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Guide to the Gallery of Birds in the Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History) online

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EB 31940



LIBRARY



TO THE




GALLERY OF BIRDS

IN THE

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY,
BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



Part I,



GENERAL SERIES.



SECOND EDITION.



WITH 1 PLATE AND 7 TEXT-FIGURES.



LONDON

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES
OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM.



1021.

Price Two Shillings and Sixpence.



GUIDE



TO THE



GALLERY OF BIRDS

IN THE

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY,
BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



Part I.

General Series.



SECOND EDITION.

WITH 1 PLATE AND 7 TEXT-FIGURES.



LONDON:

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES
OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

1921.

(All rights reserved.)




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



TO THE FIRST EDITION.



THIS Guide to the General Series of Specimens in the Bird
Gallery has been prepared by Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant,
Assistant in the Zoological Department. He has also carried
out the arrangement of the Bird Gallery in its present form.
The visitor should notice that at the side of each recess in the
gallery the common names of the kinds of birds there exhibited
are displayed in large capitals, whilst a label is placed on the
gluss front of each case showing the common name of any
specially interesting or well-known bird which is near the
label. Further, every specimen has now attached to its
stand, not only its name but a number which is a reference
number for the Guide.

E. RAY LANKESTER.

March 16th, 1905.



IN view of the increased cost of printing, it has been thought
desirable to suspend the publication of -the complete Guide to
the Gallery of Birds. This consisted of Parts I. and II.

M83129



IV PREFACE.

together, an Appendix on the structure of Birds and a series of
25 Plates. A First Edition of Part I., without the Appendix
and the Plates, appeared in 1905. The present Guide is
practically a reprint (with a few verbal corrections) of that
issue, with the addition of the Appendix and Plate XXV.
Plates I.-XXIV. can be purchased separately (price Is. 6d.).

The statements in the Preface to the First Edition are no
longer completely in accordance with the method of labelling
adopted in the Bird Gallery.

SIDNEY F. HARMER,

Director.

BRITISH MUSEUM (NAIURAL HISTOKT),
Cromwell Road,

London, S.W. 7.
March, 1921.



CONTENTS.



PAGK
DESCRIPTION- OF THE SPECIMENS IN THE BIRD GALLERY . . 1

APPENDIX ON THE STRUCTURE OP BIRDS 137

INDEX .... , J51



DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMENS



IN THE



BIRD GALLERY.



IN this Gallery, which is devoted to the exhibition of mounted specimens
of the general series of birds, the contents are arranged continuously in
the pier-cases, the order commencing on the right hand as the visitor
enters, and finishing on the left.

Most of the cases occupying the centre and recesses of this Gallery
belong to a special series illustrating the nesting-habits of British birds
which are described in Part II, published separately, of the Guide.

The specimens in the wall-cases and detached cases not belonging to
the nesting-series have each a number attached which is referred to in
this guide by thick black figures enclosed in brackets.

All the species of birds recorded on the British list will be found
incorporated with the general series in their proper places, and marked
with one of the following numbers on differently coloured discs, which
indicate :

(1) Resident. Breeds in this country.

(2) Regular summer visitor. Breeds.

(3) Regular autumn, winter or spring visitor. Does not

breed.

(4) Occasional visitor. Used to breed.

(5) Occasional visitor. Never known to breed.

In addition to the above a complete series of British birds will be
found exhibited in the pier-cases in the Pavilion at the end of the
Gallery.



BIRD GALLERY.



The arrangement adopted in the Gallery is as follows :

AVES.

Subclass I. SAURUR^:. (Lizard-tailed Birds.)



FAMILY.



Order Archaeopteryges.

ENGLISH NAME. CASK.

Archaeopteryx, or Griffon- Right-hand side of

bird, entrance to Gallery.



V uM^4iI.^NEORNITHES. (Modern Birds.)
Section A. EATIT2E.



Struthionidfe



Rheidae



Order I. Struthioniformes.
Ostriches.

Order II. Rheiformes.
Rheas.



Order III. Dinornithiformes .

Dinornithidfe Moas.

Order IV. .ffipyornithiformes.
^Epyornithidse Madagascar Moas.



I. Dromaeidse
II. Casuariidfe



Apterygidre



Tinamidse



Order V. Casuariiformes.

Emus.

Cassowaries.



Order VI. Apterygiformes.
........ Kiwis.

Order VII. Tinamiformes.
........ Tinamous.



1 and central
case in bay.

1 &2.



8.



8.



4.
5 & 6 and

central case.

5.



Central table-case.



I. Megapodiidae
II. Cracidse

I. Phasianidae
IE. Tetraonidse



Section B. CAEINAT^.

Order I. Galliformes.

Suborder 1. PEEISTEKOPODES.
........ Megapodes, or Mound-

builders.
Curassows and Guans.



Suborder 2. ALECTOROPODES.

i Americai)Partridges,G uiut a-
-i Fowls, Turkeys, Pheasants,

( Partridges, Quails.
Grouse.



9-16 and
central case.

17 & 18.



CLASSIFICATION.



3



Order II. Pterocletiformes.

FAMILY. ENGLISH NAME. CASK.

Pteroclidae Sand-Grouse. Table-case.

Order III. Turniciformes.
Turnicidae Hemipodes, or Bustard-Quails. Table-case.

Order IV. Columbiformes.

I. Dididae Dodo, Solitaire. Table-cases, and

picture in cases 19-20.

II. Didunculidae Tooth-billed Pigeon. 19.

III. Columbidae Pigeons. 19 & 20.

Order V. Ralliformes.

I. Rallidse Rails. 22.

II. Heliornithidae Finfoots. 22.

Order VI. Podicipediformes.

Podicipedidas Grebes. 21.

Order VII. Colymbiformes.

Colymbidas Divers. 21.

Order VIII. Sphenisciformes.

Spheniscidae Penguins. Central case.

Order IX. Procellariiformes.

I. Diomedeidse Albatroses. 23.

II. Procellariidae Petrels. 23 & 24.

Order X. Alciformes.

Alcidas Auks. 24.

Order XI. Lariformes.

I. Stercorariidfe Skuas. 26.

II. Laridae Gulls and Terns. 25 & 26.

Order XII. Charadriiformes.

I. Dromadidne Crab-Plovers. 27.

II. Chionididte Sheathbills. 27.

III. Attagidse Seed-Snipes. 27.

IV. Charadriidse Plovers. 27 & 28.

V. Cursoriidae Coursers. 29.

VI. Glareolidae Pratincoles. 29.

VII. Parridae Jacanas. 29.

VIII. CEdicnemidae Stone-Plovers. 29.

IX. Otididae Bustards. 29 & 30 and

central case.

Order XIII. Opisthocomiformes.

Opisthocomidaj Hoatzjns. Table-case.



BIRD GALLERY.



Order XIV. Gruiformes.

FAMILY, ENGLISH NAME. OASB.

I. Aramidae Limpkins. 31.

II. Ehinochetidae Kagus. 31.

III. Eurypygidas Sun-Bitterns. 31.

IV. Cariamidse Carianias. 31.

V. Psophiidse Trumpeters. 31.

VI. Gruidje . . '. Cranes. 31 & 32.

Order X V. Ardeiformes.

I. Ardeidse Herons and Bitterns. 33 & 34.

II. Baleenicipitidee . ... Shoe-billed Storks'. 35.

III. Scopidae Hammer-head Stork's. 35.

IV. Ciconiidse Storks. 35 & 36.

V. Ibididfe Ibises. 35.

VI. Plataleidaa Spoonbills. 36.

Order XVI. Anseriformes.

... i I Mergansers, Ducks, Geese, I 37-42 and

I Swans. I central case.

Order XVII. Phcenicopteriformes.

Phcenicopteridse Flamingoes. 42.



Palamedeidae



Order XVIII. Palamedeiformes.
Screamers.



Order XIX. Pelecaniformes,
I. Phalacrocoracidee Darters, Cormorants.



II. Sulidaa

III. Pelecanidse

IV. Fregatidas

V. Phaethontidse



Cathartidee
Serpentariidee

I. Vulturidaa
II. Falconidfe

III. Pandionidas

"I. Bubonidee
II. Strigidaa

I. Psittacidse

II. Loriidse



Gannets.
Pelicans.
Frigate-birds.
Tropic-birds.



Order XX. Cathartiformes.
Turkey-Vultures.

Order XXI. Serpentariiformes.
Secretary-birds.

Order XXII. Accipitriformes.

Vultures.

Eagles, Hawks.

Ospreys.



42.



43.
43.
44.
44.
44.



45 and table-case.



45.



45 & 46 and table-case.
46-53.
53.



Order XXIII. Strigiformes.

Horned and Wood-Owls.

Barn-Owls

Order XXIV. Psittaciformes.

True Parrots.

Lories or Brush-tongued

Parrots.



54 and table-case.
54.



55 & 56.
56.



CLASSIFICATION.



Order XXV. Coraciiformes.

FAMILY. ENGLISH NAME.

I. Steatornithidae Oil-birds.

II. Podargidae Frog-mouths.

III. Alcedinidse Kingfishers.

IV. Leptosomatidae Kirombos.

V. Coraciidae Rollers.

VI. Meropidae Bee-eaters.

VII. Momotidse Motmots.

VIII. Todidaj Todies.

IX. Upupidae Hoopoes.

X. Bucerotidae Hornbills.

XI. CaprimulgidsB Nightjars or Goatsuckers.

XII. Cypselidaa Swifts;

XIII. Trochilidaj Humming-birds.

XIV. Collide Colies.

Order XXVI. Trogoniformes.

Trogonidsc Trogons.

Order XXVII. Cuculiformes.

I. Cuculidae Cuckoos.

II. Musophagidse Touracos,



I. Rhamphastidae
II. Capitonidae

HI. Indicatoridse

IV. Picidaa
V. Bucconidae

VI. Galbulidas



Eurylsemidaa
Meuuridifi



I. Pteroptochidae
II. Conopophagidas

III. Formicariidae

IV. Dendrocolaptidae



1. Cotingidae

II. Pipridae

III. Oxyrhamphidte

IV. Tyrannidae



Order XXVIII. Piciformes.

Toucans.

Barbets.

Honey-guides.

Woodpeckers.

Puff-birds.

Jacamars.

Order XXIX. Eurylaemiformes.
Broadbills.

Order XXX. Menturiformes.
Lyre-birds.

Order XXXI. Passeriformes.
Section A. MESOMYODI.

Group I. TRACHEOPHON.S:.

Tapacolas.

Conopophagas.

Ant-birds.

Wood-hewers.



Group II.



American Chatterers.
Manakins.
Sharp-bills.
Tyrant-birds.



CASH.
57.
57.
57.
58.
58.
58.
58.
58.
58.

59&60.
61.
61.
62.
63.



63.



64.
63.



65.
65.
65.
66.
67.
67.



67.



67.



68.



69.
69.
70.
70.



BIRD GALLEftY.



FAMILY.
V. Phytotomidae


ENGLISH NAME.
Plant-cutters.


CASK.
70.
70.
70.
70.

71.
71.
71.
71.
73.
72.
73.
73.
73.
74.
75.
75.
75.
75.
76.
76.
76.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
78.
78.
78.
78.
79 & 80.
80.
80.
81.
81 & 82.
82.
82.
82.
83.
83.
ntral table-case.
Central case.
PR & R4_


VI. Pittidse


Pittas or Ant-thrushes.


VII. Philepittidifi


Wattled Ant-thrushes.


Vni. Xenicidse


New Zealand Bush- Wrens.


Section


B. ACHOMYODI.

Scrub-birds.


II. Hirundinidse


. . Swallows.


III. Muscicapidae


. . Flycatchers.


IV. Campophagidse


. . Cuckoo-Shrikes.


V. Pycnonotidas


. . Bulbuls.


VI. Timeliidfe


. . Babblers.


VII. Troglodytidfe


Wrens.


VIII. Cinclidaa


Dippers,


IX. Mimidae


Mocking-birds.


X. TurdidiB


. . Thrushes.


XL Sylviidse


Warblers.


XII. Vireonidse


. . Greenlets.


XIII. Ampelidse


. . Chatterers.


XIV. Artamidae


. . Swallow-Shrikes.


XV. Vangidae


Madagascar Shrikes.


XVI. Prionopidae


. . W T ood-Shrikes


XVII. Laniidae


, . Shrikes or Butcher-birds


XVIII. Paridas


. . Tits or Titmice


XIX. Panuridae


. . Bearded Tits


XX. Chamaeidae


Wren-Tits


XXI. Kegulidaj


. . Golden-crested Wrens


XXII. Sittidse


. . Nuthatches


XXIII. Certhiidse


. . Tree-Creepers


XXIV. Zosteropidas


, . White-eyes


XXV. Dicseidse


. . Flower-peckers


XXVI. NectariniidsB


Sun-birds


XXVII. Drepanididae


. . Hawaiian Honey-suckers


XXVIII. Meliphagid


. . Honey-suckers


XXIX. Mniotiltidaa


American AVarblers


XXX. Motacillidae


. . Wagtails and Pipits


XXXI. Alaudidae


. . Larks.


XXXII. Fringillidce


. . Finches and Buntings


XXXIII. Coerebidaa


. American Creepers


XXXIV. Tanagridaj


. . Tana"ers


XXXV. Ploceidse


. . \Veaver-Finche^


XXXVI. Icteridae ...


Han "'-nests


XXXVII. OriolidiB


Orioles


XXXVIII. Dicruridse


, . Droncos


XXXIX. Eurycerotidae


Madagascar Starlins


XL. Eulabetidre




XLI. Sturnidae


. Starlings


XLII. Ptilonorhvnchidas


Bower-birds Ce


XLIII. Paradiseidae


, Paradise-birds


XL1V. Corvidae


Crowe.



STRUTHIOUS BIRDS. '

[Right-hand side of entrance

Subclass I. SATJIlUR.3i]. to Gallery. Restoration and

framed cast of fossil remains.]

Fossil remains, hitherto only found in the lithographic slate of
Solenhofen, in Bavaria, indicate that birds existed in the Upper Jurassic
geological age, differing in certain points from those now existing. The
jaws were armed with teeth, and the three digits of the fore-limb were
furnished with claws. The tail consisted of a series of elongated
vertebrae, gradually tapering to the extremity, each vertebra bearing a
pair of well-developed feathers. As the skeleton of the tail rather
resembled that of a Reptile than that of a modern Bird, the name
Saurura, signifying ' Lizard- tailed/ has been applied to the group.

The best known representative of this subclass is the Archceopteryx
lithographica (1 ). A cast of the fossil remains of this remarkable form
is exhibited at the entrance to the Bird Gallery. For full particulars
the reader is referred to the ninth edition of the " Guide to the Fossil
Mammals and Birds," pp. 93-95 (1909).

Subclass II. NEORNITHES.

This Subclass includes all the remaining forms, both recent and
fossil, included in the Class Aves, and may be divided into two sections :
A. Ratitce, and B. Carinatce. The first contains the Struthious Birds
and the Tinamous, and the second all the existing Birds not included
in the previous division.

Section A. RATIT^E.
STEUTHIOUS BIRDS AND TINAMOUS.

In this Subclass are included all the great flightless species of the
Ostrich-tribe commonly known as the Struthious Birds, as well as the
Tinamous. The name Ratitae is derived from the raft-like breast-bone
of the former, which is devoid of a keel for the attachment of the pectoral
muscles. As these muscles gradually ceased to be used they became
degenerate, the keel for their attachment disappeared, and, as a result,
the birds lost the power of flight. Though at the present period
represented by comparatively few members, which are confined to
Africa, the Papuan group of islands, Australia, New Zealand, and
South America, the " Ratites " were formerly much more numerous in
species, and ranged over parts of the earth where they have long since
ceased to exist. A number of fossil forms are known.

The Ratitse may be distinguished from all other birds by the bones
o!; the palate, the pterygoid never forming a jointed articulation with



8 BIRJ) GALLERY.

the palatine, but forming a close union either by fusion or by over-
lapping suture with the base of the vomer.

The majority of the members of this group have become flightless,
a fact which has brought about many modifications of the skeleton
and feathers. The Tinamous alone have retained the power of
flight.

The Ratitse are divisible into seven Orders, probably derived from
three distinct stocks. Each Order can be readily defined, and presents
one or more points which indicate extreme specialization.

On account of the structure of the palate, the members of this section
may be regarded as the most primitive of living birds.

The seven Orders of the Ratitse are the following :

1. Struthioniformes . One genus, Struthio.

2. Rheiformes Two genera, Rhea and Pterocnemia.

3. Dinornithiformes ) _ T

. . , . > Numero us genera. Extinct forms.

4. ^Bpyornithiformes )

5. Casuariiforrnes ... Two genera, Casuarius and Dromaus.

6. Apterygiformes . . . One living genus, Apteryx, and two

extinct genera.

7. Tinamiformes ,.. Numerous genera.

The characters by which the Orders are distinguished are fully
explained in the table-case in the first bay.



Order 1. STRUTHIONIFORMES. OSTRICH-TRIBE.
in Bay.jj

Though closely allied to the Rheas, which they resemble in general
appearance, the members of this order may be at once distinguished
from all others by possessing only two toes. Of these the one corre-
sponding to the middle of the three anterior toes in ordinary birds (the
third of the complete set) is much the largest and supports the greater
part of the weight. It bears a stout pointed nail. The smaller outer
(or fourth) toe often wants the nail. The whole of the head and neck
as well as the legs are bare, or only covered with short down. The body-
feathers are single, having no aftershaft, and the feathers of the wings
and tail (corresponding to the ' remiges ' and 'rectrices* of ordinary
birds) are of considerable size, but soft and plumose.

Family STRUTHIONID^E. OSTRICHES.

The Ostriches, the largest of living birds, are represented by the
single genus Struthio, which contains at least four living species



OSTRICHES. 9

inhabiting Africa and Arabia. In former times their range was
much more extensive, and fossil forms have been found in the Pliocene of
the Siwalik Hills of India and in the Upper Miocene of Samos. The
Common or Northern Ostrich (S. camelus} (3) is found in Northern
arid Western Africa, and ranges eastwards to Abyssinia, Arabia, and
South Palestine ; a somewhat different form, the Masai Ostrich
(S. massaicus) (3 a), inhabits East Africa; in Somali-land and Central
Africa S. molybdophanes occurs ; and in South Africa its place is taken
by S. australis (2), which is exhibited in all stages of plumage, from
the nestling to the adult, in the central Case.

The males are larger than the females, standing about eight feet
high, and in all the species are black with white wings and tail. They
may, however, be readily distinguished inter se, for S. camelus and
S. massaicus have the skin of the head and neck of a bright flesh-
colour, while in the other two species it is grey ; S. camelus and
S. molybdophanes have a horny shield on the crown, which is wanting
in S. massaicus and S. australis. The plumage of the females and
young males is brownish-grey. The general tint of the eggs laid by
all four species is pale cream-colour, but the texture of the shell differs
greatly.

Ostriches inhabit the sandy wastes and deserts, as well as districts
studded with low bushes, and are often found associating with herds of
zebras and antelopes. Though as many as fifty individuals may some-
times be seen in company, they are more often met with in parties of
five or six, especially during the breeding-season, when the polygamous
male is accompanied by several hens. The hens belonging to one male
lay their eggs in the same nest, which is a shallow excavation dug in
the sand. As many as thirty eggs are sometimes deposited in the pit,
and many more are dropped around which are said to serve as food
for the newly-hatched young. The contents of an egg are equal to
about two dozen hen's eggs. The male undertakes nearly the whole
duty of incubation, which lasts for six or seven weeks, being occasion-
ally relieved by the hens during the daytime. He especially looks
after the nest at night, and broods over the eggs, though in many
tropical countries the latter are covered over with sand and left to the
heat of the sun during the daytime.

The Ostrich was formerly much hunted for the sake of its curled
plumes, but since the establishment of Ostrich-farms the chase, except
for sport, has been almost abandoned. On the large South African
farms, where numbers of birds are annually reared, the plumes are
plucked every six or nine months.



10 BIRD GALLERY.

Order II. RHEIFORMES. RHEA-TRIBE.

[Cases

1 & 2> J In South America the place of the Ostriches of the Old World is
taken by an allied group of birds called Rheas, or ''American Ostriches/'
which are distinguished by certain structural characters, and externally
by the presence of three toes furnished with compressed claws, by the
fully-feathered head and neck, and by the absence of a conspicuously
feathered tail. The wings also are proportionately larger, and are
covered with long slender plumes. As in the Strut hionidce, the
body-feathers are single, without an aftershaft, a character which
separates these birds from the Emus and Cassowaries.

Family RHEIDJE. RHEAS.

The Rheas include three South American species, viz. : Roth-
schild's Rhea (Rhea rothschildi] (4), found from Southern Brazil and
Bolivia southwards; the Great-billed Rhea (R. americana) inhabiting
North-east Brazil; and Darwin's Rhea (Pterocnemia pcnnata) (6),
from the southern part of the continent. All bear considerable
resemblance ' to their African allies, and are often called " South
American Ostriches/' but they are smaller and easily distinguished
by the characters already mentioned.

They inhabit the great Pampas and scrub-covered plains in larger or
smaller flocks, often associating with deer and guanacos. In the month
of July the pairing-season begins, and the males then utter a deep
resonant booming noise and give vent to various weird sounds. The
young males are driven from the flock, and the cock birds fight viciously
with one another for the possession of the females. The battles are
conducted in a curious manner, the combatants twisting their long
necks together and biting at each other's heads with their beaks, while
they turn round and round in a circle, pounding the ground with their
feet. The females of the flock all lay together in a natural depression
of the ground, each hen laying a dozen or more eggs. If the females
are many, the male usually drives them away before they finish laying,
and commences to sit. The hens then drop their eggs about the plains,
and, from the large number of wasted eggs found, it seems probable
that more are dropped out of the nest than in it. The colour of the
egg when fresh is a fine golden yellow. The young when hatched are
assiduously tended and watched over by the cock-bird, who charges
an intruder with outstretched wings.

Rheas take readily to water, and can swim across a river several
hundred yards wide, the body being almost entirely submerged. They
are easily acclimatized, and often kept in parks in this country, where
they frequently breed. The feathers are of little commercial value,



MOAS. 11

Order III. DINORNITHIFORMES.

Family DINORNITHID^. MOAS.

[Case 3.]

New Zealand was formerly inhabited by a gigantic race of birds
called Moas, some species of which considerably exceeded in size the
modern Ostriches. The situation and state of preservation of the
abundant remains which have been found indicate that they existed till
comparatively recent times, and were probably exterminated by the
present Maori inhabitants of the islands. Feathers which have been
found associated with the bones show the presence of a large after-
shaft, as in the Emus and Cassowaries ; but some of the species
resemble the Kiwis (Apteryx] in possessing a hind toe. Wings were
absent, and the shoulder-girdle was only represented by a vestige.

The Moas are represented by several genera, the largest member
being Dinornis maximus (7), a gigantic bird, of which a skeleton is
exhibited. Some of the species seem to have survived until about four
or five hundred years ago, or even later in the South Island, but being
flightless, their extinction by the natives, who hunted them for their
flesh, was an easy task.

Besides large quantities of bones, some of which have been obtained
from native cooking-places, portions of the skin and feathers have
been discovered, as well as pebbles used to aid digestion, and eggs both
whole and fragmentary. For further particulars the visitor is referred
to the ninth edition of the " Guide to the Fossil Mammals and Birds,"
p. 92(1909).

Order IV. ^PYORNITHIFORMES.
Family ^EPYORNITHID^:. MADAGASCAR MOAS.

Fossil remains from superficial deposits in Madagascar show the
existence, in a very recent geological period, of several species of Ratite
birds, which bear much resemblance to the Dinornithida. One of their
most striking characteristics was the enormous size (both absolute and
relative) of the egg, in which respect they resemble the Kiwis (Apteryx)
of New Zealand rather than the.M-oas. The largest species, ^Epyornis
titan (8), of which a cast of the leg is exhibited, stood about 10 feet
high, and its eggs exceed all others in size, some of the shells containing
from two to three gallons of liquid, or an amount equal to the contents
of about one hundred and fifty hen's eggs. An example exhibited
measures : long circumference 2 ft. 9 ins., girth 2 ft. 5 ins. These
birds are believed by many to be identical with the famous "Hoc"
mentioned by the traveller Marco Polo, and it is supposed that some of
the species were in existence not more than two hundred years ago.
[<7/. Fossil Guide, p. 92 (1909).]



12 BIRD GALLERY.

Order V. CASUARIIFORMES. EMUS AND CASSOWARIES.
la the two families (Dromceidee. and Casuariida] comprising this
order the wings are still more reduced in size and the " fingers " are
represented by one claw-bearing digit. The body-feathers have an
aftershaft or accessory plume as long as the main feather.



Family I. DROM^EID^:. EMUS.

FCase 4.1 ^ ne Emus agree with the Cassowaries in possessing a large after-
shaft to the body- feathers, but the bill is broad and flat, the head and


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