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Guide to the Gallery of Birds in the Department of Zoology of the British Museum (Natural History) online

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GUIDE



TO THE



OF



BIRDS



IN THE



DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY



OF THE



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY)



WITH 24 PLATES AND 7 ILLUSTRATIONS.



X



LONDON:
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

1905.

(All rights reserved.)




Price Two Shillings and Sixpence.




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA



PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID



GUIDE



TO THE



OF



BIRDS



IN THE



DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY



OF THE



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



WITH 24 PLATES AND 7 ILLUSTRATIONS.



LONDON:

PRINTED BY ORDER, OF THE TRUSTEES.

1905.



ALEHK . FLAMMAM.




PRINTED BY TA TLOB, AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLKKT STBKET.



L> >y



P R E FA C EX



THIS Guide to the Bird Gallery has been prepared by
Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Assistant in the Zoological
Department. He has also carried out the arrangement of
the Bird Gallery in its present form. The visitor should
notice that at the side of each recess in the gallery the
common names of the kinds of birds there exhibited are
displayed in large capitals, whilst a label is placed on the
glass front of each case showing the common name of
any specially interesting or well-known bird which is
near the label. Further, every specimen has now attached
to its stand, not only its name but a number which
is a reference-number for the guide. The long explanatory
labels affixed to the special cases of nesting-birds are
reproduced in the present guide. The cases of this series
and the explanatory labels are numbered, so that for every
specimen which the visitor sees in the gallery there is an
appropriate paragraph in the guide, which may be found by
merely looking up the number.

Photographic plates of some of the nesting-groups and of
a few specially interesting birds have been prepared for this



IV I'll EF ACE.

book by Mr. R. B. Lodge. The plates have been produced
from photographs of the actual specimens in the gallery : it
must be borne in mind that there are special difficulties in
photographing specimens which cannot be brought into chosen
conditions of light. Many of the i]lustrations will be found
to furnish a valuable record of the successful efforts to exhibit
birds in their natural surroundings, for which the Bird Gallery
of this Museum has long been famous.

The Guide-book is completed by an appendix on the
structure of Birds, with illustrations of the feathers and
skeleton.



E. RAY LANKESTER.



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY),
Cromwell Itoad,

London, S.W.

January 14th, 1905.



CONTENTS.



PAGE
DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMENS IN THE BIRD GALLERY . . 1

DESCRIPTION OF THE NESTING-SERIES OF BRITISH BIRDS . . 137

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 197

APPENDIX ON THE STRUCTURE OF BIRDS 201

INDEX 215



DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIMENS

IN THE

BIRD GALLERY.



IN this Gallery, Avhich is devoted to the exhibition of mounted specimens
of the general series of birds, the contents are arranged continuously in
the pier-cases, the order commencing on the right hand as the visitor
enters, and finishing on the left.

Most of the cases occupying the centre and recesses of this Gallery
belong to a special series illustrating the nesting-habits of British birds
which are described in a special chapter, p. 137.

The specimens in the wall-cases and detached cases not belonging to
the nesting-series have each a number attached which is referred to in
this guide by thick black figures enclosed in brackets.

All the species of birds recorded on the British list will be found
incorporated with the general series in their proper places, and marked
with one of the following numbers on differently coloured discs, which
indicate :

(1) Resident. Breeds.

(2) Regular summer visitor. Breeds.

(3) Regular spring and autumn visitor. Does not breed.

(4) Occasional visitor. Has been known to breed.

(5) Occasional visitor. Never known to breed.

In addition to the above a complete series of British birds \vill be
found exhibited in the pier-cases in the Pavilion at the end of the
Galler.



BIRD GALLERY.



The arrangement adopted in the Gallery is as follows :

AVES.

Subclass I. SAURUR.E. (Lizard-tailed Birds.)

Order Archaeopteryges.

FAMILY. ENGLISH NAME. CASK.

Archaeopterygidre Archaeopteryx, or Griffon- Right-hand side of

bird, entrance to Gallery.

Subclass II. NEORNITHES. (Modern Birds.)
Section A. RATIT^l.

Order I. Struthioniformes.

Struthionidas Ostriches. 1 and centre

case in bay.

Order II. Rheiformes.
Eheidte Rheas. 1 & 2.

Order III. Dinornithiformes.
Binornithidfe Moas. 3.

OrderlV. .ffipyornithiformes.

^Epyornithidae Madagascar Moas. 3.

Order V. Casuariiformes .

I. Dromseidse . . Emus. 4.

II. Casuariidae Cassowaries. 5 & 6 and

central case.

Order VI. Apterygiformes.
Apterygidse Kiwif. 5.

Order VII. Tinamifonnes.

Tinamidfe Tinamous. Central table-case.

Section E. CAKINAT^J.

Order I. Galliforxnes.

Suborder 1. PKRISTEROPODES.

I. Megapodiidse Megapodes, or Mound- 7.

builders
II. Cracidse Curassows and Guans. 7 & 8.

Suborder 2. ALECTOHOPODKS.

(AniericanPartridges,Guinea- I

I. Phasianidse < Fowls, Turkeys. Pheasants. >

I -n A -j r\ M central case.

Partridges, Quails.

II. Tetraonidse Grouse. 17-18.



BIRD GALLERY. 3

Order II. Pterocletif ormes .

FAMILY. ENGLISH NAME. CASE.

Pterocliclte Sand-Grouse. Table-case.

Order III. Turniciformes.
Turnicidse IIemipodes,cr Bustard-Quails. Table-case.

Order IV. Cohunbif ormes.

I. Dididte Dodo, Solitaire. Table-cases, and

picture in cases 19-20.

II. Didunculidae ' Tooth-billed Pigeon. 19.

III. Columbidfe Pigeons. 19 & 20.

Order V. RalHformes.

I. Kallida3 Hails. 22.

II. Heliornithidte Finfoots. 22.

Order VI. Podicipediformes.

Podicipedidse Grebes. 21.

Order VII. Colymbiformes.

Colymbidse Divers. 21.

Order VIII. Sphenisciformes.

Spheniscidae Penguins. Central case.

Order IX. Procellariiformes.

I. Diomedeidse Albatroses. 23.

II. Procellariidae Petrels. 23 & 24.

Order X. Alciformes.

Alcidae Auks. 24.

Order XI. Lariformes.

I. Stercorariidee Skuas. 2o.

II. LaridiB Gulls and Terns. 25 & 26.

Order XII. Charadriiformes.

I. Dromadidae Crab-Plovers. 27.

II. Chionididse Sheathbills 27.

III. Attagidas Seed-Snipes. 27.

IV. Charadriidaa Plovers. 27-28.

V. Cursoriidfe Coursers. 29.

VI. Glareolidaa Pratincoles. 29,

VII. Parridse Jacanas. 29.

VIII. CEdicnemidse Stone-Plovers. 29.

IX. Otididae Bustards. 29 & 30 and

central case.

Order XIII. Opisthocomiformes.

Opisthocomida? Hoatzins. Table-case.

I! 2



BIRD GALLERY.

Order XIV. Gruiformes .

FAMILY. ENGLISH NAME. CASK.

I. Aramidse Limpkins. 3].

II. Rhinochetidce Kagus. 3!

III. Eurypygidfe Sun-Bitterns. 3] .

IV. Cariauiidfe Cariamas. 31 .

V. Psophiidne Trumpeters 31.

VI. Gruidfe Cranes. 31-32.

Order XV. Ardeiformes.

I. Ardeidie Herons and Bitterns. 33-34.

II. Babenicipitidse Slice-billed Storks. 35.

III. Scopidae Hammer-head Storks. 35.

IV. Cicouiidfe Storks. 35-36.

V. Ibididie Ibises. 35.

VI. Plataleidse Spoonbills. 36.

Order XVI. Anseriformes.

Anatida; ) Mergansers, Ducks, Geese, I 37-42 and

' Swans. ( centre case.

Onler XVII. Phoenicopteriformes.

Phcenicopteridie Flamingoes. 42.

Order XVIII. Palamedeiformes.

PalamedeicUe Screamers. 42.

Order XIX. Pelecaniformes.

I. Phalacrocoracidse Darters, Cormorants. 43.

II. Sulidse Gaunets. 40.

III. Pelecanidfe Pelicans. 44.

IV. Fregatidaa Frigate-birds. 44.

V. Phaethontidse Tropic-birds. 44.

Order XX. Cath&rtidiformes.

Catliartidae Turkey-Vultures. 45 and table-case.

Order XXI. Serpent ariiformes.

Serpentariidse Secretary-birds. 45.

Order XXII. Accipitriformes.

I. Vulturid;e Vultures. 45 & 4ti and table-case.

II. Falconidoe Eagles, Hawks. 46-53.

III. Pandionida? Ospreys. 53.

Order XXIII. Strigif ormes .

I. Bubonidre Horned and A^'ood-Owls. 54 and table-case.

II. Strigidfc Barn-Owls. 54.

Order XXIV. Psittaciformes.

I. PsittacidiB True Parrots. 56-67.

II. Lcriido? Ijories or Brusli-tongued 56

Parrots.



BIRD GALLERY.

Order XXV. Coraciiformes.

FAMILY. ENGLISH NAME. CASE.

I. Steat ornithic! as Oil-birds. 67.

II. Podargidae Frog-mouths. 57.

III. Halcyonidte Kingfishers. . r >7.

IV. Leptosornatidee Kiroinbos. 58.

V. Coraciidae Rollers. 58.

VI. Meropidae Bee-eaters. 58.

VII. Momotidoe JNIotmots. 58.

VIII. Todidfe Todies. 58.

IX. Upupidae Hoopoes. 58.

X. Bucerotidze Ilornbills. 59 & 60.

XT. Caprimulgidae Nightjars or Goatsuckers. 61.

XII. Cypselidte Swifts. 61.

XIII. Trochilidse Humming-birds. 02.

XIV. Coliidre Colies. 03.

Order XXVI. Trogoniformes.

Trogonidfe Trogons. 63.

Order XXVII. Cuculiformes.

I. Cuculidae Cuckoos. 64.

II. Musophagidae Touracos. 63.

Order XXVIII. Piciformes.

I. Ehamphastidae Toucans. 05.

II. Capitonidaa Barbets. 65.

III. Indicatoridse Honey-guides. 65.

IV. Picidai Woodpeckers. 66.

V. Bucconidie Puft'-birds. 67.

VI. Galbulidae Jacamars. 67.

Order XXIX. Eurylaeniiformes.

Euryleemidae Broadbills. 67.

Oder XXX. Menuriformes.

Menuridoe Lyre-birds. 67.

Order XXXI. Passeriformes.
Section A. MESOMYODI.

Group I. TRACHEOPHON^E.

I. Pteroptochidiv Tapacolas. 08.

II. Conopophagidte Conopophagas. 68.

HI. Formicariidse Ant-birds. 68.

IV. Dendrocolaptidfe Wood-hewers. 68.

Group II. OLIGOMYOD^:.

1. Cotingidse American Chatterers. 69.

II. Pipridae Manakins. 09.

III. Oxyrhamphidse Sharp-bills. 70.

IV. Tyrannidse Tyrant-birds. 70.



BIRD GALLERY.



FAMILY.

V. Phytotomidse
VI. Pittidee
VII. Philepittidse
VIII. Xeniciclfe



ENGLISH NAME. CASK.

. . . Plant-cutters. 70.

Pittas or Ant-thrushes. 70.

. . . Wattled Ant-thrushes. 70.

New Zealand Bush- Wrens. 70.



Section B. ACROMYODI.



I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XI.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXL

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.

XXVI.

XXVII.

XXVIII.

XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.

XXXIII.

XXXIV.

XXXV.

XXXVI.

XXXVII.

XXXVIII.

XXXIX.

XL.

XLI.

XLII.

XLIII.
XLIV.



Atrichornithidse

Hirundinidee

Muscicapidae

Campophagidae

Pycnonotidae

Timeliidae

Troglodytidae

Cinclidas

Mimidfe

Turdidse

Sylviidse

Vireonidee

Ampelidae

Artamidae

Vangidae

Priouopidae

Laniidae

Paridae

Panuridae

Chamaeidae

Regulidae

Sittidae

Certhiidae

Zosteropidae

Dicaeidae

Nectariniidse

Drepanididee

Meliphagidae

Muiotiltidae

Motacillidoa



Fringillidte

Ccerebidte

Tanagrida?

Ploceidae

Icteridse

Oriolidee

Dicruridaa

Eurycerotidse

Eulabetidte

Sturnidse

Ptilouorhynchiclfe

Paradiseidse

Corvidae



Scrub-birds.

Swallows.

Flycatchers.

Cuckoo-Shrikes.

Bulbuls.

Babblers.

Wrens.

Dippers.

Mocking-birds.

Thrushes.

Warblers.

Greenlets.

Chatterers.

Swallow-Shrikes.

Madagascar Shrikes.

Wood-Shrikes.

Shrikes or Butcher-birds.

Tits.

Bearded Tits.

Wren-Tits.

Golden-crested Wrens.

Nuthatches.

Tree-Creepers.

White-eyes.

Flower-peckers .

Sun-birds.

Hawaiian Honey-suckers.

Honey-suckers.

American Warblers.

Wagtails and Pipits.

Larks.

Finches and Buntings.

American Creepers.

Tanagers.

Weaver-Finches.

Hang-nests.

Orioles.

Drongos. . ,

Madagascar Starlings.

Tree-Starlings.

Starlings.

Bower-birds.

Paradise-birds.

Crows.



71.
71.
71.
71.
73.
72.
73.
73.
73.
74.
76,
75.
75.
75.
76.
70.
70.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
78.
78.
78.
78.

79 & 80.
80.
80.
81.

81 & 82.
82.
82.
82.
83.
83.

Centre table-case.

Centre case.

83 & 84.



STRUTHIOUS BIRDS. /

[Right-hand side of entrance

Subclass I. SAURUR.S]. to Gallery. Restoration and

framed cast of fossil remains.

Fossil remains, hitherto only found in the lithographic slate of
Solenhofen, in Bavaria, indicate that birds existed in the Upper Jurassic
geological age, differing in certain points from those now existing. The
jaws were armed with teeth, and the three digits of the fore limb were
furnished with claws. The tail consisted of a series of elongated
vertebrae, gradually tapering to the extremity, each vertebra bearing a
pair of well-developed feathers. As the skeleton of the tail rather
resembled that of a Reptile than that of a modern Bird, the name
Sauntra, signifying ' Lizard-tailed/ has been applied to the group.

The best known representative of this subclass is the Archaeopteryx
lithographica (1 ). A cast of the fossil remains of this remarkable form
is exhibited at the entrance to the Bird Gallery. For full particulars
the reader is referred to the eighth edition of the Geological Guide,
pp. 93-95 (1904).

Subclass II. NEORNITHES.

This subclass includes all the remaining forms, both recent and
fossil, included in the class Aves, and may be divided into two sections :
A. Ratitae, and B. Carinatce. The first contains the Struthious Birds
and the Tinamous, and the second all the existing Birds not included
in the previous division.

Section A. RATITJE.
STEUTHIOUS BIRDS AND TINAMOUS.

In this subclass are included all the great flightless species of the
Ostrich-tribe commonly known as the Struthious Birds and the Tina-
mous. The name Ratitse is derived from the raft-like breast-bone of
the former, which is devoid of a keel for the attachment of the pectoral
muscles. As these muscles gradually ceased to be used they became
degenerate, the keel for their attachment disappeared, and, as a result,
the birds lost the power of flight. Though at the present period
represented by comparatively few members, which are confined to
Africa, the Papuan group of islands, Australia, New Zealand, and
South America, the " Ratites " were formerly much more numerous in
species, and ranged over parts of the earth (such as England) where
they have long ago ceased to exist. A number of fossil forms are
known.

The Ratitse may be distinguished from all other birds by the bones
of the palate, the pterygoid never forming a jointed articulation with



BIRD GALLERY'.

the palatine, but forming a close union either by fusion or by over-
lapping suture with the base of the vomer.

The majority of the members of this group have become flightless,
a fact which has brought about many modifications of the skeleton
and feathers. The Tinamous alone have retained the power of
flight.

The Ratitse are divisible into seven Orders, probably derived from
three distinct stocks. Each Order can be readily denned, and presents
one or more points which indicate extreme specialization.

On account of the structure of the palate, the form of the bones of
the pelvis, and other anatomical characters, the members of this section
may be regarded as the most primitive of living birds.

The seven Orders of the Ratitae are the following :

1. Struthiones One genus, Slruthio.

2. Rheae One genus, Rhea.

3. Dinornithes "I

, ,-, . ., f Numerous genera. Extinct forms.

4. zhpyormthes . . . . )

5. Casuarii Two genera, Casuarius and Dromceus.

(3. Apteryges One living genus, Apteryx, and two

extinct genera.
7. Crypturi Numerous genera.

The characters by which the Orders are distinguished are fully
explained in the table-case in the first bay.

[Case 1 and

Centre Case Order I. STRUTHIONIFORMES. OSTRICH-TRIBE.

on Bay.J

'Though closely allied to the Rheas, which they resemble in general
appearance, the members of this order may be at once distinguished
from all others by possessing only two toes. Of these the one corre-
sponding to the middle of the three anterior toes in ordinary birds (the
third of the complete set) is much the largest and supports the greater
part of the weight. It bears a stout pointed nail. The smaller outer
(or fourth) toe often wants the nail. The whole of the head and neck
as well as the legs are bare, or only covered with short down. The body-
feathers are single, having no aftershaft, and the feathers of the wings
and tail (corresponding to the c remiges ' and ' rectrices ' of ordinary
birds) are of considerable size, but soft and plumose.

Family STRUTHIONID^:. OSTRICHES.

The Ostriches, the largest of living birds, are represented by the
single genus Strut/iio, which contains at least four living species in-



OST1UCHKS. 9

habiting Africa and Arabia. In former times their range was much
more extensive, and fossil forms have been found in the Pliocene of the
Siwalik Hills of India and in the Upper Miocene of Samos. The
Common or Northern Ostrich (S. camelus} (3) is found in Northern
and Western Africa, and ranges eastwards to Abyssinia, Arabia, and
South Palestine ; a somewhat different form, S. massaicus, inhabits
East Africa; in Somali-land and Central Africa S. molybdophanes
occurs ; and in South Africa its place is taken by S. australis (2), which
is exhibited in all stages of plumage, from the nestling to the adult, in
the central Case.

The males are larger than the females, standing about eight feet
high, and in all the species are black with white wings and tail. They
may, however, be readily distinguished inter se, for S. camelus and
S. massaicus have the skin of the head and neck of a bright flesh-
colour, while in the other two species it is grey ; S. camelus and
S. molybdophanes have a horny shield on the crown, which is wanting
in S. massaicus and S. australis. The plumage of the females and
young males is brownish-grey. The general tint of the eggs laid by
all four species is pale cream-colour, but the texture of the shell differs
greatly.

Ostriches inhabit the sandy wastes and deserts, as well as districts
studded with low bushes, and are often found associating with herds of
zebras and antelopes. Though as many as fifty individuals may some-
times be seen in company, they are more often met with in parties of
five or six, especially during the breeding-season, when the polygamous
male is accompanied by several hens. The hens belonging to one male
lay their eggs in the same nest, which is a shallow excavation dug in
the sand. As many as thirty eggs are sometimes deposited in the pit,
and many more are dropped around which are said to serve as food
for the newly -hatched young. The contents of an egg are equal to
about two dozen hen's eggs. The male undertakes nearly the whole
duty of incubation, which lasts for six or seven weeks, being occasion-
ally relieved by the hens during the daytime. He especially looks
after the nest at night, and broods over the eggs, though in many
tropical countries the latter are covered over with sand and left to the
heat of the sun during the daytime.

The Ostrich was formerly much hunted for the sake of its curled
plumes, but since the establishment of Ostrich-farms the chase, except
for sport, has been almost abandoned. On the large South African
farms, where numbers of birds are annually reared, the plumes are
plucked every six or nine months.



10



1HKD GALLKHY.



Order II. RHEIFORMES. RHEA-TRIBE.



[Cases In South America the place of the Ostriches of the Old World is

I D, \ ~)

taken by an allied group of birds called Rheas, or "American Ostriches/'
which are distinguished by certain structural characters, and externally
by the presence of three toes furnished with compressed claws, by the
fully-feathered head and neck, and by the absence of a conspicuously
feathered tail. The wings also are proportionately larger, and are
covered with long slender plumes. As in the Struthionidce, the
body-feathers are single, without an aftershaft, a character which
separates these birds from the Emus and Cassowaries.

Family RHEID^E. RHEAS.

The Rheas include three South American species, viz. : The Com-
mon Rhea (Rhea americana) (4), found from Southern Brazil and
Bolivia southwards; the Great-billed Rhea (R. macrorhyncha] (5),
inhabiting North-east Brazil; and Darwin's Rhea (R. darwini) (6),
from the southern part of the continent. All bear considerable
resemblance to their African allies, and are often called " South
American Ostriches," but they are smaller and easily distinguished
by the characters already mentioned.

They inhabit the great Pampas and scrub-covered plains in larger or
smaller flocks, often associating with deer and guanacos. In the month
of July the pairing-season begins, and the males then utter a deep
resonant booming noise and give vent to various weird sounds. The
young males are driven from the flock, and the cock birds fight viciously
with one another for the possession of the females. The battles are
conducted in a curious manner, the combatants twisting their long
necks together and biting at each other's heads with their beaks, while
they turn round and round in a circle, pounding the ground with their
feet. The females of the flock all lay together in a natural depression
of the ground, each hen laying a dozen or more eggs. If the females
are many, the male usually drives them away before they finish laying,
and commences to sit. The hens then drop their eggs about the plains,
and, from the large number of wasted eggs found, it seems probable
that more are dropped out of the nest than in it. The colour of the
egg when fresh is a fine golden yellow. The young when hatched are
assiduously tended and watched over by the cock-bird, who charges
an intruder with outstretched wings.

Rheas take readily to water, and can swim across a river several
hundred yards wide, the body being almost entirely submerged. They
are easily acclimatized, and often kept in parks in this country, where
they frequently breed. The feathers are of little commercial value.



MO AS. 11

Order III. DINORNITHIFORMES.

Family DINORXITHID^E. MOAS.

New Zealand was formerly inhabited by a gigantic race of birds [Case 3.J
called Moas, some species of which considerably exceeded in size the
modern Ostriches. The situation and state of preservation of the
abundant remains which have been found indicate that they existed till
comparatively recent times, and were probably exterminated by the
present Maori inhabitants of the islands. Feathers which have been
found associated with the bones show the presence of a large after-
shaft, as in the Emus and Cassowaries ; but some of the species
resemble the Kiwis (Apteryx) in possessing a hind toe. Wings were
absent, and the shoulder-girdle was only represented by a vestige.

The Moas are represented by several genera, the largest member
being Dinornis maximm (7), a gigantic bird, of which a skeleton is
exhibited. Some of the species seem to have survived until about four
or five hundred years ago, or even later in the South Island, but being
flightless, their extinction by the natives, who hunted them for their
flesh, was an easy task.

Besides large quantities of bones, some of which have been obtained
from native cooking-places, portions of the skin and feathers have
been discovered, as well as pebbles used to aid digestion, and eggs both
whole and fragmentary. For further particulars the visitor is referred
to the eighth edition of the Geological Guide, p. 92 (1904).

Order IV. .EPYORNITHIFORMES.

Family ^PYORNITHID/E. MADAGASCAR MOAS.

Fossil remains from superficial deposits in Madagascar show the <

existence, in a very recent geological period, of several species of Ratite
birds, which bear much resemblance to the Dinornithidte, One of their
most striking characteristics was the enormous size (both absolute and
relative) of the egg, in which respect they resemble the Kiwis (Apteryx)
of New Zealand rather than the Moas. Although the largest species
probably stood not more than 7 feet high, the eggs exceed all others in
size, some of the shells of JEpyornis maximus (8) containing from two
to three gallons of liquid, or an amount equal to the contents of about
one hundred and fifty hen's eggs. An example exhibited measures :
long circumference 2 ft. 7 ins., girth 2 ft. 2 ins. These birds are
believed by many to be identical with the famous " Roc " mentioned
by the traveller Marco Polo, and it is supposed that some of the
species were in existence not more than two hundred years ago.
[C/. Geological Guide, p. 92 (1904).]



12



BIRD GALLERY.



Order V. CASUARII FORMES. EMUS AND CASSOWARIES.
In the two families (Drom&idte and Casuariidce] comprising this
order the wings are still more reduced in size and the " fingers " are
represented by one claw-bearing digit. The body-feathers have an
aftershaft or accessory plume as long as the main feather.

Family I. DROMYEID^E. EMUS.

[Case 4.] The Emus agree with the Cassowaries in possessing a large after-
shaft to the body- feathers, but the bill is broad and flat, the head and



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