bros. & Spindler Barnhart.

Book of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 online

. (page 12 of 71)
Online Librarybros. & Spindler BarnhartBook of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 → online text (page 12 of 71)
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to line, and in lining rule with type, and therefore knows
the great loss of time unavoidable when lining type is not
available. Take a legal blank, for instance, in which words
in larger type that begin paragraphs, as well as some others,
must be lined as near as may be with the letter selected
for the body of the work, and in which two-point brass
rule must be lined with the type; hours of valuable time
must be spent by the compositor having only old system
material at his disposal, because of the necessity for using



Lower case alphabet, a to z, 12 5-6 eras.



12 POINT FRENCH O. S. No. 3



THE matter of lining type is so important that every
printer should be familiar with the details of our Point-Line,
Point-Set, Point-Body Lining System. This system saves
the printer many a dollar in composition time, say nothing
of the increased beauty of his work. Every printer has
experienced trouble in bringing type on different bodies
to line, and in lining rule with type, and therefore knows
the great loss of time unavoidable when lining type is not
available. Take a legal blank, for instance, in which words
in larger type that begin paragraphs, as well as some
others, must be lined as near as may be with the letter
selected for the body of the work, and in which two-point
brass rule must be lined with the type; hours of valuable
time must be spent by the compositor having only old
system material at his disposal, because of the necessity



Lower case alphabet, a to z 13 ems.



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S



SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE





OLD STYLE BODY FACES



Cast on Uniform Line. Partly leaded with two-point leads.



14 POINT CASLON OLD STYLE

The matter of lining type is so important that
every printer should be familiar with the details of
our Point-Line, Point-Set, Point-Body Lining
System. This system saves the printer many a
dollar in composition time, to say nothing of the
increased beauty of his work. Every printer has
experienced trouble in bringing type of different
bodies to line, and in lining rule with type, and
knows the great loss of time unavoidable when
lining type is not available. Take a legal blank,
for instance, in which words in larger type that
begin paragraphs, as well as some others, must
be lined as near as may be with the letter selected

Lower case alphabet, a to z, 13 5-7 ems.
14 POINT OLD STYLE No. 59

THE matter of lining type is so important that
printers should be familiar with the details of our
Point-Line, Point-Set, Point-Body Lining System.
This system saves the printer many a dollar in
composition time, to say nothing of the increased
beauty of his work. Every printer has experienced
trouble in bringing type on different bodies to line,
and in lining rule with type, and therefore knows
the great loss of time unavoidable when lining type
is not available. Take a legal blank, for instance, in
which words in larger type that begin paragraphs,
as well as some others, must be lined as near as
may be with the letter selected for the body of the

Lower case alphabet, a to z, 12 2-7 ems.



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY 89 QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED




OLD STYLE BODY FACES



Cast on Uniform Line. Partly leaded with two-point leads.



14 POINT ELZEVIB No. 5

THE matter of lining type is so important that
every printer should be familiar with the details
of our Point-Line, Point-Set, Point-Body Lining
System. This system saves the printer many a
dollar in composition time, to say nothing of the
increased beauty of his work. Every printer has
experienced trouble in bringing type on different
bodies to line, and in lining rule with type, and
therefore knows the great loss of time unavoidable
when lining type is not available. Take a legal blank
for instance, in which words in larger type that
begin paragraphs, as well as some others, must be
lined as near as may be with the letter selected for



Lower case alphabet, a to z, 12 3-7 ems.



THE matter of lining type is so impor-
tant that printers should be familiar
with the details of our Point-Line,
Point-Set, Point-Body Lining System.
This system saves the printer many a
dollar in composition time, to say noth-
ing of the increased beauty of his work.
Every printer has experienced trouble
in bringing type on different bodies to
line, and in lining rule with type, and



Lower case alphabet, a to z, 12J6 ems.



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S 90 SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE




OLD STYLE BODY FACES



Cast on Uniform Line, Partly leaded with two-point leads.

18 POINT OLD STYLE No. 59

THE matter of lining type is so important
that every printer should be familiar with the
details of our Point-Line, Point-Set, Point
Body Lining System. This system saves
the printer many a dollar in composition
time, to say nothing of the increased beauty
of his work. Every printer has experienced
trouble in bringing type on different bodies
to line, and in lining rule with type, and
therefore knows the great loss of time



Lower case alphabet, a to z, 11)4 ems.



18 POINT FRENCH O. S. No. 3



The matter of lining type is so important
that every printer should be familiar with the
details of our Point-Line, Point-Set, Point
Body Lining System. This system saves
the printer many a dollar in composition
time, to say nothing of the increased beauty
of his work. Every printer has experienced
trouble in bringing type on different bodies
to line, and in lining rule with type, and
therefore knows the great loss of time



Lower case alphabet, a, to z, 11 2-9 ems.



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY 91 QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED



OLD STYLE




BODY FACES



Cast on Uniform Line. Partly leaded with two-point leads.

18 POINT OLD STYLE No. 70

The matter of lining type is so
important that every printer should
be familiar with the details of our
Point-Line, Point-Set, Point-Body
Lining System . It saves the printer
many a dollar in composition time,
say nothing of the increased beauty
of his work. Every printer has
experienced trouble in bringing type
on different bodies to line, and lining
rule with type, and therefore knows
the great loss of time unavoidable
when lining type is not available.
Take a legal blank, for instance, in
which words in larger type that
begin paragraphs, as well as some
others, must be lined as near as may
be with the letter selected for the
body of the work, and in which two
point brass rule must be lined with
the type; hours of valuable time
must be spent by the compositor



Lower case alphabet, a to z, U} ems.



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S



SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE





Types made without any System . . , From an Adjustable Mould., .The Appearance of Early
Types . . . Rudeness of Early Composition . . . Method of Dictation . . . Faultof Composi-
tors . . . Slowness of Improvement.. . Construction of Hand- Press, with illustration.

THE types of the fifteenth century were made without system. The dimensions of each body and
the peculiarities of each face were determined chiefly by the manuscript copy which had been
selected as the model. No printer had any idea of the advantages to be derived from a series of
regularly graduated sizes, nor of the beauty of a series of uniform faces, nor of the great evils they
would impose on themselves and their successors by the use of irregular bodies. Gutenberg's larger
bodies were irregularly graduated and of Pointed Gothic face; his smaller bodies were not separated at
proper distances, and were of Round Gothic face. The unknown printer had four faces and four
bodies of the size English. Caxton had two faces and two bodies each of the sizes Paragon, Great-
Primer and English. The types of many printers at Paris and Venice show irregularities of body which
seem inexplicable to the modern printer.

A classification by scale of the types of any printer of this period will show that there are often
wide gaps between the larger, and confusing proximities between the smaller bodies. The smallest sizes
which I have met in any book of the fifteenth century are in the Decretals of Gregory, printed in black
and red by Andrew Torresani at Venice in 1498, in which book the text is in Bourgeois and the sur-
rounding notes are in Brevier. Nonpareil was first made by Garamond of Paris about the middle of the
sixteenth century. Diamond was made by Jannon of Sedan about 1625 . Nothing smaller was attempted
until 1827, when Henry Didot, then 66 years old, cut a font on the French body of two and one-
half points a body known to American printers as Brilliant, or Half-Nonpareil about twenty-five
lines to the American inch. As the size of every body is determined by the mould in which it is cast, it
would seem that there must have been a separate mould for every distinct body. (It has been suggested
that these distinct bodies were founded in sand moulds; that a new pattern for the body was made every
time a new font was cast; and that the irregularities in body are the results of unintended or undetected
variations in the pattern. But this hypothesis cannot be accepted. The small bodies, the sharp edges,
close fitting-up and even lining of the types, are peculiarities which could not have been produced by a sand
mould, nor by a mould of any plastic material.) This inference is encumbered with fatal objections. The
type-mould of hard metal is, and always has been, a very expensive tool, and it cannot be supposed that
any early printer made two or four moulds for one body when one mould would
have served. It is much more probable that he tried to make one mould serve
for two or more bodies. The inventor of the mould may have thought that
it should be constructed with adjustments, so that it should cast different bodies
as well as different widths of types. The practicability of a mould of this de-
scription is properly demonstrated by the old-fashioned adjustable mould for
irregular bodies, or by the mould used for casting leads, which can be so enlarged
or diminished that it will cast many bodies or thicknesses. If we suppose
that this mould was used by Gutenberg for casting the two bodies of the Letters
of Indulgence, and by the unknown printer of the Netherlands for his four
bodies of English, and that it was, of necessity, newly set or adjusted each time
a new font was cast, we shall at once have a precise explanation of irregular-
ities which are unaccountable under any other hypothesis. Casting types



Point Lining XV Century
Set Solid



'.




POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED




without the system, standards and gauges which modern type-founders
use, it is not surprising that the first printers made types with difference
of body. It was the impracticability of casting in this primitive
mould, at different times, types of uniform body, that compelled later
type-founders to discard it, and to use instead a mould for each body.
The casting of the types, which was always done in the printing
office, was then adjudged a proper part of a printer's trade. The earlier
chroniclers said the first types were made of lead and tin. The Cost
Book of the Ripoli Press specifies these metals, and obscurely men-
tions another which seems to have been one of the constituents of
type-metal. If this conjecture can be accepted, types were probably
made in the fifteenth century as they are now, of lead, tin and antimony.
Was this obscure metal antimony? The text books say that anti-
mony was, for the first time, set apart as a distinct metal in 1490, by
Basil Valentine, a monk of Erfurt. But Madden says that a book
supposed to have been printed at Cologne, before the year 1473,
plainly describes antimony as a metal frequently used and much abused by many monks of
the thirteenth century in their pharmaceutical preparations. Not one of the millions of types
founded during the fifteenth century has been preserved, nor is there in any old book an
engraving or a description of a type. This neglected information has been unwillingly furn-
ished by a careless pressman in the office of Conrad Winters, who printed at Cologne in 1 476.
This pressman, or his mate, when inking a slackly justified form, permitted the inking ball to
pull out a thin-bodied type, which dropped sideways on the face of the form. The accident
was not noticed; the tympan closed upon the form, and the bed was drawn under the platen.
Down came the screw and platen, jamming the unfortunate type in the form, and embossing it
strongly in the fibres of the thick wet paper, in a manner which reveals to us the shape of
Winters' types more truthfully than it could have been done even by special engraving. The
height of this type is a trifle less than one American inch. It agrees exactly with the old French
standard (of 1723) for height of type, which was ten and one-half geometric lines, or, by
modern French measure, 24 millimetres. The sloping shoulder, or the beard, as it was once
called, was made to prevent the blackening of the paper, for it would have been blackened if
the shoulder had been high and square. The sloping shoulder, which was in general use in
the first quarter of this century, was discarded to meet the requirements of the new art of stere-
otyping. It was found that these sloping shoulders made projections in the plaster mould,
which imperiled the making of an accurate cast. The blackening of the sheer from square
shoulders was prevented by altering the mould and placing the shoulder lower on the body.
The circular mark, about one-tenth of an inch diameter, on the side of the type, was firmly
depressed in the metal, but did not perforate it. As this type had no nick on the body, it is
apparent that the circular mark was cast there to guide the compositor. When the type was
put in the stick with the mark facing outward, the compositor knew, without looking at the
face, that it was rightly placed. There is no groove at the foot. Duverger says that the early
types had no jet or breaking-piece; that the superfluous metal was cut off, and the type made
of proper height by sawing. These details may seem trifling, but they are of important: they
show that, in the more important features, the types of the early printers closely resembled ours.
There is a disagreement among bibliographers about the quantity of types ordinarily cast
for a font by the early printers. Some, judging from appearances which show that one page
only was printed at an impression, say that they cast types for two or three pages only; others
maintain that they must have had very large fonts. That the latter view is correct seems fully
established after a survey of the books known to have been printed by Zell, Koburger, Leeu,
and others. It would have been impossible to print these books in the short period in which
we know they were done, if the printer had not been provided with abundance of types. As



10 Point Lining XV Century
Set Solid



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S



SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE



the types were made in the printing office, by a quick method, from an alloy which
could be used repeatedly for the same purpose, the supply was rarely limited by con-
siderations of expense. Bernard believes that Gutenberg cast for the Bible of 42
lines at least 120,000 types, or enough for two sections, or forty pages. He supposes
that twenty pages were perfected, and ready for press or under press, while the suc-
ceeding twenty pages were in the compositor's hands. This would be the method
adopted by the modern printer, and it may have been the method of Gutenberg, but
it is probable that the difficulties connected with the new art compelled him to print
the book more slowly, and with imperfect system. But the printers who followed
him certainly used quick methods. The trades of compositor and pressman, and
possibly that of type-caster, were kept about as distinct then as they are now. There
were more compositors than pressmen, and the compositors, says Madden, in the
heroic age of printing, were not boys, but men of education and intelligence. The
early printers who were taught the business that they might become masters had to
pay a premium for their education. Caxton said that he had "practysed 6 learned at
[his] grete charge and dispense to ordeyne this said booke in prynte." In the brief
time that they gave to the work, their education must have been more theoretical than
practical. As the branch of composition required the largest number of workmen,
and more intelligence, and less manual labor than any other, it was usually selected
by the pupil for practice. Of type-casting and presswork he learned no more than
was sufficient to enable him to direct the labors of his future workmen. The knowl-
edge of the trade which the pupil coveted was the ability to practice it on his own
account, and this knowledge was, in most instances, satisfactorily acquired when he
got a theoretical knowledge of its secret processes.

The frequent specifications of the foremen in the earliest notices of printing
shows that the mould, with its accompanying matrices, was regarded as the key
to the knowledge and practice of the art. As the moulds were made by master
mechanics, not bound to secrecy, and as the earlier compositors had some knowledge
of the process of type-casting, it was not difficult for a journeymen to become a
master printer. When he had bought a type-mould and matrices, he could go to any
city and begin to print books. He could cast types and mix ink as he needed them: he
could buy paper and the constituents of type-metal in any large town; properly in-
structed, any joiner could make the press. Many of the early master printers practiced
their trade for a few years in one place, and a few years in another,
roving about from town to town with a seeming indifference to
change which seems unaccountable to the modern printer, who
knows how expensive it is to move a printing office. The roving
habits of the masters will not seem so strange when it is known |
that the equipment of the early office was simple, and that the
more expensive tools could be carried with little difficulty. This
illustration, a fac-smile of one of Amman's engravings of a
printing office, is from this book dated 1564. The case for the



12 Point Lining XV Century
Set Solid




POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED




type is of one piece and is resting on a
rude frame. All the boxes are repre-
sented as of the same size, but this is
probably an error which is frequently
made by designers of this day. The
engravings of cases shown by Moxon
haveboxesofunequalsize. No doubt,
they were so made from the beginning,
for a day's experience would teach any
compositor that his case must have a larger box for
the letter e than for the letter x. In this, and in
many other early illustrations of type-setting, the
compositors are seated on stools. In Italy and in
Paris, women were employed as compositors.

The early stick was not like the neatly finished
iron tool of our time, with steel composing rule
and an adjustable screw and knee adapting it to any
measure. It was a real stick of wood, a home-made
strip of deal, with the side and end-piece tacked on.
For every measure, a new stick or retacking of the
movable piece was required. The date of the intro-
duction of the stick cannot be fixed, but it was used,
without alteration for many years, by the printers
of all countries. It is possible that some of the early
printers had no sticks. The peculiar workmanship
of the unknown printer and of Albert Pfister shows
that the types were taken direct from the case and
wedged in mortised blocks of wood which served



18 Point Lining XV Century
Set Solid



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S



96



SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE



EXCERPT FROM THE BIOGRAPHY OF



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN





ROM my infancy I was passionately fond of reading, and all the money
that came into my hands was laid out in the purchasing of books. I was
very fond of voyages. My first acquisition was Bunyan's works in sepa-
rate little volumes; I afterwards sold them to enable me to buy Burton's
Historical Collections. They were small chapmen's books, and cheap;
forty volumes in all. My father's little library consisted chiefly of books
in polemic divinity, most of which I read. I have often regretted that,
at a time when I had such a thirst for knowledge, more proper books,
had not fallen in my way, since it was resolved I should not be bred to
divinity. There was among them Plutarch's Lives, which I read abun-
dantly, and I still think that time spent to great advantage. There was
also a book of Defoe's called An Essay on Projects, and another of Dr. Mather's called An
Essay to do Good, which perhaps gave me a turn of thinking, that had an influence on some
of the principal future events of my life. 4 This bookish inclination at length determined
my father to make me a printer, though he had already one son, James, of that profession.
In 1717 my brother James returned from England with a press and letters to set up his busi-
ness in Boston. I liked it much better than that of my father, but still had a hankering
for the sea. To prevent the apprehended effect of such an inclination, my father was im-
patient to have me bound to my brother. I stood out some time, but at last was pursuaded and
signed the indenture when I was yet but twelve years old. I was to serve an apprenticeship
till I was twenty-one years of age, only I was to be allowed journeyman's wages during the
last year. 4IIn a little time I made a great progress in the business, and became a useful
hand to my brother. I now had access to better books. An acquaintance with the apprentices
of booksellers enabled me sometimes to borrow a small one, which I was careful to return
soon, and clean. Often I sat up in my chamber reading the greatest part of the night, when
the book was borrowed in the evening and to be returned in the morning, lest it should be
missing. ^lAfter some time a merchant an ingenious, sensible man, Mr. Matthew Adams,
who had a pretty collection of books frequented our printing-office, took notice of me, and
invited me to see his library, and very kindly proposed to lend me such books as I chose to
read. 4 1 now took a strong inclination for poetry, and wrote some little pieces. My brother
supposing it might turn to account, encouraged me, and induced me to compose two occas-
ional ballads. One was called The Light-House Tragedy, and contained an account of the
shipwreck of Captai n Wort hilake with his two daughters ; the other was a sailor song, on the
taking of the famous Teach, or Blackboard, the pirate. They were wretched stuff, in street
ballad style; and when they were printed my brother sent me about the town to sell them.
The first sold prodigiously, the event being recent and having made a great noise. This
success flattered my vanity; but my father discouraged me by criticising my performances
and telling me verse-makers were generally beggars. Thus I escaped being a poet, and prob-
ably a very bad one; but, as prose writing has been of great use to mein the course of my life.



Set in 6-point Barnhart Old Style.
Opened with, one-point leads.



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



07



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

and was a principal means of my advancement, I shall tell you how in such
a situation I acquired what little ability I may be supposed to have in that
way. ^[There was another bookish lad in the town, John Collins by name,
with whom I was intimately acquainted. We sometimes disputed, and very
fond we were of argument, and very desirous of confuting one another which
disputatious turn, by the way, is apt to become a very bad habit, making
people often extremely disagreeable in company, by the contradiction that is
necessary to bring it into practice ; and thence, besides souring and spoiling the
conversation, it is productive of disgusts, and perhaps enmities, with those who
may have occasion for friendship. I had caught this by reading my father's
books of dispute on religion. Persons of good sense, I have since observed,
seldom fall into it, except lawyers, university men, and generally men of all
sorts who have been bred at Edinburgh. ^[A question was once, somehow
or other, started between Collins and me on the propriety of educating the
female sex in learning, and their abilities for study. He was of the opinion
that it was improper, and that they were naturally unequal to it. I took the
contrary side, perhaps a little for disputes sake. He was naturally more elo-
quent, having a greater plenty of words, and sometimes, as I thought, I was



Online Librarybros. & Spindler BarnhartBook of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 → online text (page 12 of 71)