bros. & Spindler Barnhart.

Book of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 online

. (page 16 of 71)
Online Librarybros. & Spindler BarnhartBook of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 → online text (page 16 of 71)
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practability. Though Cairo is only about sixty miles in a direct
line from Suez, the railway makes the journey more than double
that distance. It follows the west bank of the canal to Ismailia,
then turns directly westward along the bank of the fresh-water
canal into the delta of the Nile. The line passes through a
country which was the scene of much of the fighting between
British troops and those of Arabi Pasha in 1882. This same
fertile region, the delta, was the scene of the most of the labors
of Joseph in the time of the Pharaohs, and it was from here, with
the Exodus, that the captivity of the Jews ended and their wander-
ings in the desert of Sinai began. The soil of the delta is perhaps
the most fertile in the world. It is always supplied with water
by innumerable canals, annually filled when the Nile is high, and



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gradually diminishing till the inundation recommences
in June. As the water subsides, the character of the
crops is varied, but three distinct harvests commonly
are taken off the same ground each year if it is arti-
ficially watered. This is effected for the most part by
the primitive methods of antiquity, although steam
pumps and windmills are becoming more common. The
Nile and its inundation are objects of constant interest
and solicitude. A low Nile means something like star-
vation for thousands. The cause of the inundation is
the heavy rains of Central Africa. The Nile receives no
tributaries for the last 1,800 miles of its course, but
is constantly feeding canals and reservoirs, so that by
the time it arrives at the delta very little of the original
volumn remains. There are plenty of hotels in Cairo,
so that one may choose as he likes as to degrees of
fashion and expense. The city is another of those
whose characteristic it has been of recent years to be
the meeting place for East and West. It is a favorite
resort for European travelers. during the cold months
of their own northern cities. The mixture of occidental
and oriental types and costumes helps to make street
scenes picturesque, and the city is unlike any other in
the world. The new town is modern, with wide streets
and many trees, but it is the old town, with its narrow,
winding lanes, sometimes roofed over, and its red and
white mosques, that affords the greatest pleasure to the
stranger. Within the reach of daily excursions from
Cairo are the Pyramids of Gizeh, the Sphinx, and the
ruins of Memphis. The pyramids are but seven miles
from Cairo, across the Nile, which one passes by a fine
iron bridge. Altogether there are about sixty of these
gigantic sepulchers in Egypt, of which those at Gizeh
are the nearest to Cairo and the largest. The nearest,
which, though not now the highest, is always called the
great pyramid, is that of Cheops. In addition to the
pyramids and Sphinx, an immense number of tombs



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may be visited in the same part of the cemetery of
Memphis. This excursion from Cairo may be made
comfortably in a carnage, without fatigue or incon-
venience. The Boolak Museum of Cairo, the streets
of the native city, the mosques and citadel, the
bazaars for the sale of Egyptian and Turkish work
in gold and silver, sweetmeats, embroidery, rugs and
other wares, will easily provide entertainment for a
fortnight in Cairo, and the perfection of the climate,
except in the height of summer, justifies a leisurely
stay at this Egyptian capital. Sufficient variety of
choice is offered to the traveler who wishes to go up
the Nile, to gratify almost any demand. If there be
sufficient time at disposal, the best way to see the
wonders of Egypt is to take a sailing boat or daha-
beeah. The voyage to the second cataract occupies
about three months, is very pleasant, very healthful,
and, considering what one gets out of it, very cheap.
Tourist steamers offer an alternative method by
which one may visit the Nile as far as Assuan and
back, including the first cataract, in twenty days.
Another plan is to go by rail as far as Siout, where
the railway terminates, about two hundred and fifty
miles above Cairo, and thence by the postal steamers,
which run twice a week and permit a visit to some
of the principal objects of interest. The tourist
steamer journey up the Nile provides for sufficient
time with donkeys and guides to visit each of the
points of interest reached on the journey. Among
these are the site of ancient Memphis, with some
neighboring pyramids; Maghagga, with its sugar



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manufactories; the tombs and grottoes
near Beni-Hassan, with fine examples of
the Doric and lotus columns; the town of
Siout, the terminus of the railway; the
ruins of the temple of Abydos; the tombs
of the kings Rameses near Thebes; the
ruins of Karnak; the temple and town of
Luxor, and finally the cataract, and the
rapids near Assuan. Above the first
cataract, comfortable steamers connect
with the voyage just outlined throughout
the tourist season, making the journey
to the second cataract and return in
seven days. From this point connecting
service can be availed of to Khartoum.

THE HOLY LAND.

With remarkably small expense and
little difficulty the traveler 'round the
world may next visit Palestine and thus
diverge from his direct course. For this
part of the journey a method of travel
is employed altogether different from
anything which he meets in his entire
experience, and peculiarly appropriate
to the country. The primitive modes of



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AROUND THE WORLD.

life and curious method of travel
that have survived in the land
of Canaan from the days of the
patriarchs have been utilized
and adopted to tourist travel in
such a way as to multiply the
pleasure of the experience and
enable every feature of it to
appeal strongly to the imagina-
tion and excite the interest of
all. The charm and beauty of the
climate and scenery of Palestine
the associations of its hills and
valleys and cities with the stories
of the Old Testament, the events
of the New Testament, and the
wars of the Crusades, are some
of the attractions acknowledged
by people of every nationality.
The journey through Palestine
is a camping tour, provided with



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BACK TO AMERICA

THE BRITISH ISLES AND TRANSATLANTIC ROUTE.

IF ONE were touring the world "in eighty days," it would be necessary to sail from Eng-
land without delay, but except for some imperative demand, the foreign traveler around
the world will hardly quit that country without a glimpse of its attractions. So intimately
are the United States and Great Britain bound together by commercial and blood relation-
ships, and so directly do they trace the beginnings of their national greatness to the same
sources, that it becomes a primary necessity for every American who wishes to understand
well his own country and its history to acquaint himself with the British Isles. In a volume
of this size it would be superfluous to attempt even a sketch review of the things to be seen
in the United Kingdom. London alone is inexhaustible. One might devote himself to the
literature, the art, the commerce, the history, which have centered there, and in either subject
find material for endless interest. Only to name the Tower. St. Paul's, Westminster Abbey,
and the National Gallery is enough to establish the truth of this assertion. There is hardly
a mile of English and Scottish soil that does not contain a memory of something worth visit-
ing. Stratford-on-Avon, the lake district, the home of Scott, the abbeys, the castles, all
offer material for the traveler, whatever his tastes may be, out of which he may select what
is most pleasing to him. Equally romantic and enchanting is the scenery of Ireland, the ports
of which are the last to be seen by the trans-Atlantic traveler. From the British Isles the
'round the world tourist may choose any one of the dozen ocean steamship lines sailing
from Southampton, Liverpool, London, Glasgow, Londonderry, or Queenstown. If, instead,
he selects one of the continental cities as a port of debarkation, Hamburg, Bremen, Antwerp,
Havre, or Cherbourg are at his disposal. German, French, English, and American lines
are open to choice of the traveler who patronizes the American and Australian Line in the
purchase of his ticket. If he has a favorite port, a favorite steamer, or a favorite captain,
any one is at his disposal. Then after a voyage across the North Atlantic by the most
commodious, most luxurious, safest, and fastest steamers in the world, he may land again
on American soil at any one of the Atlantic coast cities, from which there is prompt, rapid
and luxurious service back to the point of starting. This voyage across the North Atlantic-
Ocean, which leads to an American port, the railways of the United States, and home, is
a very different thing from the voyages in the tropics and in the Pacific and Indian Oceans,
which have been passed earlier in this "round the world" journey. On these big Atlantic
liners the number of passengers is many times as great as on the steamers which ply on the
longer routes. Scores of travelers cross the Atlantic to every one who visits the Orient,
which after all is one thing which helps to make the long journey to the Far East more attrac-
tive because less hackneyed. Nevertheless, the "Atlantic Ferry" has its very definite and
distinct attractions not ever forgotten by one who has made the voyage. The astonishing
perfection of the arrangements made for the comfort of travelers, the great size of the vessels
in the service, the richness of their appointments, the variety of sports, and the wide sweep
of the decks available for them, all help to make the voyage a pleasure. With a passenger
list including hundreds of travelers, and a voyage lasting one week instead of several, the
social life on board is more apt to take the form of acquaintance with congenial cabin, deck,
and table neighbors than with the whole of the company, as is usually the case on the
Pacific Ocean. This is none the less a pleasure of the voyage. Then, on the last night
before making port, it is usual that a concert is given by the passengers. Inasmuch as it



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is seldom that the number does not include authors, artists, musicians, and
actors of eminence traveling between Europe and America, such events
are likely to be of peculiar interest, and the last memory of the journey
before reaching home a pleasant one.

FROM AUSTRALIA TO THE ORIENT.

The waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, north and west of Aus-
tralia, are traversed by scores of great steamships of modern construction
under the British flag, which provide frequent and rapid communication
between the ports of Australia, the East Indies, and the Asiatic continent,
as well as with the home ports of Europe. These lines are operated under
the flag of the British India Steam Navigation Company, The Queensland
Royal Mail, and the Australasian United Steam Navigation Company. The
fleets in this service are enormous and their volume of traffic correspondingly
large. It is true that they do not carry the larger volume of passenger traffic
between Europe and Australia, most of this business going by way of the
southern Australian ports, instead of the northern. As has been related in
previous pages, such lines as the Peninsular and Oriental, the Orient,
the North German Lloyd, and the Messageries Maritimes afford a luxurious
and swift service between London and Sydney, via Melbourne, Adelaide,
Albany, Colombo, Aden, and Suez. But there is another series of attrac-
tions to the north of Australia, reached by equally comfortable methods of
travel, and altogether novel. The sailing port for these steamers is Brisbane,
the capital of Queensland. From this city lines start whose other terminals
include all the commercial ports from Yokohama to Aden, as well as the
through service to London. It is quite worth while to consider these less
frequented lines of travel in planning a journey 'round the world. From
Brisbane to the northernmost extremity of the Australian continent at Gape
York is a distance of nearly 2 , 000 miles. On the way there are many inter-
esting ports of call, including Rockhampton, Townsville, and Cooktown.
These and the half-dozen others which break the journey for a few hours
are by no means uninteresting to the traveler beginning the long ocean voyage.
Some of them are outlets for large gold-mining industries in the interior of
the colony. Others are agricultural markets for wheat, mutton, wool, and
sugar cane. The northward journey takes one farther and farther into the
tropics, and at the first port beyond the Australian continent one enters the
waters of Torres Strait, notable for the savagery of the natives discovered
on the shores which bound it. Thursday Island is the port right in the
strait, York Gape a few miles to the southward, and the mountains of
New Guinea are in sight to the north. New Guinea has been subdivided
of late years by those colonial promoters of the East Indies, the British,
Germans, and Dutch, each of whom has taken a segment for development.
Nevertheless this largest of all islands is still to a great extent unexplored,
and the natives in the remoter parts are as dangerous as they were in the
days of the first explorers. The recent unprofitable rush of gold seekers
into the island from Australia brings the last mentioned fact forcibly to
mind. Thursday Island is the center of pearl-shell fisheries of great value.
It is recognized as an important strategic point, and has been fortified



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A TRIP AROUND THE WORLD.

strongly by the British imperial authorities, who quarter a perma-
nent military force there. From Thursday Island the steamers
of the British India Company sail almost directly westward for
more than two thousand miles, through the Arafura, Banda,
Flores, and Java seas, coasting the Dutch Spice Islands all the
way to Batavia, the capital of the Dutch East Indies and the
metropolis of the Archipelago. The voyage is a tropical one,
but the steamers are built for this service and provide accom-
modations adapted to the climate. At Batavia the lines of this
company diverge, some vessels sailing directly to Aden, and
reaching Plymouth as a home port, by way of the Red Sea,
the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean, and Gibraltar. Others
sail northwestward to Singapore, coasting the eastern shores of
Sumatra, through the Straits of Malacca, and into the Bay of
Bengal, touching at the ports of the Malay Peninsula, and
finding their terminus at Rangoon, Calcutta, or Madras. By
the vessels of this same great company one may visit Kurrachee,
Muscat, Bushire, and the other ports of the Persian Gulf,
even reaching Bagdad without difficulty. Another service
maintained by the same company reaches all the ports of the
east coast of Africa from Delagoa Bay northward to Mozam-
bique, Zanzibar, and thence to Bombay. Still another service
extends from Bombay and Colombo to the island of Mauritius
the scene of the tale of "Paul and Virginia." As for the
ports of India and British Burmah, either on the Arabian Sea
or the Bay of Bengal, they are brought as easily within reach
by the frequent service of splendid steamers as are the Atlan-
tic coast cities of the United States. Those countries of Europe
which maintain colonies in the Pacific Ocean find it desirable
to subsidize transportation lines, in order to provide satisfac-
tory means of communication to these remote settlements.
Passenger and freight traffic alone might support occasional
steamers, but could not be depended upon to do so. The
expenditure made by these governments, therefore, comes to
the assistance of every individual tourist, and the traveler who
visits these seas will find awaiting him commodious, safe and



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fast steamers sailing on regular schedules to islands
that are but names to most dwellers in the northern
hemisphere. In the pages devoted to New Zealand
something has been said concerning the facilities for
travel to Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, and the more easterly
islands of the South Pacific. From the Australian
ports another service is maintained to New Caledonia,
the French colony of the West Pacific, the New
Hebrides, Norfolk Island, and the Fiji Islands. These
steamers sail in the service either of the Australasian
United Steam Navigation Company or the Messageries
Maritimes from Sydney, vessels passing each way
every two weeks. Noumea, the capital of New Cale-
donia, is a very pleasant city, its French atmosphere
making it altogether different from any other of the
Pacific islands. It" possesses a fine harbor, stone
wharves, wide streets with shade trees, excellent public
buildings, and a botanical garden. New Caledonia is
a penal colony of France and an excellent convict
band of forty performers furnishes music in the public
square. The town is well lighted, provided with good
hotels, and the drives in the vicinity are exceedingly
interesting. The chief industries are the mining of
chrome and nickel and the raising of coffee. Steamers
leave Noumea for a circuit of the island every week.
They are new and comfortable, lighted by electricity,
and the service is entirely satisfactory. The trip around
the island consumes eight days, every moment of the
time offering fresh views of novel scenery. The entire
voyage is inside the reef, in smooth water, and the



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vessel anchors every night. From the ports
of Australia to those of the extreme Orient
there are three steamship companies per-
forming regular service, and their schedules
are arranged alternately, so the passenger
may be sure of a direct sailing once a week
Two of these lines, the China Navigation
Company and the Eastern and Australian
Steamship Company, are English corpora-
tions, the steamers a product of English
shipyards, and officered by Englishmen.
The third line, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha,
or Japan Mail Line, is one part of that great
service maintained in the Orient by the
Japanese, whose steamers now ply between
most ports of the Pacific. They too are
English built and officered by Englishmen,
although line and steamers have Japanese
names. All of the vessels in these services
are large enough to be entirely comfortable,
and offer a very attractive journey to the
passenger who visits Asia by this route.
They sail from Sydney northward to Bris-
bane, at either of which ports passengers
may join the vessel. All the principal ports
of Queensland are visited in turn. From



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Thursday Island the track follows direct-
ly across the entrance to the Gulf of
Carpentaria and around the northern
coast of Australia to Port Darwin, which
is the landing place of the submarine
cable connecting these colonies with
Europe by way of Java, Sumatra, and
Singapore. Here too the transcontinental
telegraph begins its southern journey
across the Australian desert to Adelaide.
From Port Darwin to Hongkong the
track chart shows a very direct line of
sailing, past the islands of Timor, the
Moluccas, Celebes, Mindanao, and
Luzon, into the China Sea. Under
Spanish dominion the Philippine Islands
were not favored by either trade or
travel, consequently steamers did not
choose to call at Manila, although that
capital was almost within sight of the



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SUPERIOR COPPER^MIXED TYPI




|HE invention of the printing press must have followed the making of movable types. Nothing abso-
lutely certain is known of the tune at which either was first introduced. As the invention of type
lies somewhere between the years 1438 and 1450, it may be assumed that this period also produced
the first printing pre.ss, all the important features of which are still preserved hi the modern hand
press, As printing from blocks had been practised for many years previously, the method of taking
such impressions now uncertain, it is possible that the first press for printing type may have derived
Psome or all of its characteristics from that used for printing blocks. <FGutenberg's printing press
consisted of two upright timbers, with cross pieces of wood to stay them together at the top and
bottom, and two intermediate cross-timbers. On one of these the type was supported, and through the other a wooden
screw passed, its lower point resting on the center of a wooden platen, which was thus screwed down upon the type
after it had been inked and the paper spread over it. This simple form continued in use for 150 years, or until the
early part of the seventeenth century, without any material change. The forms of type were placed upon wood or stone
beds, incased in frames called coffins, moved in and out laboriously by hand, and after each impression the platen
had to be screwed up with the bar so that the printed sheet might be removed and hung up to dry. <fThe first re-
corded improvements to this press were made by William Jenson Blaeuw, of Amsterdam, about 1620, Blaeuw's press
was introduced into England, and used there as well as upon the continent, being substantially the same as that used
by Benjamin Franklin in London in 1725. <fLittle further improvement was made before 1798, when the Earl of Stan-
hope had a press built, the frame of which was one piece of cast iron. A necessity had arisen for greater power in giving
impression, especially in the printing of wood-cuts, and the tendency was naturally toward larger forms of type, requir-
ing greater exertion on part of the printer, The screw was retained with the addition of a combination of levers to as-
sist in gaining greater power with less expenditure of energy. <f The next practical improvement was by George Clymer,
of Philadelphia, who, about 1816, devised an iron machine entirely dispensing with the screw, Clymer took his inven-
tion to England where it became known as the Columbian press. In England Ruthven, Brown and others made iron
hand presses, all improving on the Stanhope. In 1822 Peter Smith devised a machine with cast iron frame, in which a
toggle-joint, at once simple and effective, took the place of the screw with levers. <f In 1827 Samuel Rust, of New York,
worked out a great improvement on the Smith press, This patent was purchased by R. Hoe & Co. who improved upon
it. The new invention was known as the Washington press, and in principle and construction has 'never been surpassed
by any hand printing machine, <f The bed-and-platen system of printing was up to the middle of the nineteenth cen-
tury the favorite method for fine books and illustrations, and still has a limited use. The first power or steam press upon
this principle was made by Dr. Daniel Treadwell of Boston in 1822. The frames were of wood, but only a few were con-
structed, The best press of this description is that devised and patented by Issac Adams, of Boston in 1830 and 1836,
and by Otis Tufts, of the same place, hi 1834. This was first made with a wooden and afterward with an iron frame.
In 1858 Adams' business became the property of Hoe & Co., who improved the machine. 'TThe method of printing
from forms carried upon flat beds backward and forward beneath a cylinder had been rudely employed by printers of
copperplate engravings in the fifteenth century, With the introduction of this system began an entirely new era in the



Online Librarybros. & Spindler BarnhartBook of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 → online text (page 16 of 71)