bros. & Spindler Barnhart.

Book of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 online

. (page 17 of 71)
Online Librarybros. & Spindler BarnhartBook of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 → online text (page 17 of 71)
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history of the printing press. The credit of actually introducing into use a flat-bed cylinder press is due to a Saxon
named Friederich Koenig, who, in England, in 1806, through the aid of Thomas Bensley, a printer in London, devised
a machine which was used in 1812-13. Koenig was assisted also by a mechanic named Andrew Bauer, a fellow coun-
tryman. <fHe also devised what has proved even to this day to be the best mechanism for producing reciprocating motion
of the type bed. *fln 1814 Koenig patented a continuously revolving cylinder press. He also showed designs adapting
it for use as a single cylinder, and also as a two-cylinder press, both for printing on one side of the paper at a time, like-
wise a two-cylinder press for printing both sides at one operation. In the same year he erected two two-cylinder presses
for the London Times that printed one side at the rate of 800 sheets per hour. Bacon, Donkin, Cowper and Applegath
also patented improvements about the same time. <fThe most ingenious and practical device improving the flat-bed
and cylinder press was patented by Napier in 1829 and 1830. He first introduced grippers for conveying the sheets
around the cylinder during impression, and for delivering them after printing. Tapes had been previously used. He
was the first to construct presses in which the cylinders are of small size and make two or more revolutions to each
impression, lifting the cylinder by toggles. <f About 1832 Robert Hoe made the first cylinder press ever used in the
United States, This was of the single large cylinder pattern, making one revolution for each impression, and never
stopping. The stop-cylinder was devised and patented by a Frenchman named Dutartre in 1852, and was later intro-
duced into the United States and improved in many respects. <FUp to 1847 American newspapers were printed upon
single small cylinder or two cylinder machines at 2000 to 4000 an hour. Then came hi the Hoe type-revolving machine,
where a central cylinder held the type pages upon its surface, and grouped about it were from four to ten impression
cylinders as the case required. Each cylinder required a feeder, usually a boy, who was required to handle 2000 sheets
an hour, Later type forms gave place to curved plates on these machines, In 1865 William Bullock constructed the
first machine to print from a continuous web of paper. It consisted of two form or plate cylinders and two impression
cylinders, the second impression cylinder being of large size to provide additional tympan surface to lessen the offset
from the first printed side of the paper. In 1868 the London Tunes set up the first rotary perfecting press, similar to
the Bullock, except that the cylinders were of the same size and placed one above the other. In 1871 R. Hoe and Co.
turned their attention to the rotary perfecting press, and built machines containing many improvements, with little
limit to their capacity for printing except the ability of the paper web to stand the strain of passing through the press.
Then was developed the Hoe double supplement press, the first of which was used by the New York Herald, and for the
third time completely revolutionizing newspaper printing. A later time (1887) witnessed the installation in the New York
World of the first quadruple newspaper press, and in 1890 the Herald installed a sextuple press, Since then various
changes and improvements by several makers principally Hoe, Goss and Scott, have added greatly to the speed and
perfection of machines for newspaper printing.



6 Point Old Roman Condensed
opened with one-point leads



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED




THE OPTIMUS TWO-REVOLUTION; ITS SIMPLE BED MOTION.

OR fifty years or more printing press builders have striven to attain perfection in the
bed motion. In recent years the demand for greater speed but stimulated their exer-
tions. Only through improvement could speed be reached. Individual effort along
different lines has produced motions more or less commendable in the most vital and
most important movement of a printing press. In this, as in every line of invention,
there is only one really good way out only one way that, because of high efficiency
and perfection, can be said to be the very best and superior to all else for the purpose. This pre-emi-
nence in driving motions we embody in the Optimus. *ffAll the desirable modern bed motions consist
of some adaptation of a shifting or a movable gear which, in each of two positions, engages a rack at-
tached to the type bed. Experience indicates that a three-to-one gear is the best for speed; that is, a
gear which makes three revolutions to each impression. A number of presses in common use have a
three-to-one bed gear. If this were all, there would be no choice in these mechanisms. But all of
these three-to-one bed motions, with the exception of the Babcock, are made up of a complexity of
motions. The gear is thrown back and forth or up and down, and the shoes moved in and out, at each
end of the rack at each stroke of the bed by separate and independent mechanisms more or less com-
plex, all of which are expected to work in unison. The builders of these bed motions, taking as a
model an early and intricate mechanism, have been forced to ignore simplicity. <]f The most efficient
device for any purpose is that which gives desired results with fewest parts and least motions. Sim-
plicity is the first characteristic of the Babcock patented ball and socket bed motion. It is not made
up of different mechanisms receiving motion from different spurces. It has few parts, less than any
other. It is a perfect motion, practically indestructible by wear, and eliminates the faults others con-
tain. It is only a shaft with the driving pulley on one end and the star gear on the other. On this
shaft is the series of balls and sockets so placed that one part of the shaft is.deflectable, giving a recip-
rocating as well as a rotary motion to the gear. This permits the star gear to engage the single rack
from above at one movement of the bed and from below at the next, and secures the advantage of driv-
ing in both directions from the same point. This patented device is the only one imparting motion
with absolute uniformity regardless of the angle of transmission. The mechanism is so strong, so per-
fect in construction, that it will endure many times the strain that any work can give. During the
years of its use no amount of hard running or actual abuse has impaired in the least its efficiency or
its perfection of operation. <JThe ball and socket principle is carried further, and becomes the
source of greatest advantage in our patented bed driving gear and rack. It is of the greatest possible
efficiency at the points of reverse of the bed. Each end of the rack is fitted with a large hardened
steel ball adjusted on a large steel stud, which engages the star gear. The space or socket in the gear
which engages these balls is absolutely spherical, giving perfect contact between the gear and the
ends of the rack, and furnishing large and durable wearing surfaces. tJThe shaft which carries the
bed gear is of very large proportions, being actually many times as strong as was considered necessary
in well built machines a few years ago. The whole mechanism is so accurately balanced and nicely
constructed as to admit of the highest speed without jar or vibration. <JThe rack is located not in
the center of the bed, but in the center of the load. The inking rollers, geared direct to one side of
the bed, require a large amount of power to drive. The rack is placed at the proper point between
the middle of the bed and the end which drives the rollers to insure its being in the center of resist-
ance. All other bed drives move the bed in one direction with a rack close up under the bed, and in
the other with a rack near the base of the machine, a bad application of power which makes impos-
sible the use of a strong center-girt under impression. In the Babcock bed motion, however, there is
but one rack, and this is sufficiently high to permit the use of a cross-girt of great strength. <JfOne
of the serious objections to other bed driving devices is that the shoes are movable and long, The
roll on the bed gear which engages these shoes and stops and starts the bed, travels a long distance
quickly, and frequently under high pressure, touching the shoe at a point only. The result is worn
roll and shoes, which "pound" at the points of reverse, reducing the speed and injuring the whole
machine. The Babcock shoes for reversing the bed are small and curved to fit the star gear roll.
They are not thrown in and out of action, but bolted solidly in position, and produce little motion in
the roll. They run years without needing adjustment. *|f A common device for overcoming the irreg-
ularities of a poor bed motion is a long rack and segment for gearing bed and cylinder together during
impression. This arrangement is positive evidence of a faulty bed motion, and is never entirely satis-
factory. On Babcock presses a short rack and segment are used just before the impression, and the
perfect bed motion does the rest in a manner beyond criticism. <jfThe secret of the success of the whole



8 Point Old Roman Condensed
opened tcith one-point leads



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S



164



SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE



THE OP TIM US TWO-REVOLUTION.



Babcock Optimus patented bed motion is in the proper adaptation of the ball and
socket mechanism, a unique feature in a bed motion. The Babcock Company has
invented special machinery for making the shoes and for making perfect balls and
perfect sockets, and the result is an absolutely perfect bed motion, the acme of sim-
plicity and durability, and unequalled speed. It is the only one unchanged and
unchanging. Some other bed drives greatly boasted a year or so ago, are now en-
tirely abandoned, while today the most vaunted are not as they were some months
since. That of the Optimus has not given trouble nor cost anyone one cent. It gives
easily a press of highest speed, greatest steadiness and smoothness in operation, and
absolute register. The extreme and unusual uniformity of action of the driving
motion of the Optimus makes the attaching of automatic feeders to this press exceed-
ingly easy and satisfactory, and insures the best possible performance from these
delicately adjusted machines. It gives, also, long wear to forms. On a No. 11
(45x63) Optimus a run of 800,000 was recently made from one set of plates, "and
the plates do not look as if they had been used", a performance impossible on any
other press.

STRENGTH AND DELICACY OF IMPRESSION.

Strength, pure and simple, is a matter of construction. If omitted by the builder
the pressman cannot supply it. It does not depend upon mere weight. The metal
must be properly placed. In some presses the pecularities of the driving motions
do not admit of the use of a sufficiently massive center-girt to withstand the strains
of impression, which often are great. The line of contact between cylinder and form
in a press of average size is one-half inch wide. The pressure required for fine work
on heavy forms is about six hundred pounds per square inch. On a forty -inch form
the total pressure is nearly twelve thousand pounds, or six tons. Whether a press is
well designed to withstand the intermittent blows of strong impression is best told
by the absence of "guttering," which is caused by the springing of the metal when
press is on and off impression. To gutter is to be weak. It is the evidence of a lack
of rigidity. ^The Optimus does not gutter. In this respect it stands alone, and is,
under impression, the most rigid of presses. Just why this is so is due to the origi-
nal, simple and effective means adopted to meet the conditions. ^We show a view
of that portion of an Optimus press immediately under the impression line. It dis-
plays the massive center-girt used in all Optimus presses, and also the extreme
simplicity of the driving motion, to which we have before referred. This center-girt
supports six tracks which in turn support the bed. In addition to the heaviest girt,
the Optimus possesses the heaviest side frames in use, and upon these the girt
is supported by heavy flanges so that the strain of impression is not imposed upon
the bolts which unite girt and frames. At this point the frames are solid, and in
no way are they weakened by being cut away for rods, springs, toggles, or other com-
plexities for raising the cylinder. Not only does the girt contain a great weight of
metal, but its form is such as to greatly add to its power of resistance. It is not
weakened by being cut away to admit the passage of a bed rack that hangs too low.
It is not merely a tie between the side frames, but a massive, unyielding support for
impression. ^The pressure required today to print a high-class cut form would have
been impossible in the strongest press built a few years ago. It is a comparatively



lit Point Old Roman Condensed
opened with one-point leads



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



165



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED



THE OP TIM US TWO-REVOLUTION.



simple problem to make the cylinder sufficiently strong, though it is one
not yet solved by everybody. The problem of the bed support is quite a
different proposition, principally because the stopping and starting of a
needlessly heavy bed produces shock and strain to the press and founda-
tions, consumes power and limits speed, and speed is one of the prime fac-
tors in a modern press, <ffThe first presses had two tracks. One of the
early devices for increasing the bed support was a single wheel under the
center of impression. Then two independent wheels made two runners
between the tracks. These proved difficult of adjustment, and unequal to
the strain. Then two or three smaller wheels in clusters were tried,
making a short wheel track, resulting in increased strength, but still
lacking in accuracy of adjustment, and this lack was fatal to best print-
ing, Later a builder put four full-length roller tracks under the bed,
abandoning a better arrangement because of his inability to devise a
way to accurately adjust the wheels, which, with several in each track,
must all have their upper surfaces exactly in line and touch the tracks
under the bed with equal precision. With an exception or two the four-
track practice became general. <fl*Four long roller tracks cannot be ad-
justed accurately to compensate for wear, which is greatest on the inside
tracks. A common expedient to correct wear in these is to "wedge up"
between the center girt and the tracks; but here is met the same trouble
as with the wheels the impossibility of wedging accurately. Rebuilding
at the factory is the only remedy. tjfWe have always contended that
four non-adjustable tracks were a poor arrangement, and that four tracks
of any kind were insufficient for medium and large-sized beds. A support
under each end is as necessary as at any point. The first effect of taking
impression is strain between bed and cylinder. This strain must be
maintained until the form is printed. The only possible way to accom-
plish this is by firm contact between the bearers on ends of cylinder and
the bearers on ends of bed. Otherwise every time the cylinder passes a
margin it will drop into it to be picked up again by the opposite edge of
the form, working ruin in the wake of its guttering weakness. <flTests
proved that a wheel five or six inches in diameter was more durable un-
der a press bed than a roller track the same length as the diameter of the
wheel; and that a short track of two or three wheels was more durable
and retained adjustment longer than a roller track of whatever length,
each wheel having three times the wearing surface of a straight track as
long as its diameter. Three wheels each five inches in diameter, are
equivalent to a track about four feet (forty-seven inches) in length. As
it is impossible to concentrate four feet of straight roller track under the
point of impression, and entirely feasible to concentrate a track of wheels



12 Point Old Roman Condensed
set solid



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S



SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE



THE OPTIMUS TWO-REVOLUTION.



with four feet of track surface on their circumferences, it is
easy to understand why a wheel track of three wheels is
more durable than any other arrangement. The ordinary
long roller or guide tracks are needed to direct and main-
tain the bed in position; but wheel tracks made of several
wheels each are the perfect support for sustaining im-
pression. The original users of wheel tracks, and other
builders, have always conceded the desirability of wheels;
but because of failure to adjust them accurately they were
abandoned for a mechanism even less adjustable. The
use of the four long roller tracks is advocated by saying
that they will wear, and therefore will not need adjust-
ing a statement that the experience of printers will not
substantiate. When, four or five years ago, a prominent
press that had been for years made as a two-track ma-
chine was changed to four, its makers said that they knew
the last was not as good construction as the old; but they
intended to take advantage of the fallacy of the printer
concerning four tracks, and would furnish an inferior ma-
chine in order to sell more. ^Satisfying ourselves be-
yond all doubt that wheel tracks adjustable for uneven-
ness of wear are vastly more desirable than the non-ad-
justable roller tracks, we invented a way to readily ad-
just them to mathematical accuracy, and made positively
practical the use of this unequalled means of bed support,
^f The result of this study is that for several years Optimus
presses have been equipped with patented semi-automa-
tic adjustable wheel tracks, three wheels in a track, and
four of these tracks, beside the two long guide tracks, six
in all, to each medium or large-sized press. Each of these
wheels can be adjusted in a few seconds so that it bears
against the bed uniformly with all the others without
special care on the part of the operator. This adjusta-
blity does not exist in any other press, while the two Op-
timus roller tracks themselves have twice the durability
of the ordinary style. The two new patented roller



14 Point Old Roman Condensed
net solid



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



167



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED



THE OP TIM US TWO-REVOLUTION.



tracks, combined with the four wheel tracks, all
sustained by the most massive center-girt in
use, make a six-track bed support never before
equalled in durability and power of resistance
to impressional strains. tfFThe strength sup-
porting the bed is met above by a heavy and
thoroughly well braced and accurately bal-
anced cylinder, supplied with a steel shaft as
large ana nearly twice as strong as the cast iron
shafts others use. This shaft runs in unusually
large and long steel boxes, with close connec-
tions between cylinder and bearings, offering a
rigidity equal to that of the bed supports. The
boxes, or bearings, are themselves a part of the
heavy side frames, solidly bolted to them. The
upward thrust of impression is, therefore, sus-
tained by the cylinder shaft held in immov-
able boxes. In other words, the cylinder is
held to form by the side frames, contrary to the
practice in all other presses, wherein the boxes
are loose in the side frames, and slip up and
down as the cylinder rises and falls at each im-
pression. The Optimus cylinder is adjusted for
impression by means of a very heavy screw so
fitted into the box that all strain is taken upon
its head, and this screw is capable of resisting
fifty times the strain that it will ever be called
upon to endure. The raising or lowering of the
cylinder never throws it out of line with the
bed. Whether cylinder is high or low, its rela-
tion to bed and tracks is always true.



BARNHART BROS. & SPINDLER'S 168 SUPERIOR COPPER-MIXED TYPE



THE OPTIMUS TWO-REVOLUTION.



A word about the bearings in which the
cylinder shaft runs, A pipe box is one that
is made out of a solid piece of metal It
has no cap, and cannot be taken apart. The
bearings in such boxes are not true, and one
end is larger than the other. The inside
cannot be scraped thoroughly, or very well
in fact, to work off the high spots. All that
can be done is to make them as good as can
be, and fit them so they will slide on the
shaft, which, of course, touches only the high
places. When the high spots are gone
through wear the shaft is loose, and a very
bad condition exists. ^ A split box is one
that is in two pieces, has a cap, and can be
taken apart This is the one that is used in
the Optimus, With the two parts securely
fastened together these boxes are bored and
reamed with two reamers, with the greatest
care. Taken apart the interiors are easily
accessible to the workman, who scrapes
them until a perfect bearing throughout
is secured. The shaft lies within them
touching in every part, and has a full and
complete bearing throughout its entire sur-
face, giving slow wear and a perfect fit.
After years of use, when wear is appreci-
able, the split box affords a ready take-up.



(Continued in Old Roman Bold on next page. )



IX Point Old Roman Condensed
sat solid



POINT-LINE, POINT-SET, POINT-BODY



169



QUALITY AND FINISH UNEQUALED



THE OPTIMUS TWO-REVOLUTION, CONTINUED.







NLY in the certainty of great strength can evenness and delicacy of impression exist. Particu-
larly does weakness make waste of time and effort. Only through rigidity is a press fast under
make-ready fast while standing still. On the Optimus a tissue overlay counts for all that it is
worth, and the pressman's efforts are quickly fruitful in the expected results. There is no
lifting around overlays where the last has borne off the impression from all around, and patch
after patch is needed to bring it up. Not many overlays are needed. On some forms none.
Strength gives delicacy, evenness, uniformity, certainty. Solids can be made solid, deep shad-
ows strong, high lights clear, with least effort and little time, on a lasting tympan. Strength
saves work. <f A vitally important point in every two-revolution press is the manner in which the cylinder is
lifted to clear the form at the reverse of the bed after impression. The Optimus way differs from any other. In
simplicity, directness of action, freedom from many parts and all complications, it is vastly better, and eliminates
evils due to imperfect devices for this purpose. It offers less opportunity for wear, and the consequent lost motion,
than any other arrangement, while it secures the maximum of strength and resistance. It is only an oscillating
eccentric box holding the cylinder shaft journals, rotating with them while lifting, and the cam and lever necessary to
operate the eccentric. That is all. During impression the eccentric is firmly locked upon its center, and, there-
fore, no strain whatever comes upon the lifting connections. The trip is only operative when cylinder is off
impression. The use of trip when cylinder is on impression has no effect, the impression will be completed per-
fectly. There are no springs, toggles, rods or other complexities. The massive side frames are left uncored,
unbored and uncut, and take the place of the springs and rods usually employed in other presses. These other
machines have their cylinder boxes loose in the side frames, in which they slide up and down with the rising and
falling of the cylinder. On the contrary, as we have shown, the boxes of the Optimus are fixed as a part of the
side frames, and it is the only press whose side frames carry the brunt of impression. Through them only can the
greatest impressional rigidity be found, for they are the natural, most effective, most direct and simplest means
possible to use for holding the cylinder to its work. *f Excepting the Optimus there is no press that does not use
a spring to assist in lifting the cylinder, and for that reason safety pins and mechanical devices, not always effect-
ive, are used to prevent accidents should the trip be used at the wrong time.

ROLLERS AND DISTRIBUTION.

Entirely inside the frame and out of the way our patented device for driving the vibrators on form and table
rollers is the perfection of simplicity. There is nothing else like it. It is positive and noiseless, and the most
effective mechanism ever used for a like purpose. *? The ductor roller taking ink from the fountain roller deposits it
upon the first steel vibrator over the forward pair of table rollers. It is impossible for the ink to come in contact



Online Librarybros. & Spindler BarnhartBook of type specimens. Comprising a large variety of superior copper-mixed types, rules, borders, galleys, printing presses, electric-welded chases, paper and card cutters, wood goods, book binding machinery etc., together with valuable information to the craft. Specimen book no.9 → online text (page 17 of 71)