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FORESTRY PAMPHLETS

GEORGIA
VOL. 1

Georgia S.tate College of Agriculture.

Farm Forestry Lesson l f The Tree.
Bulletin 94-Part 1.

Georgia State College of Agriculture,
Farm Forestry Lesson , Factors

Influencing the Development of Trees
Bulletin 94 Part 2.

Georgia State Forest School. Forest
Club Annual. 1916,



Itewtry









Vol. IV, No. 4 SEPTEMBER 1915 Bulletin 94 (Part 1)



Georgia State College
of Agriculture



ANDREW M. SOULE, PRESIDENT



Extension Division

J. PHIL CAMPBELL, DIRECTOR




TV OF^R DIVISION 01



FORESTRY

COLLEGE OF& AGRlCULTURI
UNIVERSITY OF CAUKC



Correspondence Courses
in Agriculture

Farm Forestry

Lesson I The Tree

J. B. Berry, Professor of Forestry



Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Georgia State College of
Agriculture and United States Department of Agriculture co-operating.



338440



Georgia State College of Agriculture

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia



Administrative and Technical Staff

ANDREW M. SOULE President

JOHN R. FAIN Professor of Agronomy

MILTON P. JARNAGIN Professor of Animal Husbandry

T. H. McHATTON ^ Professor of Horticulture

LEROY C. HART Professor of Farm Mechanics

W. A. WORSHAM, Jr Professor of Agricultural Chemistry

W. M. BURSON Professor of Veterinary Science

*GUY W. FIROR Supervisor Extension Schools

|*J. PHIL CAMPBELL Director of Extension

JAS. B. BERRY Professor of Forestry

*L. M. CARTER Junior Professor, Soil Chemistry

GEORGE A. CRABB Junior Professor of Agronomy, In Charge of Soils

L. E. RAST Junior Professor of Agronomy, in Charge of Cotton Industry

DAVID D. LONG Soil Expert in State Survey

CHARLES A. WHITTLE Editor-Librarian

J*JOHN K. GILES State Agent Boys' Club Work

J. W. FIROR Adjunct Professor of Horticulture

$*J. E. DOWNING In Charge of Pig Clubs

THOMAS W. REED Registrar

ETHEL REESE Secretary to President

*MARION W. LOWRY Adjunct Professor of Soil Chemistry

O. T. GOODWIN Adjunct Professor of Animal Husbandry

ROY P. IRVIN Instructor in Poultry Husbandry

*S. H. STARR * Instructor in Agronomy

*E. C. WESTBROOK Instructor in Agronomy

E. G. WELCH Instructor in Farm Mechanics

L. M. RODERICK Instructor in Veterinary Science

J*MARY E. CRESWELL State Agent Home Economics

t*LOIS P. DOWDLE Assistant State Agent Home Demonstrations

$*G. L. BIGFORD Scientific Assistant Animal Husbandry

J*R. R. CHILDS Scientific Assistant Agronomy

J*C. J. GOODELL Scientific Assistant Animal Husbandry

*R. M. GRIDLEY Instructor in Animal Husbandry

J*A. L. HIRLEMAN Field Agent. Hog Cholera Work

J*F. H. DENNISS Assistant in Dairy Husbandry.

J*W. H. HOWELL Scientific Assistant Animal Husbandry

*L. G. PROCTOR Field Agent, Hog Cholera Control

J*D. J. TAYLOR Field Agent. Poultry Husbandry

PAUL TABOR 1 Instructor in Agronomy

P. O. VANATTER Superintendent Field Experiments

A. P. WINSTON ...Farm Foreman

C. N. KEYSER ____Tutor in Horticulture

F. W. CRYSLER Superintendent of Greenhouse and Campus

NORA SAYE Clerk and Stenographer

OLIVE BELL Clerk and Stenographer

MRS. E. T. EPPS Clerk and Stenographer

ANNIE MAY PENLAND ClerK and Stenographer

PEARL STOREY Multigraph Operator

EMMA HARDEMAN Stenographer

AGNES HADDOCK Stenographer

DISTRICT AGENTS IN EXTENSION DEMONSTRATION WORK.
WILLIAM BRADFORD _. .__Cedartown

G. V. CUNNINGHAM Tifton

F. D. GARRISON... .__Clarkesville



In Extension Service.

Jin Cooperation with U. S. D. A.



Correspondence Courses in Agriculture



Farm Forestry

Agriculture treats of the production of vegetable matter and in-
cludes the various steps of sowing or planting, cultivation, harvest-
ing, transportation, marketing and manufacture. Forestry is but
a part of this great subject and deals more specifically with the
production of wood material. Similarly with agriculture, forestry
treats of the steps of formation (sowing or planting), care (culti-
vation, pruning, thinning) mensuration (determining the volume
of production), logging (harvesting the crop), milling (manufac-
turing the logs into useable product), and marketing. Forestry
differs from agriculture mainly in that the yearly growth may not
be harvested annually but must be allowed to accumulate until the
product is of usable size.

Farm forestry is that portion of the general subject which con-
siders more particularly the production of farm timbers, fence
posts and fuel. It deals specifically with the management of the
woodlot.

It is not the object of this course to teach one to recognize the
different kinds of trees found in the woodlot. Such a knowledge
is presupposed. Those desiring knowledge in the identification of
trees should consult the following publications:

Manual: Trees of North America, by Sargent.

Our Native Trees, by Keeler.

Trees and Shrubs of North America, by Newhall.

Key to Trees, by Collins and Preston.

Studies of Trees, by Levison.

Lesson I The Tree

To be able to grow and care for forest trees successfully it is
necessary to have a knowledge of the structure and life processes
of the individual tree, and to understand the factors that influence
its growth and development.

Trees are living organisms. They are the highest type of vegeta-
tion found on the earth. They differ from herbs in having a woody
structure and a permanent life, and from shrubs in developing
single stems that elevate the branches above other forms of vege-
tation.

The Parts of a Tree and Their Uses

The tree is made up of three parts: roots, stem and crown.

The Roots. The roots of a tree serve several purposes. In a
mechanical way the larger roots hold the stem in an upright posi-
tion so that the crown receives a maximum amount of sunlight, very
small roots (root hairs) near the ends of all roots, serve to absorb
the soil moisture, and all roots serve in the transportation of food
materials to and from the crown. As the roots grow and force their
way into the soil the root hairs die and are replaced by new ones
nearer the tips.

The form of root system varies with the different species of trees



Georgia State College of Agriculture.

and with the character of soil. Certain trees, as hickory, walnut
and white pine, develop a stout tap root which extends perpendic-
ularly into the soil. With others, as maple, red gum and cotton-
wood, the roots tend to spread laterally in the upper layers of soil,
producing a shallow root system. With others again, as beech, red
oak and chestnut, several strong roots penetrate obliquely into the
soil. A few trees will adapt themselves to soil conditions, in a
shallow soil developing surface roots, and in a deep soil developing
deep lateral roots. A shallow soil may be due to hard-pan, bed
rock or soil water. In the latter case it is susceptible of improve-
ment through drainage. In general it may be said, however, that
unless the soil is deep enough for a tree to develop its characteristic
form of root system, the growth of the tree will be slow and the
form irregular and stunted. The characteristic form of the root
system of many trees may be studied on those upturned by the wind.

The Stem. The stem or trunk (occasionally termed "bole"), sup-
ports and elevates the crown. It conveys the soil moisture (sap)
from the roots where it has been absorbed, to the crown where it
is used. The stem also serves as a storehouse for surplus food
material. From an economic standpoint, the stem is the most
valuable portion of the tree. Upon its size and shape depends the
amount of lumber, cordwood, ties, or other product that may be
obtained. Each species has its characteristic form of stem, some
trees producing a long cylindrical bole free of branches, others
developing a short tapering bole more or less branched and crooked.
Often the same species develops two very different forms, depending
upon whether it is growing in the open field or in the forest. One
may be short with a long crown and rapidly tapering stem, the
other tall and straight with a short crown and a cylindrical stem.

The bark is characteristic of the species and varies in thickness,
color, roughness and markings. It serves as protection against heat,
cold, mechanical injury and the entrance of disease (rot). Occa-
sionally it forms a valuable commercial product, as in the case, of
hemlock (spruce) and chestnut bark in the production of tannic acid.

Crown. The crown is composed of branches, twigs and leaves,
together with buds, flowers, fruit, etc. As it has to do with many
vital processes it is the most important part in the life of the tree.
As a result of almost endless division the branches enable the tree
to present the greatest possible extent of leaf surface to the action
of the sunlight and air. Unlike the roots the branches have a more
or less definite arrangement.

The leaves of the tree function in much the same way as do the
lungs and stomach of an animal. In them are carried on the pro-
cesses of respiration (breathing the breaking down of tissue
through oxidation), transpiration (the loss of surplus moisture
through evaporation), and photosynthesis (the combination of car-
bon dioxide from the air with the mineral matter of the sap to form
sugar). Protosynthesis is carried on by the green matter of the
leaf (chlorophyl) under the influence of sunlight. In darkness
(often in subdued light) this process is interrupted.



Correspondence Courses in Agriculture. 5

The shape, size and texture of leaves vary greatly in different
species, often in the same tree, as a result of the struggle for ex-
istence for light and air. All gradations of size and shape occur,
from the broad, soft leaves of cottonwood (Paulonia) to the needle-
like leaves of pine and the sharp, scale-like leaves of red cedar.

The form of crown, as well as of leaf characterizes the different
species, such as the inverted- vase form of elm, the conical form of
hemlock, the rough, irregular form of oak.

An intimate relation exists between the size of the crown and the
extent of the root-system. If for any reason the one is not allowed
its full development, the other will be correspondingly affected.
Since the amount of food manufactured, and consequently the
amount of growth, depend upon the extent of leaf surface in the
crown, it follows that any operation which will result in more light
and a greater growing space for the crown will influence the rate of
growth favorably. This fact is of great importance in the practice
of forestry and for this reason, the crown becomes of special inter-
est in the management of the woodlot.

Structure of Wood. The stem, branches and roots of trees are
composed of woody tissue. This is not a simple substance like iron
or gold, but as is true of all organic material, is composed of minute
cells. These are somewhat similar in appearance to the cells of
honeycomb, though many times smaller. In a cross-section of oak
the centers of these cells may be seen as tiny holes. The walls of
the cells are built up of cellulose and lignin, the main constituent
of which is carbon. In the living state these cells are more or less
filled with a living substance (protoplasm), which is common to
all life. The cells are not all alike but differ in form, size and
thickness of wall, and in their use. Some conduct food material
to and from the crown, some store reserve food material until it
is needed, others serve simply to strengthen the woody tissue.

Parts of the Stem of the Tree. If the top of a stump of a recently
cut oak is examined, it will be found to be made up of several parts.
Around the outside is observed the bark, which is composed of two
parts, the outer, protective, corky layer and the inner, light-colored,
softer layer. Inside the bark is found the wood proper, which is
likewise differentiated into two parts, the outer, lighter-colored,
moist "sap wood" and the inner, dark-colored, firmer "heart-wood."
At the center is found the pith, very inconspicuous in most trees.
From the bark to the pith are found broken, wide or narrow lines
of woody tissue, known as medullary rays. To the medullary rays
is given the credit for the beautiful silver-grain of quarter-sawn oak.
They carry food from the bark to the inner portions of the tree,
serve as a storehouse fop surplus food material, and form a means
of communication with the air. Occurring in all species of wood,
of*;en so small as to be invisible to the naked eye, thousands may be
counted to the square inch. In a few species, as birch and cherry,
their termination in the bark is marked by conspicuously rough-
ened spots known as "lenticles."

Between the bark and 'the "sap-wood" is found a layer of wet,



6 Georgia State College of Agriculture.

often slippery, light-colored, living-wood-tissue (cambium) in which
the cells are capable of division. The division of the cambium cells
results in diameter growth. All other wood tissue is dead or nearly
dead material. When first formed from the cambium all cells
contain protoplasm, but they soon lose their living contents.

The outer layers thus form a coating or shell of living tissue
over the dead inner portion of the roots, stem and branches. Often
the entire heart-wood at the base of the tree may be destroyed and
yet the tree be growing vigorously, indicating that the life pro-
cesses are carried on in the sapwood and bark only.

Annual Rings. If the bark, sap-wood and heart-wood are care-
fully examined, each will be found to be made up of layers which
in cross-section appear as concentric rings of tissue, one of which
is produced each year. These concentric layers are known as annual
rings, and it is possible to determine the age of the tree by counting
them. As a result of the division of the cambium cells a layer of
new cork tissue is produced on the inside of the bark and a layer
of new wood tissue is laid on the outside of the sap-wood, the
cambium layer always remaining between the layers of new tissue.
The amount of bark produced each year is much less than the
amount of woody tissue. The entire tree, roots, trunk and branches,
is covered each year with a new coat of wood and bark.

Spring and Summer Wood. If an annual ring of oak wood is
examined it will be found to be made up of two layers, a soft, open,
light layer (spring wood), and a dense, hard, darker-colored layer
(summer wood). In the spring a large amount of water is re-
quired by most trees to produce the new leaves and to supply the
growing parts, with the result that the cells produced during the
early part of the growing season are large and thin-walled. In oak
wood the openings of the cells in the spring wood are visible to the
naked eye. As soon as the leaves have developed, much less water
is required and the cells produced later in the season are small and
thick-walled. This difference in growth gives rise to the marked
contrast between spring and summer wood in many trees, results
in the "grain" of sawn wood, and separates one year's growth from
another. The rate of growth of the various species is not the same,
nor is it the same from year to year in any one species. A favor-
able, moist season will produce a wide annual ring; an unfavorable,
drouthy season, a narrow ring. In general trees grow slowly during
the first few years of life, the rate then increases until middle life,
then falls off gradually. In an old tree the annual rings may be so
narrow as not to be distinguishable with the naked eye.

Height GroAvth of Trees. Height growth and growth of branches
in length are produced by the development of the terminal buds.
In this growing tissue the division of cells takes place transversely
(in contrast to the longitudinal division of the cambium cells), re-
sulting in an elongation. Along with this there is .a stretching pro-
cess as the cells become filled with water. New shoots do not grow
in length after the first season. They grow in thickness only, and
other new shoots are produced from new terminal buds to increase



Correspondence Courses in Agriculture. 1

the length of the branch and the height of the tree. The growth
of the roots in length and thickness is somewhat similar to that of
the branches.

Life Processes of the Tree. A tree, being a living organism, must
carry on certain life processes, much as with an animal. It must
breathe, absorb and digest food and transport the nourishment to
the parts requiring building up.

Breathing, or Respiration. Breathing is carried on through min-
ute openings (stomata) in the leaves. The tree breathes in oxygen
and breathes out carbolic acid gas, the same as an animal. This
oxygen is used in carrying on the life processes of the tree. To
some extent breathing takes place through small openings in the
bark of the stem (lenticles), the oxygen being conducted to the
inner portions of the stem through the medullary (pith) rays.

Absorption. Raw materials (for the manufacture of food) are
absorbed by the root-hairs and through the leaves. In the former
case the raw materials consist of mineral (or soil) salts in solu-
tion; in the latter, of carbolic acid gas. The mineral salts in solu-
tion are carried from the roots, through the stem and branches to
the leaves where they are combined with the carbolic acid gas of the
air to form food (sugar). When wood is burned, the mineral salts
remain as ash; the portion of the material from the air (carbon)
goes off as gas (carbolic acid gas) and disappears. The mineral
salts occur (usually) in very weak solution. That enough may be
brought up to supply the requirements of the tree, a far greater
amount of water must be absorbed than is actually needed. The
excess of water passes out through the stomata of the leaves as
water vapor (transpiration). This action serves to cool the leaves
and the tree, as does perspiration in animals. Transpiration takes
place in winter as well as summer and is often the cause of "winter
killing" when excessive.

Digestion. The raw material (carbolic acid gas) absorbed through
the stomata of the leaves, forms the bulk of the food manufactured.
By the action of sunlight on the chlorophyl (green matter of the
leaf), the carbolic acid is decomposed into carbon and oxygen
(photosynthesis) ; the carbon being retained, the oxygen returned
to the air. The carbon is combined with hydrogen and oxygen of
the water and the mineral salts to form sugar, a good material
capable of utilization by the tree. In other words, the raw mate-
rials absorbed in the root-hairs and the leaves must be digested
in the leaves before they become available as food.

Circulation. After the food material is thus prepared in the
leaves, it is carried down through the inner-bark of the branches,
stem and roots and through the medullary rays to the tissues re-
quiring nutrition and building up. Some of the food material is
used at once in forming the annual ring, flowers, fruit and other
new parts of the tree. Other portions are changed from sugar to
starch and stored away as a reserve supply with which to begin the
next year's growth. Before being available for use it is again trans-
formed into sugar.



Georgia State College of Agriculture.

Georgia State College of Agriculture
Correspondence Courses in Agriculture



Farm Forestry

Question Paper

Lesson I

The student will discuss freely the following topics, not confining
himself to the lessons but using information gained from all sources.
Write freely on the questions as topics for discussion rather than as
questions to be answered briefly. All answers to be written without
the direct aid of book or lesson.

Answers to be plainly written in ink.

Send answers to the president Georgia State College of Agricul-
ture, Athens, as soon as completed and a new lesson will be for-
warded. In no case will a succeeding lesson be sent until the
questions of the previous lesson have been satisfactorily answered.

Always give name, address, and certificate number.

1. Name the parts of a tree and give uses of each part.

2. What constitutes the raw food materials of a tree, how ob-
tained and how manufactured?

3. What is the structure of wood? How does the stem of a tree
grow in diameter?

4. How and why does a tree carry on respiration and transpira-
tion?

5. What are the medullary rays in wood? What use do they
serve? What is quarter-sawn wood?



Vol. IV, No. 4



OCTOBER 1915 Bulletin 94 (Part 2)



Georgia State College
of Agriculture



Andrew M. Soule, President



Extension Division

J. Phil Campbell, Direct^
F



DIVISION OF




FORESTRY

J

COLLEGE OF A AGRICULTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA



Correspondence Courses
in Agriculture

Farm Forestry

Lesson II
Factors Influencing the Development of Trees

J. B. Berry, Professor of Forestry



Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Georgia State College of
Agriculture and United States Department of Agriculture co-operating.



Georgia State College of Agriculture

University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia



Administrative and Technical Staff

ANDREW M. SOULE President

JOHN 11. FAIN Professor of Agronomy

MILTON P. .TARNAGIN Professor of Animal Husbandry

T. H. McIIATTON Professor of Horticulture

LKUOY C. HART Professor of Farm Mechanics

W. A. WORSHAM. Jr Professor of Agricultural Chemistry

W. M. BURSON Professor of Veterinary Science

*GUY W. FIROR Supervisor Extension Schools

|*.T. PHIL CAMPBELL Director of Extension

JAS. B. BERRY Professor of Forestry

*L. M. CARTER Junior Professor, Soil Chemistry

GEORGE A. CRABB Junior Professor of Agronomy, In Charge of Soils

L. E. RAST Junior Professor of Agronomy, in Charge of Cotton Industry

*DAVID I). LONG Soil Expert in State Survey

CHARLES A. WHITTLE Editor-Librarian

*JOHN K. GILES State Agent Boys' Club Work

*.T. W. FIROR Adjunct Professor of Horticulture

t*.T. E. DOWNING In Charge of Pig Clubs

THOMAS W. REED Registrar

ETHEL REESE Secretary to President

*MARION W. LOWRY Adjunct Professor of Soil Chemistry

O. T. GOODWIN Adjunct Professor of Animal Husbandry

*WILLIAM F. DILTS Instructor in Poultry Husbandry

*S. H. STARR Instructor in Agronomy

*E. C. WESTBROOK Instructor in Agronomy

E. G. WELCH Instructor in Farm Mechanics

L. M. RODERICK Instructor in Veterinary Science

$*MARY E. CRESWELL State Agent Home Economics

$*LOIS P. DOWDLE Assistant State Agent Home Demonstrations

j*G. L. BIGFORD Scientific Assistant Animal Husbandry

$*R. R. CHILDS Scientific Assistant Agronomy

j*C. J. GOODELL Scientific Assistant Animal Husbandry

*R. M. GRIDLEY Instructor in Animal Husbandry

$*A. L. HIRLEMAN Field Agent, Hog Cholera Work

J*F. H. DENNISS Assistant in Dairy Husbandry

J*W. H. HOWELL Scientific Assistant Animal Husbandry

*L. G. PROCTOR Field Agent, Hog Cholera Control

J*D. J. TAYLOR-. Field Agent. Poultry Husbandry

*PAUL TABOR Instructor in Agronomy

P. O. VANATTER Superintendent Field Experiments

A. P. WINSTON Farm Foreman

C. N. KEYSER__. ...Tutor in Horticulture

F. W. CRYSLER Superintendent of Greenhouse and Campus

NORA SAYE Clerk and Stenographer

OLIVE BELL Clerk and .Stenographer

*MRS. E. T. EPPS Clerk and Stenographer

*ANNIE MAY PENLAIsD ClerK and Stenographer

*PEARL STOREY Multigraph Operator

*EMMA HARDEMAN Stenographer

AGNES HADDOCK Stenographer

DISTRICT AGENTS IN EXTENSION DEMONSTRATION WORK.
WILLIAM BRADFORD _. ,. - Cedartown

G. V. CUNNINGHAM Tifton

F. D. GARRISON... , Clarkesville



* In Extension Service.

Jill Cooperation wltli U. S. D. A.



/m DIVISION OF



FORESTRY



Correspondence Courses fft- L Agrteulture

UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA

Farm Forestry
LESSON II

Factors Influencing the Development of Trees

Tree growth, like all plant development, is dependent upon cer-
tain factors of habitat; namely, temperature, light, moisture, soil
salts. A certain degree of each factor, varying for each species,
is necessary for best growth. In fact, the character of tree growth
in any situation is determined largely by the degree to which each
of these factors is present.

Temperature. For each species of tree there is a minimum, opti-
mum and maximum degree of heat. Below fifty and above 115
degrees Fahrenheit, growth practically ceases and trees take on a
dwarfed and shrubby form. Towards the equator the vegetation
becomes more luxuriant, yet the development of trees is not so
vigorous as in the temperate regions. Temperature is affected
similarly by altitude and latitude. Consequently, tree growth is
stunted whether it occurs at the summits of high mountains or in
the arctic zone.

A temperature favorable to the development of any one species
may vary between wide limits. The range of White Pine, for in-


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