) ... 20

,, 5. Skull and Horns of Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) . 25
,, 6. Head of Przewalski's Gazelle (Gazella [Procapra']
przewalskii), in Winter-coat. (From a photograph
lent by Mr. G. Fenwick-Owen) .... 33

,, 7. Head of Zeren or Mongolian Gazelle (Gazella [Pro-
capra] gutturosa), in Winter-coat. (From a photo-
graph lent by Mr. G. Fenwick-Owen) ... 36
,, 8. Altai Zeren Gazelle (Gazella [Procapra] gutturosa

altaica) in Summer-coat ..... 38

,, 9. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Altai
Zeren Gazelle (Gazella [Procapra] gutturosa altaica) .
(From Hollister, Smithson. Misc. Collect. 1913) . 39
,, 10. Sistan Gazelle (Gazella seistanica). (From a photo-
graph by Lieut.-Col. Kennion) . . . .48

,, 11. Head and Neck of Kennion's Gazelle (Gazella fusci-

frons). (From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1911) . 50
,, 12. Head of Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennetti) ... 53
,, 13. Skull and Horns of Palestine Gazelle (Gazella gazella).

(From Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904) ... 56
,, 14. Skull and Horns of Ked Gazelle (Gazella rufina).

(From Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894) ... 67
,, 15. Skull and Horns of Rhim or Loder's Gazelle (Gazella
leptoceros loderi). (From Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1894) .70

,, 16. Head and Neck of Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas).

(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1911) ... 74
17. Head of Grant's Gazelle (Gazella granti) ... 87
,, 18. Skull and Horns of Usagara Race of Grant's Gazelle
(Gazella granti robertsi). (From Thomas, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1903) . 91



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 19. Head of Soemmerring's Gazelle (Gazella soemmerringi) 99
20. Head of Bed-necked Gazelle (Gazella dama ruficollis). 108
., 21. Head of Deelfontein Springbuck (Antidorcas marsu-

pialis centralis} . . . . . . .112

,, 22. Head of Gerenuk (Lithocranius walleri) . . . 114
,, 23. Head of Eastern Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger

roosevelti) . . . . ... . . 145

,, 24. Horns of Addax (Addax nasomaculatus). (From a

photograph lent by Messrs. Eowland Ward, Ltd.) . 148
,, 25. Skull and Horns of Nyala (Tragelaphus angasi). (From

a photograph lent by Messus. Eowland Ward, Ltd.) 181
,, 26. Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) . . . 183
,, 27. Skull and Horns of Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus
buxtoni). (From a photograph lent by Messrs.
Eowland Ward, Ltd.) . . . . .184

,, 28. Head of Zambesi Situtunga (Tragelaphus [Limno-

tragus] speJcei selousi) . . , . . . 190

,, 29. Skull and Horns (A), and Frontlet and Horns (B) of

Lesser Kudu (Strepsiceros imberbis) . . . 193
,, 30. Skull and Horns of Kudu (Strepsiceros strepsiceros) . 199
31. Head of Bongo (Bob'cercus eurycerus) . . . 204
,, 32. Skulls and Horns of Male (A) and Female (B) Bongo
(Boocercus eurycerus), from Sierra Leone. (From
photographs lent by Mr. W. T. Cross) . . . 206
33. Head of Laikipia Eland (Taurotragus oryx patterson-
ianus). (From Lydekker, Novitates Zoologicce,

1907) 215

34. Head of Sudani Eace of Lord Derby's Eland (Tauro-
tragus oryx gig as). (From Eothschild, Novitates

Zoologies 1905) 218

,, 35. Skull and Horns of Four -horned Antelope (Tetracerus

quadricornis) ....... 223

,, 36. Head of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) . . . 228
,, 37. Head of Pronghorn or Prongbuck (Antilocapra ameri-

cana) ......... 233

38. Lower Front Teeth of Elk (^4) and Giraffe (B), to show

the difference in the form of the canine . . . 235
39. Skull of Netted Giraffe (Giraffa reticulata). (From

de Winton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1907) . . . .237

,, 40. Head and Neck of Baringo Giraffe (Giraffa camelopar-
dalis rothschildi), A, and of Netted Giraffe (Giraffa

reticulata), B . 239

, , 41 . Nubian Giraffe ( Giraffa catnelopardalis camelopardalis) 243
42. Kordofan Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis antiquorum) 245



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XV

PAGE

Fig. 43. Skull of Toposa Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis cottoni).

a, Azygous orbital " horn " . . . . . 247

,, 44. Baringo Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) . 249
,, 45. Head and Neck of Toposa Giraffe (Giraffa camelo-
pardalis cottoni), A, and of North Transvaal Giraffe
(Giraffa camelopardalis wardi), B . . . 255

,, 46. Skull of Southern Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis

capensis). (de Winton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897) . 257
47. Frontal View of Skull of Male Okapi (OJcapia johnstoni) 260
48. Frontal View of Skull of Female Okapi (OJcapia

johnstoni) ........ 261

49. The Okapi (OJcapia johnstoni) . . . . . 262

,, 50. Side View of Skull and Anterior Cervical Vertebrae of

Okapi (OJcapia johnstoni) ..... 263




HEAD AND NECK OP BAKINGO GIRAFFE
(Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).



CATALOGUE

OF

UNGULATE S.



VOL. III.



FAMILY BOVID^E (concluded).

KEY TO SUBFAMILIES INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME.

c. Horns (when twisted) heteronymous (vol. ii, p. 1).

a. Horns absent in females ; feet without

deep interdigital clefts ; molars
caprine.
a'. A pair of glands on lower ends of hind-

shanks ; nose normal JEpycerotince, p. 4.

b'. No glands on lower ends of hind-
shanks ; nose abnormal.
a". Nose trunk-like, with downwardly
directed nostrils ; typically
three pairs of upper and two

of lower premolars Saigince, p. 12.

b". Nose slightly bent down and
laterally inflated, with for-
wardly directed nostrils ; two
pairs of premolars Pantholopince, p. 17.

b. Horns present or absent in females;

when present in both sexes, not
spike-like in males.

a' . Feet with deep interdigital clefts ;
molars caprine ; tail short or

medium; foot-glands present Antilopiwe, p. 21.

b' . Feet without deep interdigital clefts ;
molars semi-bovine ; tail medium
or long; foot-glands wanting Tragelaphince,p. 150.

c. Horns present in both sexes.

Feet without deep interdigital clefts ;
molars semi-bovine ; tail long ;
foot-glands present Orygince, p. 117.

III. B



2 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

SUBFAMILY UNCERTAIN.
Genus AMMODORC AS.

Ammoctorcas, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 207 ; Sclater and
Thomas, Book of Antelopes, vol. iii, p. 216, 1898 ; Pocock, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1910, pp. 897 and 917.

EEPRESENTED by a single species, of the approximate
stature of the medium-sized gazelles. General form some-
what gazelle-like, but neck slender and elongated, horns
(which a*e absent in female) curving backwards and then
forwards, much-% the fashion of those of a reedbuck, and
i ','' ;iarl 'loag y /reaching nearly to hocks; muzzle hairy; face-
glands present and gazelle-like; foot-glands and inguinal
glands apparently wanting ; two pairs of teats ; knees with
small glandular tufts ; lateral hoofs small ; tail medium.
Skull of a gazelle-like type, with shallow lachrymal depres-
sions, and the premaxillse reaching the nasals ; the normal
three pairs of premolars in each jaw, of which the first are
usually small.

Kestricted to Somaliland.

In regard to the affinities of this genus, Pocock, after
referring to his examination of certain dried skins, proceeds
to remark that "superficially the feet showed no signs of
pedal glands. Certainly there were none such as exist in
the Antilopince ; and I judged that the feet resembled those
of ^Epyceros or Kdbus. Also there were two pairs of well-
developed teats, and, I could find no evidence of inguinal
glands. These features, coupled with the long ' bovine ' tail,
and the shape and direction of the horns, which are more
cervicaprine [reduncine] tban gazelline, should exclude
the genus from the Antilopince. On the other hand, the
preorbital glands appear to be like those of Gazella, and the
muzzle is hairy, as in that genus. The skull is also very
gazelline.

" These cross-resemblances make Ammodorcas extremely
difficult to classify. It has been described as intermediate
between Gazella and Lithocranius. This is true of the
length of the neck, the structure of the upper lip, and some
characters connected with the skull. On the other hand, in



A.MMODOKCAS 3

the structure of the feet, horns, and tail the genus is less
gazelline than Lithocranius."

AMMODORCAS CLARKE I.

Cervicapra clarkei, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. vii,
p. 304, 1891.

Ammodorcas clarkei, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 207, pis. xxi
and xxii ; Sclater, ibid. 1892, pp. 101 and 118 ; Ward, Records of
Big Game, p. 128, 1892, ed. 6, p. 277, 1910, ed. 7, p. 244, 1914 ;
LydekJcer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 240, 1893, Great and Small Game
of Africa, p. 368, 1899, Game Animals of Africa, p. 271, 1908;
Swayne, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. 318, Seventeen Trips to
Somaliland, p. 310, 1895 ; Hoyos, Zu den Aulikan, p. 181, 1895 ;
Elliot, Zool. Publ. Field Mus. vol. i, p. 124, 1897, Cat. Mamm.
Field Mus. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 79, 1907 ; Sclater
and Thomas, Book of Antelopes, vol. iii, p. 219, pi. Ixxiii, 1898 ;
Clarice, Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 368, 1899 ; Pocock,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 917 ; Dralce-BrocJcman, Mammals of
Somali, p. 83, 1910.

DlBATAG.

Typical locality, Buroa Wells, East Central Somaliland.

Shoulder-height about 31 inches. General colour dark
purplish rufous or cinnamon ; face with a pair of gazelle-like
white streaks, continuous posteriorly with a whitish area
round eyes and ears, median dark streak rich fulvous
rufous, lateral dark facial streaks ill-defined ; backs of ears
dull whitish; chin and under surface of jaw, under-parts,
backs of hams, and inner sides of upper portion of limbs
white ; shanks fulvous ; tail, which has a small tuft, blackish
above and below. Basal length of skull 7J inches. Good
horns measure from 11 to about 12 J (in one instance 13)
inches in length, with a girth of from 4 to 5J, and a
tip-to-tip interval of from 2J to 5 inches.

91. 5. 7. 1. Skull, with horns, and .head-skin, Buroa
Wells, East Central Somaliland. Type.

Presented ly T. W. H. Clarke, Esq., 1891.

91. 12. 19. 4. Skin, mounted, and skull. Habr-Tojal,
near Buroa Wells. Same history.

91. 12. 19. 5. Skull, with horns, and skin (in bad
condition). Same locality. Same history.

91. 12. 19. 6-7. Two skulls and skins (in bad condition),
female. Same locality. Same history.

B 2



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



91. 12. 3. 5. Skull, with horns. Near Bur-Dap Mts.,
Somaliland. Noticed in Book of Antelopes, vol. lii, p. 226.

Presented ly Gen. Sir A. H. Paget, G.C.B., 1891.

86. 1. 25. 7. Skin. Somaliland ; collected by Herr J.
Menges. Presented ly Dr. P. L. Sclater, 1886.




p IG . i. HEAD OP DIBATAG (Ammodorcas clarkei).
From Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891.

96. 10. 6. 2. Skeleton and skin, female. Darror Wells,
Somali Haud. Book of Antelopes, loc. cit.

Presented ly Ford G. Barclay, Esq., 1896.

96. 10. 6. 3. Head, mounted, and body-skin. Same
locality. Same history.



SUBFAMILY xi.

Kepresented by a single genus, with one (or possibly two)
species of relatively large size. Horns (absent in female)
medium or rather long, heteronymous, broadly lyrate, ridged
in front, and slightly compressed ; tail of medium length and



5

slender ; nose normal ; muzzle hairy ; no face-glands or foot-
glands (at least in fore-limbs), but, according to Owen,
inguinal glands present ; teats two ; a pair of black-tufted
glands on hind surface of lower part of hind-shanks, but no
glandular tufts on knees ; lateral hoofs wanting ; feet similar
in structure to those of most of the Redundnce, but the
membrane between the hoofs clothed with short hairs ; tail
medium. Skull without supraorbital pits or lachrymal
depressions, but with small lachrymal vacuities ; three pairs
of lower pre molars.

Eange same as that of genus.

Genus ^PYCEROS.

^Epyceros, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1845, p. 271, 1847 ;

Sclater and Thomas, Book of Antelopes, vol. iii, p. 15, 1897 ;

PococJf, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 918.
^Epyceras, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub.

vol. viii) p. 71, 1907.

Characters those of the subfamily.

The range extends from Little Namaqualand, just south
of the Orange Eiver, and Bechuanaland as far north as
Angola on the western, and British East Africa and, it is
said, the Dafur district of the southern Sudan on the eastern
side of the continent.

^PYCEEOS MELAMPUS.

Antilope melampus, Lichtenstein, Reise, vol. ii, p. 544, pi. iv, 1812,
Mag. nat. Freunde, vol. vi, p. 167, 1814 ; Goldfuss, Schreber's
Sdugthiere, vol. v, p. 1224, pi. cclxxiv, 1818; Schinz, Cuvier's
Thierreich, vol. i, p. 388, 1821, Synop. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 405,
1845, Mon. Antilop. p. 7, pi. vi, 1848 ; Desmarest, Mammalogie,
vol. ii, p. 456, 1822 ; Burchell, Travels in S. Africa, vol. ii,
p. 301, 1824, List Mamm. presented to Brit. Mus. p. 5, 1825 ;
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv. p. 219, vol. v,
p. 334, 1827 ; Lesson, Man. Mamm. p. 374, 1827, Nouv. Tabl.
Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 176, 1842 ; J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm.
p. 462, 1829 ; Smuts, Enum. Mamm. Cap. p. 74, 1832 ; A. Smith,
S. African Quart. Journ. vol. ii, p. 209, 1834 ; Jardine, Naturalist's
Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 217, pi. xxix, 1835 ; Owen, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1836, p. 37, Anat. Vertebrates, vol. iii, p. 633, 1868 ; Harris,
Wild Anim. S. Africa, p. 78, pi. xv, 1840 ; Gervais, Diet. Sci.
Nat. vol. i, p. 261, 1840 ; Laurillard, Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat. vol. i,
p. 616, 1841 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 162, 1843, Ann.
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. xviii, p. 231, 1846, List Osteol. Brit.



6 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Mus. p. 57, 1847, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 6, 1850; Wagner,
Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 417, 1844, vol. v, p. 409,
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Antilope pallah, Gervais (ex Cuv.) Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. i, p. 261, 1840.

^Epyceros melampus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1845,
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-<Epyceras melampus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus.
Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 72, 1907.



PALA, PALLA, or IMPALA.

Typical locality Klipfontein, Little Namaqualand, S. E.
Africa.

Height at withers about 39 inches ; general colour bright
reddish brown, or bay, becoming paler on flanks ; head dark



fawn, with or without a blackish face-blaze, a dark mark in
front of eye on sides of face, or a black patch on crown ; a
streak above eye, chin and under surface of jaw, upper part
of throat, and under-parts white ; ears medium, with the
backs fawn, and the terminal third black ; a light ring above




FIG. 2. HEAD OF PALA (dEpyceros melampus).

hoofs on each pastern, a pair of black glandular tufts on
lower end of posterior surface of hind-shanks, and a black
line on upper surface of tail, extending more or less on to
loins. Average basal length of skull about 10J inches.
Horns vary in length locally from about 18 to as much as
30 or even 31 inches, measured along the curve, and from



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