Bulstrode Whitelocke.

A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II online

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{Transcriber's note:

All material added by the transcriber is surrounded by braces {}. The
original has many inconsistent spellings in all the languages used. A
few corrections have been made for obvious typographical errors; they
have been noted individually. Superscripts in the original are
indicated by the ^ character. Side notes are enclosed in brackets and
preceded with SN, thus [SN: side note]. Footnotes are numbered with
the page on which they start.}

IN THE YEARS 1653 AND 1654.

IN THE YEARS 1653 AND 1654.





"A wicked messenger falleth into mischief, but a faithful ambassador
is health."
PROVERBS xiii. 17.



IN THE YEARS 1653 AND 1654.

MARCH 1, 1653.

[SN: Whitelocke continues the negotiation.]

Now was the heat of Whitelocke's business, and many cross endeavours used
to render all his labours fruitless, and to bring his treaty to no
effect. But it pleased God, in whom his confidence was placed, to carry
him through all his difficulties, and to give his blessing and success to
this negotiation.

Whitelocke gave a visit to the Count de Montecuculi, to give him the
welcome home from his journey with the Queen; who said he had commands to
kiss the hand of the Prince of Sweden, and took the opportunity of
accompanying her Majesty when she went to meet the Prince. He
communicated nothing of the business to Whitelocke, nor did he think to
inquire it of him.

After Whitelocke returned home, the Resident of France and Woolfeldt met
at his house to visit him, and staid with him three hours. They had much
discourse of France, and of the Duke of Lorraine, and of the policy of
the Spaniard in entertaining that Duke in his service; by means whereof
the country where the Duke's soldiers were quartered was better satisfied
than with the Spanish forces, so that there was no tax levied for them,
only they took free quarter, and sometimes a contribution upon the
receiving of a new officer. And Woolfeldt said, that whereas all other
Princes give wages to their officers and soldiers, the Duke gives no pay;
but when he makes an officer, the officer pays money to the Duke for his
commission; and that he knew a captain of horse who gave a thousand
crowns for his commission, which the captain afterwards raised upon the
country, and the Duke connived at it. He told how he was employed to
treat with the Duke for the transportation of five thousand foot and
three thousand horse into Ireland, to assist our King; which the Duke
undertook on condition to have a hundred thousand crowns in ready money,
and ships to transport his men from some haven in France, none of which
could be effected.

[SN: Advances from France.]

After Woolfeldt went away, the French Resident asked Whitelocke whether
France were comprised in the treaty with Holland. Whitelocke said he had
no information thereof. The Resident replied, that his master would
willingly entertain a good friendship and correspondence with England;
and Whitelocke said, he believed England would be ready to do the like
with France. The Resident said, he observed by their discourse that
Whitelocke had been in France, and that the late King would have given
him the command of a troop of horse in France; and he hoped that
Whitelocke would retain a good opinion of that country, and be their
friend. Whitelocke replied, that he was very civilly treated in France,
and believed that he should have served the late King there, if, by a
sudden accident or misfortune, he had not been prevented, and obliged to
return for England sooner than he intended; and that he should be always
ready (as he held himself engaged) to pay all respects and service to
that Crown, as far as might consist with the interest of the Commonwealth
whom he served.

_March 2, 1653._

[SN: Senator Schütt explains the delay in the negotiation.]

Notwithstanding his great words against the Commonwealth and present
treaty, yet Monsieur Schütt was pleased to afford a visit to Whitelocke,
and they fell (amongst many other things) upon the following discourse: -

_Schütt._ My father was formerly ambassador from this Crown in England,
where I was with him, which occasioned my desire to be known to you.

_Whitelocke._ Your father did honour to this country and to ours in that
employment, and your Excellence honours me in this visit.

_Sch._ England is the noblest country and people that ever I saw: a more
pleasant, fruitful, and healthful country, and a more gallant, stout, and
rich people, are not in the world.

_Wh._ I perceive you have taken a true measure, both of the country and
her inhabitants.

_Sch._ This is my judgement of it, as well as my affection to it.

_Wh._ Your country here is indeed more northerly, but your people,
especially the nobility, of a much-like honourable condition to ours;
which may cause the more wonder at her Majesty's intention of leaving
them, who are so affectionate to her.

_Sch._ Truly her Majesty's purpose of resignation is strange to
foreigners, and much more to us, who are her subjects, most affectionate
to her.

_Wh._ It is reported that she hath consulted in this business with the
Senators, whereof you are one.

_Sch._ Three Senators are deputed to confer with the Prince of Sweden,
upon certain particulars to be observed in the resignation; and I hope
that your Excellence will consider the importance of that affair, and
will therefore attend with the more patience the issue thereof, being
necessary that the advice of the Prince be had in it.

_Wh._ Have the three deputed Senators any order to confer with the Prince
about my business?

_Sch._ I believe they have.

_Wh._ I had been here two months before the Queen mentioned this design
of hers to the Council, and have staid here all this time with patience,
and shall so continue as my Lord Protector shall command me; and as soon
as he requires my return I shall obey him.

_Sch._ The occasion of the delay hitherto was the uncertainty of the
issue of your Dutch treaty; and at this season of the year it was
impossible for you to return, till the passage be open.

_Wh._ I believe the alliance with England meriteth an acceptance, whether
we have peace or war with Holland; and for my return, it is at the
pleasure of the Protector.

They had much other discourse; and probably Schütt was sent purposely to
excuse the delay of the treaty, for which he used many arguments not
necessary to be repeated; and he came also to test Whitelocke touching
advice to be had with the Prince about this treaty, whereunto Whitelocke
showed no averseness.

[SN: Treacherous reports to England.]

Whitelocke received his packet of two weeks from England. In a letter
from his wife he was advertised that the Protector had spoken of his
voyage to Sweden as if Whitelocke had not merited much by it, though he
so earnestly persuaded it; and his wife wrote that she believed one of
Whitelocke's family was false to him; and upon inquiry she suspected it
to be - - , who gave intelligence to the Protector of all Whitelocke's
words and actions in Sweden, to his prejudice, and very unbeseeming one
of his family. This Whitelocke, comparing with some passages told him by
his secretary of the same person, found there was cause enough to suspect
him; yet to have one such among a hundred he thought no strange thing,
nor for the Protector to alter his phrase when his turn was served. And
though this gave ground enough of discontent to Whitelocke, yet he
thought not fit to discover it, nor what other friends had written to
him, doubting whether he should be honourably dealt with at his return
home; but he was more troubled to hear of his wife's sickness, for whose
health and his family's he made his supplication to the great Physician;
and that he might be as well pleased with a private retirement, if God
saw it good for him, at his return home, as the Queen seemed to be with
her design of abdication from the heights and glories of a crown.

Part of the letters to Whitelocke were in cipher, being directions to
him touching the Sound. He had full intelligence of all passages of the
Dutch treaty, and a copy of the articles, from Thurloe; also the news of
Scotland, Ireland, France, and the letters from the Dutch Resident here
to his superiors in Holland, copies whereof Thurloe by money had
procured. He wrote also of the Protector's being feasted by the City, and
a full and large relation of all passages of moment. The Protector
himself wrote also his letters to Whitelocke under his own hand, which
were thus: -

[SN: Letter from the Protector.]

"_For the Lord Ambassador Whitelocke._

"My Lord,

"I have a good while since received your letters sent by the ship
that transported you to Gothenburg, and three other despatches
since. By that of the 30th of December, and that of the 4th instant,
I have received a particular account of what passed at your first
audience, and what other proceedings have been upon your
negotiation; which, so far as they have been communicated to me, I
do well approve of, as having been managed by you with care and

"You will understand by Mr. Secretary Thurloe in what condition the
treaty with the United Provinces is, in case it shall please God
that a peace be made with them, which a little time will show; yet I
see no reason to be diverted thereby from the former intentions of
entering into an alliance with Sweden, nor that there will be
anything in the league intended with the Low Countries repugnant
thereunto, especially in things wherein you are already instructed
fully. And for the matter of your third and fourth private
instructions, if the Queen hath any mind thereto, upon your
transmitting particulars hither such consideration will be had
thereof as the then constitution of affairs will lead unto. In the
meantime you may assure the Queen of the constancy and reality of my
intentions to settle a firm alliance with her. I commend you to the
goodness of God.

"Your loving friend,
"_Whitehall, 3rd February, 1653._"

_March 3, 1653._

[SN: The son of Oxenstiern formerly sent to England.]

Grave John Oxenstiern, eldest son of the Chancellor, came to visit
Whitelocke; a Ricks-Senator, and had been Ricks-Schatz-master, or High
Treasurer, a place next in honour to that of his father. He had been
formerly ambassador from this Crown to England; but because he was sent
by the Chancellor his father, and the other Directors of the affairs of
Sweden in the Queen's minority, which King Charles and his Council took
not to be from a sovereign prince; and because his business touching the
Prince Elect's settlement, and the affairs of Germany relating to Sweden,
did not please our King; therefore this gentleman was not treated here
with that respect and solemnity as he challenged to be due to him as an
ambassador; which bred a distaste in him and his father against the King
and Council here, as neglecting the father and the good offices which he
tendered to King Charles and this nation, by slighting the son and his

The discourse between this Grave and Whitelocke was not long, though upon
several matters; and he seemed to be sent to excuse the delay of the
treaty with Whitelocke, for which he mentioned former reasons, as his
father's want of health, multiplicity of business, the expected issue of
the Dutch treaty, and the like; and the same excuses were again repeated
by Lagerfeldt, who came to Whitelocke from the Chancellor for the same

Whitelocke had occasion to look into his new credentials and instructions
from the Protector, which were thus.

[SN: Whitelocke's new credentials and instructions.]

"_Oliver, Lord Protector, etc., to the Most Serene and Potent
Prince Christina, etc., health and prosperity._

"Most Serene and Potent Queen,

"God, who is the great Disposer of all things, having been pleased
in His unsearchable wisdom to make a change in the Government of
these nations since the time that the noble B. Whitelocke,
Constable, etc. went from hence, qualified and commissioned as
Ambassador Extraordinary from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of
England unto your Majesty, to communicate with you in things tending
to the mutual good and utility of both the nations, we have thought
it necessary upon this occasion to assure your Majesty that the
present change of affairs here hath made no alteration of the good
intentions on this side towards your Majesty and your dominions; but
that as we hold ourself obliged, in the exercise of that power which
God and the people have entrusted us with, to endeavour by all just
and honourable means to hold a good correspondence with our
neighbours, so more particularly with the Crown of Sweden, between
whom and these nations there hath always been a firm amity and
strict alliance; and therefore we have given instructions to the
said Lord Whitelocke, answerable to such good desires, earnestly
requesting your Majesty to give unto him favourable audience as
often as he shall desire it, and full belief in what he shall
propound on the behalf of these dominions. And so we heartily
commend your Majesty and your affairs to the Divine protection.
Given at Whitehall this 23rd of December, Old Style, 1653.

"Your good friend,

The following instructions were under the hand and private seal of the
Protector: -

_"An Instruction for B. Whitelocke, Constable, etc., Ambassador
Extraordinary from the Commonwealth of England to the Queen of

"Whereas you were lately sent in the quality of Ambassador
Extraordinary from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England
unto her Majesty the Queen of Sweden, for the renewing and
contracting an alliance and confederation with that Queen and Crown,
according to the commission and instructions you received from the
said Parliament and the then Council of State; And whereas, since
your departure hence, the then Parliament hath been dissolved, and
the Government is settled and established in such a way that you
will understand by letters from Mr. Thurloe, Secretary of the
Council, who is directed to give unto you a full account hereof: Now
lest the work you are upon (which is so necessary in itself to both
the nations, and so sincerely desired on our part) should be
interrupted or retarded by reason of the said change of affairs, and
the question that may arise thereupon concerning the validity of
your commission and instructions, I have thought fit, by advice of
the Council, to write unto her Majesty new letters credential, a
copy whereof you will receive herewith, which letters you are to
present to the Queen. And you are also, by virtue of these presents,
to let her Majesty know that the alteration of the Government here
hath made no change in the good intentions on this side towards her
Majesty and her dominions; but that she shall find the same
readiness in me to maintain and increase all good intelligence and
correspondence with that Queen and Crown as in any the former
governors of these nations. And to that end you are hereby
authorized to proceed in your present negotiation, and to endeavour
to bring the treaty with her Majesty to a good conclusion according
to the tenour and effect of the commission, powers, and instructions
you have already received, and which I shall by any further act
ratify and confirm according as the nature of the business shall

"Before your Lordship deliver these letters credential to the Queen,
or make any addresses to her, you are to inform yourself fully of
the reception you are like to have, and whether her intentions be to
come to a treaty of amity with this State as the Government is now
established, that no dishonour may befall us or these dominions in
your addresses upon these letters and instructions. Given at
Whitehall this 23rd of December, 1653.


Whitelocke made many despatches this day to England.

_March 4, 1653._

[SN: The Queen talks of visiting the Protector.]

Whitelocke waited on the Queen and showed her part of the letters which
he received from England, whereupon she again asked him if the Protector
were _sacré_? Whitelocke said, No, and that his letters mentioned only a
solemnity of entertaining the Protector by the City of London. Whitelocke
also communicated to her Majesty the Protector's letter to him, and the
expression that Whitelocke should assure her Majesty of the Protector's
constant and real intentions to settle a firm alliance with the Queen;
which, she said, she was also most ready to make with the Protector.

Whitelocke then said it might be fit to make some progress in his treaty
upon his articles, and particularly in those which concerned amity and
commerce, and had no dependence on the issue of the treaty with Holland,
and therefore might be had in consideration before the other were fully
concluded, and the rest of the articles might be considered afterwards;
which the Queen said should be done, and that she would send an
ambassador to the Protector. She was very inquisitive concerning London
and our Universities; by her discourse gave him to imagine she had
thoughts of travelling into France, Spain, Italy, and into England; and
asked Whitelocke if he thought the Protector would give way to her coming
thither. Whitelocke answered, that the Protector would bid her Majesty
very welcome thither.

He was alone with her near two hours, and at his taking leave she desired
him to come to her again on Monday next, and that then she would read
over with him his articles, both in Latin and English, which they would
consider together; and such things as she could consent unto she would
tell him, and what she could not consent unto he should then know from
her, and they might mark it in the margin as they went along. Yet she
said she would have him to proceed in his conference with her Chancellor
as before, and that nobody should know of that conference between her and
Whitelocke; but she would so order the business that what they consented
unto should be effected afterwards, and that in two hours they might go
over all the articles. Whitelocke told her Majesty he presumed that she
would admit of a free debate upon any of them. She said, by all means,
that was reasonable; and in case the peace between England and Holland
did not take effect, that then the ambassador, whom she intended
howsoever to send into England, might conclude upon such other articles
as should be thought fit. Whitelocke asked her if she had any thoughts of
being included in the Dutch treaty. She said, No, for she had not meddled
with the war, and therefore desired not to be included in the peace with

[SN: Reports of the Dutch Resident adverse to Whitelocke.]

From the Queen Whitelocke went and visited Piementelle, who showed him a
letter he received from a great person in Flanders, mentioning that
Beningen had written to his superiors that the English Ambassador and the
Spanish Resident were often together, and had showed great respect to
each other, which his Highness the Archduke liked very well, and gave
Piementelle thanks for it; and though Monsieur Beningen did not like of
their being so friendly, yet his superiors endeavoured all they could to
have amity with England. When Whitelocke told him of the English fleet at
sea, he said it was great pity the same was not employed. He then showed
Whitelocke a letter from Beningen to his superiors, wherein he taxed
Whitelocke with omitting the ceremony of meeting Prince Adolphus at his
door. Whitelocke repeated to Piementelle the carriage of that business as
before; and Piementelle said, that neither the Queen nor himself had ever
heard the Prince express any dislike of Whitelocke's carriage; and that
the Queen, seeing Beningen's letter, said there were many things in it
concerning Whitelocke which upon her knowledge were not true. It was also
said in the letter that the English Ambassador had many long audiences
with her Majesty, and conferences with the Chancellor, but that he could
not in the least learn what passed between them; with which Whitelocke
had no cause to be displeased.

_March 5, 1653._

_The Lord's Day._ - Whitelocke had two good sermons in his house, at which
divers English and Scots, besides those of his family, were present. In
the evening the Queen passed through the streets in her coach, with
divers other coaches and her servants waiting on her, to take the air,
though upon this day; and in the night, many disorderly drunkards were
committing debaucheries and insolences in the town, and at Whitelocke's

_March 6, 1653._

[SN: Further excuses for delay.]

Whitelocke visited Senator Schütt, who spake in excuse of the delay of
his business. Whitelocke said -

_Whitelocke._ I have already staid long in this place, and nothing is yet
done in my business.

_Schütt._ Your stay here hath been of more advantage to England than if
they had sent 10,000 men into Holland, who, by your stay here, will be
brought on with the greater desire of making peace with you.

_Wh._ They know nothing of my negotiation.

_Sch._ That makes them the more jealous; the slowness of one person is
the cause that hitherto you have received no satisfaction, and I doubt
not but ere long you will have answers to your contentment.

Whilst Whitelocke was with him the Queen sent one of her gentlemen
thither to him, to desire him to put off his visit of her Majesty till
the next day, by reason she had then extraordinary business; and the
messenger being gone, Schütt said, -

_Schütt._ The Queen is busy in despatching three senators to the Prince,
Grave Eric Oxenstiern, Monsieur Fleming, and Monsieur Vanderlin, who are
deputed for the business of the Queen's resignation; and I, in a few
days, shall be sent to the Prince.

_Whitelocke._ I pray do me the favour to present my service to his Royal
Highness, whom I am very desirous to salute as soon as I can gain an
opportunity; and do hope that his resort to this place will be before I
shall be necessitated to return, that I may give myself the honour to
kiss his hand.

[SN: Whitelocke visits the Chief Justice of Sweden.]

Whitelocke visited the Ricks-Droitset Grave Brahe, who is of the noble
family of Tycho Brahe. He was President of the College of Justice, and
the First Minister of State of the kingdom: the name of his office is as
much as Viceroy, and his jurisdiction is a sovereign court for the
administration of justice, and he hath power both civil and military. The
office is in effect the same with that ancient officer with us called the
Chief Justice of England. The habit of this Chief Justice of Sweden was a
coat, and a furred cap of black, a sword and belt, and no cloak; two
soldiers sentry at his chamber-door, which Whitelocke had not observed
elsewhere but at the Court. They had much discourse of Whitelocke's
business, wherein he testified affections to the Commonwealth of England,
though Whitelocke had been informed that he was not their friend; but he
the rather chose to visit him first, and found him very civil: he spake
Latin very readily, and no French, although Whitelocke was told he could
speak it well.

He inquired much of the Commonwealth and affairs of England, and
government of it, and seemed well pleased by Whitelocke's relation of it.
He informed Whitelocke of the Swedish Government, and particularly of

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