Edmund Burke.

The Annual register of world events : a review of the year online

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concentrated upon foreign affairs,
which proved to be the sphere in
which Lord Salisbury was to win his
greatest reputation. After the Bul-
garian atrocities in the early summer
of 1876 there ensued war between
Servia and Montenegro on the one
aide and Turkey on the other, which
was stopped by the imperative demcuid
of Russia at Constantinople in October.
Thereon at the instance of England,
which was deeply divided between
anxiety as to Russian aggression and
indignation at the horrors of Turkish
rule, a Conference was held at Con-
stantinople with a view if possible to a
general pacification. Lord Salisbury
represented England, and showed him-
self keenly anxious to secure a genuine
amelioration in the condition of the
Christian subjects of .the Porte. But
Turkey refused the recommendations
of the Conference, and it broke up.
England remained neutral through
the war which followed, until in Janu-
ary, 1878, in view of the Russian
advance through Roumelia, the British
fleet made the passage of the Dar-
danelles as a demonstration, which
proved successful, against a Russian
occupation of Constantinople. Lord
Carnarvon resigned at this stage, and
two months later, on the publication
of the Treaty of San Stef ano, the British
Cabinet decided on measures of military
preparation, including the despatch of
troops to Malta, for which the Foreign
Secretary, Lord Derby, refused to be
responsible. He resigned, and Lord
Salisbury took his place, issuing imme-
diately his celebrated circular to the
British representatives abroad. Its
effect was to claim on behalf not only
of England but of Europe a right to
a complete review in Congress of the
terms of the Treaty of San Stefano,
which, as Lord Salisbury elaborately
fihowed, constituted a complete trans-
formation of the conditions established
by the Treaty of Paris in 1856. The
ground taken by this great State-paper
was very generally approved both in
tthis country and on the Continent.

Russia, not being prepared for war
with England, agreed to the holding of



a Congress, which met at Berlin in
June, 1878, for the consideration of
the San Stefano Treahr without osten-
sible reservations. Her assent, how-
ever, was facilitated by the terms of
a secret agreement inconveniently
published in a newspaper on the eve
of the Congress, by which England
accepted the possible annexation of
Kars and Batum to Russia. The
terms in which, just before leaving
England for Berlin as Lord Beacons-
field's colleague in the representation
of England at the Congress, Lord
Salisbury had referred to current
rumours as to the Anglo - Russian
agreement left a somewhat unsatis-
factory impression, though it was
difficult to see exactly what else, under
the circumstances, he could have said.
He took an important part in the
deliberations of the Congress, and re-
ceived, with the Garter, a considerable
share of public recognition for the
establishment of ** peace with honour.'*
British amour-propre was on the whole
gratified by the agreement with Tor-
key, under which Cyprus came into
British occupation, while England
undertook to aid in resisting any
further Russian aggression on the
Asiatic dominions of Turkey, it being
stipulated that the administration of
those territories would be reformed.
The stipulation has never been fulfilled.
It was in October, 1879, that Lord
Salisbuiy, at Manchester, greeted as
** good tidings of great joy " the reports
— shortly to be confirmed— of a defen-
sive alliance between Germany and
Austria, holdinff, as he did, that "in
the strength and independence of Aus-
tria lie the best hopes of European
stability and peace.*' In 1880 the
Conservatives were driven from power,
and in 1881, on Lord Beacon&eld*s
death. Lord SaUsbury succeeded him
as Leader of the Opposition in the
House of Lords, and practically of the
Conservative party. He did not cany
opposition to any dangerous extremes,
but he succeeded in 1884 in obliging
the Gladstone Government to legislate
concurrently on the questions of oounty
franchise and redistribution of seats,
the scheme for the latter object being
settled bv oonferenoes between the
leaders of both parties. He was a
severe critic of the weak features of
the foreign and Irish policy of the
Liberal Administration. When it fell,
in June, 1885, on a chance fiscal
question. Lord Salisbury was sum-
moned bv the Queen to form a Govern-
ment. His policy was not quite what
might have been expected. In regard



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147



to the revolution at Phiiippopolis and
the declaration of the union of Eastern
Boomelia with the Principality of
Bulgaria, Lord Salisbury, who wflks
Foreign Secrete^ as well as Premier,
acting through Sir William White at
Constantinople, strongly opposed any
forcible Turkish action, such as was ad-
vised by Russia, for the undoing of this
partial reversal of a portion of the
Berlin Treaty arrangements for which
England had been specially responsible.
TThe result was that the uidon was
oltimatelvsanctioned and that England
won much Bulgarian gratitude at the
expense of Bussia. In regard to Ire-
land, there appeared an unexpected
softness about the policy of the Con-
servative Government. Lord Carnar-
von, their Viceroy, held conference
with Mr. Pamell ; Lord Randolph
Churchill elaborately washed his
hands of all responsibility for Lord
Spencer's resolute administration of
the criminal law ; and Lord Salisbury
liimself used language at Newport in
the autumn of 1885 of an ambiguity
which had the effect of making many
people doubtful as to the quality of
his resistance to Home Rule projects.
This mood, however, did not last long.
In November came the dissolution,
«nd in view of the large proportion of
Irish members returned, under the
new franchise, as Home Rulers, Mr.
Gladstone decided that that policy
must be adopted. It is understood
that he entered into communication
with Lord Salisbury as to the pos-
sibility of a concerted treatment of
the question by the two political par-
ties, but the Conservative Premier
entirely rejected his overtures.

In January, 1886, the Conservatives
were put in a minority on a division
on Mr. Jesse Collings* Small Holdings
motion; Lord Salisbury and his col-
leagues resigned, and Mr. Gladstone
returned to office, and after a few
weeks brought in his first Home Rule
BiU. It was thrown out on its second
Toading in the House of Commons by
a combination of Conservatives with a
section of Liberals led by Lord Har-
tin^n, and the general election
which followed gave the Unionists
a majority of 116. Lord Salisbury

fenerously offered to make way for
iord Hartington, but the Liberal
Unionists thought it desirable for the
present to stand out of office. Lord
-Ssilisbury therefore became Premier
again and formed his second Adminis-
tration of Conservatives only, but on
the resignation of the Chancellorship
•of the Exchequer within a few months



by Lord Randolph Churchill, who
desired to press certain economies in
the defensive services to which his
colleagues would not agree, Mr. Goschen
succeeded him. The Government was
a successful one. The firm adminis-
tration of the Premier's nephew, Mr.
Arthur Balfour, as Irish Secretary
broke down lawless combinations in
Ireland, and his initiation of a generous
and considerate treatment of the con-
gested districts of the West was a
departure of permanent value. The
Ministerial legislation of the period
1886-92, both Irish and English, as for
example the Local Government Act,
bore the impress of a loyal determina-
tion to co-operate on the part of both
sections of the Unionist party. Lord
Salisbury's influence as Premier was
undoubtedly very useful in promoting
this spirit of co-operation. His pre-
sence at the Foreign Office, which he
resumed on Lord Iddesleigh's resigna-
tion — almost immediately followed by
his death— at the end of 1886, was
recognised throughout Europe as mak-
ing for peace. British relations with
most of the Powers were friendly ; and
various causes of friction with Germany
were removed in 1890 by an agreement
settling the spheres of influence of the
two Powers in Estst and West Africa.
For the German recognition of a British
protectorate over Zanzibar, however,
special payment was made in Europe
by the cession of Heligoland. Lord
Salisbury had previously found it neces-
sary to use strong language at Lisbon,
and even to threaten the withdrawal
of the British Minister, in order to
secure the abandonment of large and
vague territorial claims by Portugal,
the recognition of which would have
cut off our South African from our
Central African possessions, and which
were not supported by any kind of
effective occupation.

In 1892 Mr. Gladstone came back to
office, but not to power, with the
narrow majority of 40 in the Com-
mons. The Duke of Devonshire (to
which title Lord Hartington had suc-
ceeded) actually moved, but Lord
Salisbury gave his strongest support
to. the rejection in the House of Iiords
of the second Home Rule Bill, which
was accordingly thrown out by the
great majority of 419 to 41. The period
of absence from office was marked by
Lord Salisbury's tour in Ulster (May,
1894), where he delivered impressive
addresses, and was received witn great
enthusiasm as the chief of the party
who had prevented the surrender of
the Loyalists and Protestants of the



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148



OBITUABY.



[All«-



Northern province to the NationalUte
and Roman Catholics of the Soath and
West. In September of the same
year, he deliverad at Oxford, as Presi-
dent of the British Association, a
striking address, illustrative of the
more conservative aspects of scientific
progress. In 1896, the Liberal party,
whose leadership Mr. Gladstone had
reeigned and which was in a dis-
oiganised condition, was driven from
office, the Unionists receiving a majority
of 152. Lord Salisbury was again called
in and this time formed a Ministry
containing leading Liberal Unionists
as well as Conservatives. His long
third Administration, through most
of which he was again Foreign Secre-
tary, was a period of immeasurably
greater anxiety and difficulty in the
foreign and Imperial sphere than the
second had been. His prestige prob-
ably enabled him to exercise much
ffreatei* forbearance than would have
been possible to a Minister of less
established reputation, in view of
President Cleveland's highly provoca-
tive intervention at the end of 1895
in the frontier dispute between this
country and Venezuela, as to which
arbitration was ultimately arranged
with results in the main justifying
the British case.

Lord Salisbury had set himself to
improve the relations between Great
Britain and the United States, and
undoubtedly succeeded in doin^ so,
first, by the general course of his
diplomacy, illustrated by the treaty
arranging for the settlement of the
Behring Sea fisheries question, and by
his negotiation of a treaty — which the
Senate failed to ratify — for the general
reference to a joint tribunal of matters
in issue between the two nations ; and
secondly, by the strong line which he
took in opposition to proposals from
European Powers for bringing con-
certed pressure to bear on tne States
before the outbreak of the Spanish
War. Another great object, definitely
secured under Lord Salisbury's third
Administration, was the recovery of
the Soudem from the barbarous tyranny
under which it had lain since the fall
of Khartoum and the murder of General
Gordon. The morrow of this achieve-
ment found us in the autumn of 1898,
through the occupation of Fashoda, on
the White Nile, by an expedition under
Captain Marchand, vnthin measurable
distance of vrsx with France. Acquies-
cence in that occupation would have
been impossible for any British Minister,
but the fact that the withdrawal of
Captain Marchand was obtained with-



out war, and without producing mote
than a temporary bitterness in Franoe
must stand to Lord Salisbuiy's oredH.

The conduct of events leading up to
the great South African War was not
in Lord Salisbury's hands, and it was
thought for a time that he was not
fully in sympathy with Mr. Chamber-
lain. Bnt both before and after the
outbreak of the war, and all throuf^
its long continuance, he associated
himself decisively and emphatically
with the general aims of the policy of
his Colonial Secretary, and he set his
face with absolute sternness against
the further maintenance of Boer in-
dependence in any foim.

The first two years of this Adminis-
tration were occupied in Europe by
great anxieties connected with the
Near East. Lord Salisbury would,
there is reason to believe, have wished
to intervene for the rescue of the
Armenians from the atrocious mis-
government of the Sultan, but that it
was made clear to him that a general
European war would ensue. Daring
the Greco-Turkish War he laboured
with success to prevent grave dissen-
sions from arisingamong the Powers,
and to him, as The Times biography
justly observed, *'must fall a large
share of the honour of the settiement
by which, in spite of the decisive
defeat of the Greek forces at the hsjids
of Turkey, the Sultan was compelled
to grant autonomy to Crete, under a
Greek Prince — a settlement which till
now has worked extremely well, se-
curing tranquillity in the island."
During the Boer War, the prevalence
of a large amount of hostility to Great
Britain on the Continent of Europe
was exhibited. There can be no doubt
that the firm tone repeatedly adopted
by Lord Salisbury in regard to the
inadmissibility of foreign intervention
did much to secure that the unfriendly
feeling just mentioned did not take
shape in an^ dangerous form. In re-
gard to China it must be admitted
that the general effect of the direction
of British policy was not to produce
the appearance of success, or of any
approach to the maintenance of the
position of predominance so long
enjoyed by this country in the Far
East. But it must be remembered that,
if Lord Salisbury's policy was not al-
together clear or firmly conducted, the
British nation itself was far from having
any definite view of the aims to be
pursued, and that during a large part
of the most critical period our power to
show a firm front in that region was to
a great extent paralysed by our South



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149



African struggle. One of the latest
important exeroises of Lord Salisbury's
responsibility as Premier was the
adoption, through Lord Lansdowne,
who in 1900 succeeded him as Foreign
Secretary, of the policy of the Japanese
alliance, directed towards the re-estab-
lishment of British prestige in the
Far East.

To Lord Lansdowne the Foreign
Office had been handed over on the
occasion of the partial reconstruction
of the Ministry which followed shortly
after the general election of 1900,
when the Unionists returned to power
with a mai ori ty of 184. Lord Salisbury
retained the Ftemiership into the new
reign, saw the Boer War out, and
would have continued at his post until
after the Coronation of King Edward
VII. ; but the postponement of that
solemnity on account of his Majesty's
illness made this impossible, in view of
the chief Minister's declining strength,
and the King, then convalescent, re-
ceived Lord Salisbury's resignation on
July 11, 1902. It was deeply felt by
his fellow-countrymen on nis retire-
ment that in his statesmanship and in
the respect in which he was universally
held abroad as well as at home the
Empire had possessed, during a most
critical period, a source of strength
with which it could ill afford to dis-
pense.

In his last illness Lord Salisbury was
surrounded by public sympathy. It
was well understood that then as



throughout his life he was fortified
by a strong faith in the Christian
religion. He was a deeply attached
member of the Church of England,
and when occasion arose one of its
most strenuous and powerful defenders.
He was a chemist of considerable at-
tainments, and found much refresh-
ment in laboratory work, and it has
been said that he valued perhaps as
much as any other distinction his
Fellowship of the Bo^^al Society. For
some time Lord Salisbury was Lord
Warden of the Cinque Ports. He is
understood to have declined the honour
of a dukedom, but at the time of his
final retirement from office he received
from the King the G.C.V.O. set in
brilliants.

In conclusion it must be said that the
elevation of Lord Salisbunr's character,
his vast knowledge of afnirs, his dig-
nity, and his mastery in speech and
writing of a clear, impressive, and
frequently pungent style, gave him a
constant hold on the interest and the
respect of his fellow-countiymen. His
home life was known to be happy and
admirable, and though he had lived
aloof from the public gaze he was
recognised as having niaintained, in
the highest degree, the traditions of a
great governing English family.

Lord Salisbury was succeeded by
his eldest son, James Edward Hu-
bert, Viscount Cranbome, at the time
M.P. for Rochester and Under-Secre-
tary of State for Foreign Afiairs.



On the 1st, at Clifton, Bristol, aged 88, Joseph Griflltli Swayne, M.D. (London),
a very distinguished physician. Bom at Bristol, the s. of John Champeny
Swayne ; educated at Bristol and at Guy's Hospital, London. M.B., London
University, 1842; M.D., 1846; Fellow of the Obstetric Society, London; Lec-
turer at Bristol Medical School for fifty years ; author of " Obstetric Aphorisms
for Students," which was translated into several languages. On the 2nd, in
Paris, aged 53, Professor Edmund Mooard, bacteriologist and early collaborator
with Pasteur ; author of several important discoveries in bacteriology. On the
8rd, in London, Colonel Sir Francis Aylmer OraTss Bawls, C.V.O., third Baronet.
Bom 1849, s. of Sir Charles Graves Sawle. Entered, 1868, the Coldstream Guards,
which he was coinmanding to within a few weeks of his death ; became Colonel
in the Army, 1889 ; took part in Nile Expedition, 1884-5, with the Guards' Camel
Regiment, and was in actions of Abu Klea and Abu Km, receiving medal with
two clasps and Khedive's star. M., 1891, Harriet, dau. of Thomas Vemon Went-
worth of Wentworth Castle, Yorkshire. On the 5th. at Camden Town, aged 39,
Phil May, a brilliant caricaturist and ** black and white " artist, s. of an engineer.
Bom at Leeds ; partially educated at St. George's School, Leeds ; came to I^ndon
at the age of eighteen ; went to Australia and found work on the Sydney Bulletin ;
about 1890 retumed to London and contributed sketches to Punch and other
papers; he excelled in depicting scenes in low life, and had a keen sense of
humour. On the 6th, in London, Mark WhitwUl, a prominent shipowner of
Bristol. Bom, 1826, at Scarborough. Was vndely known as a philanthropist ;
Founder of the Bristol Hospital for Sick Children and Women, of which he was
both President and Treasurer. On the 8th, at Bad Beichenhall, Bavaria, " ColonSl "
floMel, who took the German volunteers to the Transvaal at the beginning of
the Boer War. Bom, m 1858, at Frankfort. Lieutenant of Hussars in the
Prussian Army for a time ; went to South Africa, 1878 ; became Chief Induna of
Dinizulu, son of Cetewayo ; was appointed by the Transvaal Govemment to take



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150 OBITUAEY. [a«c.

charge of the State Prisons ; he designed the fort at Johannesbarg ; when in
command of the German volunteers was wounded and taken prisoner at EUands-
laagte, and remained a captive at St. Helena till the end of the war ; he after-
wards lectured in Germany on his South African exploits. On the 8th, at.
Folkestone, aged 76, Lieiitciia]it-a«Bflrml OharlM IrlslNUM Bwart, O.B. Entered
the Army, 1845 ; served in the Royal Engineers at Alma, Balaclava and Inker-
man, and the siege and capture of Sevastopol ; mentioned in despatches, and
made a Knight of the Legion of Honour ; received medal with four clasps^
Sardinian and Turkish medals, and Fifth Class of Medjidieh ; Lieutenant-
Colonel, 1866 ; Colonel, 1878 ; Deputy-Director of Works to the War Office^
1872-7 ; served in the Boer War, 1881, and in the Soudan Expedition, 1^5 ;
appointed Major-General, 1885 ; Lieutenant-General, 1888 ; Lieutenant-Governor
at Jersey, 1887; Colonel Commandant of Royal Engineers, 1902. M., 1860^
Edith, dau. of Rev. P. Ewart. On the 8th, at Antwerp, aged 55, Bob«rt Mola, &
well-known Belgian painter, who painted the ** Review at Spithead," for which
the trustees of the National Gallenr paid 40,000 francs. On the 9th, aged 80, at
Colinton, George Balfour, M.D., s. of Rev. Louis Balfour, D.D., of Colinton. For
several years one of the King*s Physicians-in-Ordinary for Scotland; a great
authority on diseases of the heart. On the 9th, at Bath, aged 78, llaJor-Ctanaral.
WUllam Thonuui Freke Farewell, s. of Captain N. Farewell of Holebrook, Somer-
set. Entered the Army (Madras Staff Corps), 1848 ; served with distinotion in
India through the Mutiny, receiving the Central India medal with clasp. M.^
1851, Augusta, dau. of Captain Fras. Senior, of East India Gompcuiy's service.
On the 10th, at New York, aged 71, WlUlam Bail Dodge, s. of Hon. William S.
Dodge. The son was President of the Panama Railroad Company and a well-
known philanthropist. On the 10th, at Sandown, Isle of Wight, aged 29, Cafrtaia.
Harold William BayenliiU, B.O.A., s. of W. W. Ravenhill of Surbiton. Entered
the Army, 1894 ; Captam, 1900 ; served in the Transvaal War, 1699-1900, being
mentioned in despatches and receiving medal with three clasps. On the 12th,
at Sidcup, aged 68, Surgeon Kajor-Oeneral Thomas Norton Hajritad. Served with
the 59th Regiment at the capture of Canton, 1857 ; in the Indian Mutiny vrith
the 54th in the advance into Oudh under Lord Clyde, 1858 ; Afghan War, 1878-9 ;
received medals and clasps in all campaigns. On the ISth, at St. Andrews, WIUlaBL
Bmonlt Playfair, M.D., a celebrated ph^ician-accoucheur, third s. of George Play-
fair, Chief Inspector-General of HospitaJs in Bengal. Bom, 1886. Graduated
M.D. at Edinburgh and entered the Bengal Medical Service, serving in Oudh at
the time of the Indian Mutiny ; Professor of Surgery in Calcutta, Professor of
Midwifery, King's College, London, 1863 ; Physician-Accoucheur to T.R.H. the
Duchesses of Edinburgh and Connaught and to the Queen of Roumania ; author
of many works on obstetrics. M., 1864, a dau. of James Kitson. On the 15th»
at Bangor, Very Bev. John Pryce, Dean of Bangor, bom 1828, second s. of Hugh
Pryce of Dolgelly. Educated at Dolgelly Grammar School and at Jesus College^
Oxford; Rector of Trefdraith, Anglesey, 1880-92; Canon, 1884; Archdeacon^
1887 ; Dean of Bangor, 1902 ; raised a large fund for the renovating of the
Cathedral ; author of a number of theological works in Welsh and English. M.»
1862, Emily, dau. of Canon Rowland Williams of Flintshire. On the 15th, at
Baveno, Italy, Bear-Admiral Axobibald George Bogle. Entered the Navy, 1847 ;
served in the Howe under Sir J. Stirling ; was engaged in suppressing the slave
trade in the Congo waters, 1850-1, and received official thanks for his rescue of
an American brig from pirates ; Sub-Lieutenant in the Amphion^ 1854, in the Gulf
of Riga, receiving Baltic medal, promotion and honourable mention ; in China at
storming of Canton, 1857, twice mentioned in despatches ; fought the piratea
in the Min River, 1859, as Lieutenant and Commander of the Hardy ; capture
of Ningpo, 1862, when his handling of his gunboat received special mention, and
he received the Chinese medal and official thanks ; served in the Duncan fla^hip^
1864 ; Senior Officer and Commander of the Cockatrice in the Danube and Black
Sea, 1866-7, for which services he received thanks of the Austrian Government.
On the 17th, at Berlin, Hans Oude, a noted landscape painter, bom, in 1825, at
Christiania, Sweden. Entered Diissi^ldorf Academy, 1842; became Professor
there ; went to Karlsruhe Academy, 1864, as Professor, and to Berlin Academy
of Arts, 1880 ; painted sidmirable views of the mountains and fjords of Norway^
and his works are in many galleries on the Continent. On the 17th, at Pieters-
buig, Transvaal, lieutenant-Colonel Hon. Henry Frederick White, D.8.O., bom
1859. Served in the Soudan Campaign, 1885 (medal with clasp) ; in the Boer
War, 1899-1902, in Grenadier Guards, being mentioned in despatches and receiv-
ing D.S.O. ; promoted to be Lieutenant-Colonel in the Reserve of Officers. On the



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Online LibraryEdmund BurkeThe Annual register of world events : a review of the year → online text (page 80 of 94)