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ETRUSCAN BOLOGNA.



SYNOPTICAL TABLE OF THE PALEO-ETH

BY CAVALIERE M .i

4. NEOLITHIC TOMBS OF CANTALUF
S1UEX IMPLEMENTS FROM THE TIBEfl BED.



NSTRUMENTS SCATTERED ABOUTTHE



-iX IMPLEMENTS NEAR CORN'




CEOLOC1CALSECTION



LOGICAL REMAINS OF CENTRAL ITALY.

Ross: 1866-7



TRACES OF THE 6ROMZ.E ACE AMONGST THE ROMANS
7. ARMS OF THE BRONZE ACE

VI

r.




VOLCANOI.SprLATIUM



ETRUSCAN BOLOGNA



A STUDY.



BY



RICHARD F. BURTON,

AUTHOR OF ' PILGRIMAGE TO EL MEDINAH AND MECCA,'
'CITY OF THE SAINTS AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS TO CALIFORNIA," ETC.



LONDON:

SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE.

1876.

\A II tights reserved.]



ttraam (fflnfr,

PALL MALL.

Nov. i, 1875.



DEAR LADY OTWAY,

Be pleased to consider this little volume
a sign tJtat the Wanderer in Bologna has not
forgotten your gracious and graceful hospitality,
and believe me

Ever yours sincerely,

RICHARD F. BURTON.

LADY OTWAY.



PREFACE.



I NEED hardly say that this little volume offers no
novelty beyond introducing to the English reader
the valuable results of Etruskische Forschungen in
modern Italy. It can hardly be termed uncalled
for. The discovery of the Bolognese Certosa which
took place some six years ago, requires, for study,
reference to a number of pamphlets and scattered
letters, which we must not expect to see in our
libraries. Other ' finds,' noticed in ' Etruscan
Bologna,' are even less accessible ; and even my
own list is not quite complete.

Like the Gipsy dialect, the Etruscan tongue has
fascinated a host of scholars. The latest result is
a belief that in it ' we have a waif of one of those
many extinct families of speech which have gone to



viii PREFACE.

build up the languages of the present world ' (Sayce).
For the moment we can only say that the problems
of its origin and its position have not been solved ;
that some Italic vocables have been detected, or
rather guessed, and that there are, perhaps, a few
' Turanian affinities,' possibly derived from Finnish,
and pointing, haply, to an age when the Aryan
limits were not definitively laid down. Some day,
as linguistic science is in despair, we may bring to
light a long bilingual inscription, that will prove a
veritable Rosetta Stone. Hitherto, the only keys
applied to the ethnology of the mysterious race,
which taught Rome her arts and arms, have been
' glottology ' and comparative philology, while not
a little violence has accompanied the application.
In this volume, however, we shall find Professor
Calori, to mention no others, searching the sepul-
chres, and supplementing linguistic by craniological
and other physiological studies.

Finally, ' Etruscan Bologna ' attempts for the
first time to describe the North-Eastern, which may
be the eldest, Etrurian Confederation, while the



PREFACE. ix

works of Dennis and other notable English autho-
rities treat mainly, if not only, of Middle Etruria,
almost corresponding with modern Tuscany.

I must again conclude with my old apology
for minor sins of omission and commission the
' single revise ' excuse.

RICHARD F. BURTON.
HAYDARABAD (DEKHAN) :
March 4, 1876.



CONTENTS.



PART I.



THE WORKS OF MAN.

SECTION PACE

I. NEW BOLOGNA ..... 3

II. OLD BOLOGNA . . . . 14

III. PUBLIC COLLECTIONS OF ETRUSCAN ANTIQUITIES AT

BOLOGNA. . . . . .21

IV. PRIVATE COLLECTIONS, ESPECIALLY THE VILLANOVA. 48



PART II.
THE ABODES OF MAN.

I. VARIOUS FINDS . . . . -79

II. FURTHER AFIELD, THE CERTOSA AND CASALECCHIO . 93

III. To MARZABOTTO, MISANELLO, AND MISANO . .107

IV. CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . 137



xii CONTENTS.

PART III.
THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

SECTION PAGE

I. THE ETRUSCAN MAN .... 149

II. THE ETRUSCAN MAN (continued] . . . 163

III. CRANIOLOGY . . . . . . 175

IV. PROFESSOR CALORI . . . . . 187

V. THE ETRUSCAN LANGUAGE . . . .212

i

VI. INSCRIPTIONS . . . . . 233

VII. MODERN BOLOGNESE TONGUE . . . 242

APPENDIX . . . . . . 263

INDEX . . . . . , . 271



SYNOPTICAL TABLE OF THE PALEO-ETHNOLOGICAL

REMAINS OF CENTRAL ITALY . . To face Title



Errata

Page 71, line 28, for M. F. Max Muller's theory, read M. F. Max

Miiller himself

,, 189, line 23, for Dion Halicarnassus, raw? Dion. Halicarnassius
,, 258, line 19, for So. n' andato, read El xe anda



Etruscan Bologna



CONTENTS.

PART III.
THE ETRUSCAN MAN.



SECTION



I. THE ETRUSCAN MAN .... 149

II. THE ETRUSCAN MAN (continued] . . . . 163

TTT.



ETRUSCAN BOLOGNA



PART I.
THE WORKS OF MAN



' Le moindre debris echappe des mines de Pantiquite nous en apprend
plus que tous les livres '

RAOUL ROCHETTE



SECTION I.

NEW BOLOGNA.

I PROPOSE to write a study of the old ' House of
Aucnus,' the venerable ex-capital of Northern
Etruria, promising never to borrow from the guide-
books, and premising that the sooner they borrow
from me the better for them. Not a line concerning
the ancient city of Felsina, lately brought to light,
appears in Murray (1869); and right few in Bae-
deker (1873). Travellers, therefore, daily pass
through without even hearing of our many admirable
collections of archaeology, and without seeing that
excavations are being pushed on with exemplary
vigour. The stranger-herd visits the Art-galleries,
asks after the Sta. Cecilia of Raffaele and the
S. Sebastian of Francesco Raibolini, ' detto il
Francia ; ' it stands wondering under the shadow
of La Garisenda, the most towering of the leaning
towers ; it admires the long miles of arcades and
straightway it is gone. Still ' Bononia docet,' and

B 2



4 THE WORKS OF MAN.

we students can now learn from her the tale of her
older world.

And first of the site. The rich plains of Lom-
bardy to the north-west, and the sub-Alpine mari-
time lowlands of Friuli and Venice to the north-east,
Circumpadane Etruria forming the thigh-piece of
the Italian boot, here abut southwards upon the
Apennines, the mighty suture which, immediately
north of Genoa, sweeping from west to east, gradu-
ally assumes a south-eastern trend. Were I speak-
ing geographically I should say that they begin
in southernmost Italy, bend round the north-west
limit, form the Alps, bifurcate at the great European
nucleus of Switzerland, where they send off a
branch to form the Rheingau ; and, after becoming
the Dinarians, they terminate in Greece, the whole
being shaped like an elongated arch or a tuning-
fork. The great steppe of Upper Italy is mostly
composed of riverine valleys, feeding the Adriatic
Gulf ; the main trunks, commencing with the eastern-
most, where Italy geographically begins, being the
Isonzo, Tagliamento, Livenza and Piave, the Bacchi-
glione and Brenta of Padua, the Adige or Etsch,
the network of the Po Proper, and the Po di Pri-
maro alias the Reno. Many of these historical



XEW BOLOGNA. 5

streams run, it is well known, upon planes several
feet higher than the adjacent lands ; and the only
tunnel between the Duchy of Gorizia (Go'rz) and
Bologna is that pierced through a vein of the
extinct Euganean volcanoes (Colli Euganei} by the
ex-Duke of Modena : like many an English gentle-
man of the old school, he would not allow his senses
and his feelings to be wounded by the ' destruction
of all feudalism.'

Near the south-western extremity of this noble
prairie lies BOLOGNA, with her head resting upon
the gentle slopes which represent the foot-hills of the
Apennines, and with her feet extended towards the
broad, fat Reno Valley. Her site is in the heart of
the temperates ; and, though she complains of wintry
cold and summery heat, she is amply blessed by
' Nature and Nurture.' There is nothing bad in
Bologna but the water, which, hardened by the
dissolution of calcareous rocks, chaps the skin and
offends the internals. Presently, however, the old
Roman aqueduct will flow once more, and the one
real nuisance will be effectually abated. 1 Nothing
will then remain but to cheapen and to improve the

1 See Analisi di alcune acque potabili della Cittd. di Bologna, by
Cav. Domenico Santagata, 1872.



6 THE WORKS OF MAN.

post-office a civilized instrument which sadly wants
refurbishing throughout Italy.

The characteristics of Bologna are the Arcade
and the Leaning Tower. The former is of every age
and shape ; we even find the rude wooden archi-
traves and the post props a palpable survival of
the Etruscan temple which we shall visit at Marza-
botto. The finished arch resting upon the classical
column also dates from the days when it was appa-
rently first employed, namely, in the Diocletianian
Palace at Spalato. The result is that of an English
Chester and a Switzer Bern, made artistic and
beautiful, combined with the timber appurtenances
of Tours the most mediaeval amid civilised French
cities. Of the hundred towers lately described by
the learned and laborious Senator Count Giovanni
Gozzadini, 1 many if not most of them are distinctly
out of the perpendicular. This is not the case in the
adjoining cities ; and I would explain the fact by the
ground having been so much worked by successive
races and generations of men. All are mere defor-
mities, rickety minarets, which, as the courses of

1 Delle Torri gentilizie di Bologna e delle famiglie alle quali
prima appartennerono : Studii, Bologna, 1874, with plates. The
large 8vo. is considered the most interesting of Count Gozzadini's
twenty-four publications.



NEW BOLOGNA. 7

masonry show, were begotten to be vertical. The
numerous palaces of brick, without and with stone
dressings, show that the master-hand of Palladio,
who adorned Vicenza with the meanest of material,
has passed here as at Milan ; and suggests that
New London need not go to Scotland for her
granite a material to be used sparingly, as it ' kills '
all its neighbours. The ' Palazzo ' of the humblest
noble is vast enough to contain two of the largest
boxes that poor Belgravia can boast ; and the in-
clined planes of staircase, evidently made for the
comfort and convenience of the grandee's destrier,
contrast wonderfully with the companion-ladder of
masonry which, rodded and carpetted. suffices
between Teuton-land and Scandinavia for the
millionaire of the North.

These are features of a bygone day, yet
Bologna is not without her ' modern improvements.'
The Via Miola, lately repaired, is one of the
handsomest and the most striking in the whole
peninsula. The ' Seliciata ' (slab-pavement) is gradu-
ally extending, and, where the handsome equipages
pass, flag-bands have been let into the torturing
cobble-stones. The thoroughfares have changed
their saintly names for those of modern patriots ;
and the Strada di S. Felice can hardly complain that



8 THE WORKS OF MAN.

it has become ' Ugo Bassi.' Clubs abound ; besides
the Societa Felsinea and the Domino Club, the latter
on the small scale and the exclusive system which
makes the reputation of the Marlborough, there is
also, under the presidency of Count F. Carega di
Muricci, the Club Alpino dell' Emilia (or della
Romagna), a section of the Italiano whose head-
quarters are at Turin. 1 There are two chief news-
papers, the Monitore and the Patria, and a handy
Italian guide-book. 2 The shops are tolerable, and
the hotels are new, and upon a large scale. The
trotting horse has been naturalised ; the public com-
missionnaire is firmly established ; and the policeman,
has, like his brother of Milan, confessedly borrowed
a uniform from the London ' Peeler.' Still, the heart
of the city, the great square, is essentially media
evo, as when she adopted her famous watchword
' Libertas. ' Huge umbrellas, like those manufac-
tured in England for the Court of murderous
Dahome, shelter the buxom market-women, the
lineal descendants of the Umbrians and the Etrus-



1 An energetic member, Signer F. Paventi,was kind enough to give
me its first publication.

- Guida di Bologna e suoi dintorni del Cav. Michelangelo Gua-
landi. Quarta Edizione, interamente rifusa dall' Autore. Bologna :
Nicola Zanichelli, 1875.



NEW BOLOGNA. 9

cans ; and King Hensius, after a lapse of five
centuries, would find little difficulty in recognising
the view from his prison windows. The statue of
Neptune (so out of place in an inland city) stands
as it stood in A.D. 1564. I would leave it there,
although statues in the open air appear some-
what like a tree in a drawing-room ; but I would
entirely abolish the boys who are dangling dolphins
by the tail, and the handsome feminine monsters who
are practising a very peculiar operation. If you
wish to see the Contadini, go on Saturday morning to
the section of the main street laid off by hand-rails ;
it is a fine, tall, and sturdy race, which still affects
the pastrano, or brigand cloak of murret-coloured
wool or of mezza-lana (half-cotton), and the furs
which some day will be more generally adopted in
England.

The result of this intimate blending of the
mediaeval with the modern soon makes itself felt.
There is a something in the presence of Bologna
that softens the soul ; a venerable aspect appeal-
ing to sentiments which men do not wear upon
the sleeve ; a solemnity of vast half-ruined hall,
and of immense deserted arcade ; a pathetic vista of
unfinished church and closed palace, relics of the



io THE WORKS OF MAN.

poetical Past which have projected themselves into
the prosaic Present. You learn with pleasure that
you can lose your way in the long, labyrinthine
streets and alleys, wynds and closes such contrasts
with the painful rectangular regularity of Mann-
heim, New York, and Buenos Ayres. The artistic
Greeks laid out straight lines of intersecting tho-
roughfare ; but they had aesthetic reasons for the
plan which led to the central temple; and they
applied it to their miniature official towns, where
the square and ritualistic form, oriented to the four
cardinal points, must have compared pleasantly
with the large irregular suburbs beyond the walls.
We moderns have adopted it and, adapting it to
a huge scale, we have produced not a copy but a
caricature. Briefly to describe the effect of the
aristocratic old city, the ' moral capital of the
Emilia,' you have only to remember that of Man-
chester or of Birmingham, and to conjure up into
imagination the clear contrary. The 'centre of
trade' may have a poetry of its own, but it is
certainly not ' sensuous ' as Milton advises ; and
here we have a mediaeval castle dwarfing the mass
of bran-new semi-detached villas.

The citizens and peasantry of Bologna are one



NEW BOLOGNA. 11

of the finest of Italian races, distinguished not only
for physique, but by good fighting qualities, by a
peculiar vivacity of mind (sveltezza d 1 ingenio) and
by a fund of broad humour which is made broader
by the ' burr ' of their peculiar dialect Yet within
the walls all speak Italian, and the same is the case
with the ' contadini,' especially near the Tuscan
frontier.

After what we have heard about Papal misrule
and want of progress, we might expect at Bologna,
which is essentially Roman, a portentous display of
ignorance, superstition, and violence. It is only fair
to own that the reverse is notably the fact, and
that Bologna still justifies her motto ' Libertas.' I
can hardly wonder that there are educated men
who regret the change to ' Eleutheromania ' and
' Italiomania.'

The section called ' Society ' is exceptional as
the aspect of their home. The effects of the media
are that universal civility and ' exquisite amenity '
which have not been unnoticed by northern travel-
lers. It is, in fact, 'a rare land of courtesy,' an
uncorrupted Tuscany. Many families date from
the Middle Ages, when the city was ruled by a
Governor and forty Senators, Aristos who utterly



12 THE WORKS OF MAN.

scouted the idea of a ' Lower house/ and aristocracy
is a rule of honour. Throughout Italy the richard
is for the most part a thrifty, if not a penurious,
personage, who lives hard the wrong way, and who
often, like the famous bishop,

Will die from want of what he has.

At Bologna parsimony is the exception. The
wealthy nobles keep large establishments ; their
equipages and liveries would ornament a capital ;
and they do not dine in secret a rare circum-
stance in the ' bel paese.' For their hospitality the
Anthropological Congress of 1871 can answer ; all
who had any claim upon their attention were
received with open arms. This is probably due
to the fact that Bologna has hitherto escaped the
peine forte et dure of the foreign colony ; only two
English families, two French, and a few of Spanish
blood appear amongst the sixty or seventy that
represent the Upper Ten, and all of them are ac-
quisitions. The same cannot be said of Rome,
Florence, and Naples, where, naturally enough, the
stranger is excluded till he has passed a long and
a somewhat rigid probation. The university at the
' Mater Studiorum,' so famed for Professors of both
sexes, still enjoys a green old age ; and this society



NEW BOLOGNA. 13

does not characterise anything beyond and above
chaff and chit-chat as una seccatura a ' devilish
good word/ said Byron, but the most terrible in the
neo- Latin vocabulary. They remember

The all Etruscan three
Dante and Petrarch, and scarce less they
The Bard of Prose, creative spirit ! he
Of the Hundred Tales of Love ;

and they do not forget that ' honneur oblige? Hence

*

we explain the saying that you are sure of returning
to Bologna; and thus we account for the feeling
that removal to the nearest thriving port, out of
Italy, is a real lapse from grace. These venerable
civilisations have their peculiar cachet ; an aroma
like that of wine stored long in the cellar the
flavour is independent of instruction or education,
in the limited sense of the words, and, like constitu-
tionalism, it must be a growth, not a graft. Briefly,
even the English bourgeois begins to realise at
Bologna the full sense and significance of ' Northern
Barbarian ; ' and, perhaps, he remembers a fine
specimen of the British Philistine, Dr. Johnson.



14 THE WORKS OF MAN.



SECTION II.

OLD BOLOGNA.

BUT Bologna must not seduce us with her modern
attractions ; we have no time to dwell on the me-
mories of Michelangelo and Francia, the Caraccis
and Domenichino, Galvani, Mezzofanti, and Achille
Marozzo, the creator of our modern Art of Arms.
We come here to inspect the vestiges of a day long
gone by, to seek with Thucydides, the history of
the people in its sepulchres, to detect under the
earth which covers the Etruscan tombs the secrets
of their civilisation. The researches which began
systematically in 1856 have made study an easy
matter. Things have greatly changed since Des-
Vergers could write of Pelasgian Spina, Atria, and
other Circumpadane cities : ' Elles ont laisse bien
peu de traces dans le souvenir des hommes, et les
traces sont si legeres qu'elles n'ont plus ni forme
ni couleur.' Between 1825-7 Zecchi was able
to issue his four 8vos., describing the sepulchral



OLD BOLOGNA. 15

monuments of the cemetery of Bologna, and illus-
trating them with 152 plates. It is generally
believed that the first Etruscan Federation of
Twelve Cities was founded, west of the Apennines,
on the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea ; and the date
is laid about the fourteenth century B.C. The chief
witness is the Karnak inscription of the ' Pharaoh '
Merien Phtah (Menephtah I.), son and successor
of Ramses the Great (II. of nineteenth dynasty),
which mentions, amongst the invaders of the Egyp-
tian Delta from the ' regions of the sea, the isles
of the sea/ Sicily and Sardinia, the Lycians, and,
to quote no other names, the ' Turis'a/ or ' Tur-
scha' (Tursci, Turski, or Tusci), 1 the Greek
Thyrsenoi, who occupied Tyrrhenia. After over-
populating the land, they crossed the backbone of

1 The Eugubine Tables (commented upon by Lepsius), of which five
are in Etruscan and two in Latin characters, give, as variants of Tuscus,
Tursce, Turscer, Tuscum, and, in the fourth line, Turskum. The
Vicomte de Rougd (Revue Archceo., Nouvelle Se'rie, 8th year, August
1867) translates ' Turis'a (Tyrrhenus) cceperat caput belli totius, bellator
omnis regionis ejus adduxerat uxorem (et) liberos suos,' and he remarks
that, had the Etruscans not failed, ' une colonie Tyrrhe"nienne cut de-
vance" Alexandre de plus de dix siecles.' Chabas (Etudes sur FAntiq.,
&<:., 1872), in a new version of this important inscription, makes the
leader not the ' Tursha ' (Etruscans), but Marmaion, King of the
Lybians, and son of Teit or Deid, who, after the battle on the left of
the Nile, escaped to the north, leaving in the hands of the enemy 890
Etruscan hands and 6,369 Lybian trophies. The word ' Raseni' occurs
for the first time in Dion. Hal., and thus it is comparatively modern.



1 6 THE WORKS OF MAN.

the country, and conquered the Aryan Umbrians,
whose mariere and terramare (pile-villages and
kitchen-middens) not to be confounded with the
subsequent Etruscan still remain. These races
were familiar with metal-working, and they had
succeeded the ' great ocean of Turanians ' which
that highly-distinguished Mongol scholar, Prof.
Paul Hunfalvy, would call ' An-Aryans;' and again
these, perhaps, the men of the latest Tertiary or
of the earliest Quaternary epoch. In the Circum-
padane regions the Etruscan immigrants dated, by
the general voice of history, about the twelfth cen-
tury B.C. built their cities and cemeteries, Felsina
being the chief centre, and annexed Atria and
Spina, the maritime depots. This theory as-
sumes that the Etruscans all travelled by water and
not by land which, to say the least, is not proven.
In the inverse case they would first occupy the
eastern and afterwards the western slopes of the
Apennines ; and thence, emboldened by strength
and security, they would overspread the surround-
ing lowlands, and become pedionomites. But
there is nothing to disprove the habit of voyaging
and of travelling at the same or at different times ;
thus, indeed, I would explain the modern theory



OLD BOLOGNA. 17

of a dozen writers, which derives the Rasenna
from the Rhaetian Alps, and the existence of the
Euganeans, a kindred tribe in the vicinity of Padua.
And, in the peculiar fanaticism of the modern
Tyrolese, I find direct survival from the ' gens ante
omnes alias dedita religionibus.'

The tower-tombs of Palmyra and the rock-tombs
of Asia Minor and Syria Proper, where the dead
lay buried along the main lines of suburban road,
were reproduced by the Etruscans in their new
Italian homes. This aesthetic and artistic system
of sepulture, which made the monuments true
' monimenta,' an immense advance upon the days
when the corpse was interred, as by modern Africans,
in the house ; by Moslems near it, and by Christians
in the church was borrowed, with a host of cere-
monies and superstitions, by the Romans, as the
well-known instance of the Via Appia proves :
and yet the old habit survived in the burial of babes
that had not cut their teeth under the roof-eaves
(su&grundarium), like swallows' nests. These groups
of sepulchres, which will presently be described,
enable a ' hypothetical planimetry ' to lay down, with
a tolerably sure hand, the lines and limits of Etruscan

c



1 8 THE WORKS OF MAN.

Felsina, 1 the colony of Tarchon, the capital of
the twelve Federated Cities in the so-called Etruria
Nova. Evidently built upon an Umbrian site, and
smaller than its Roman successor, it did not ex-
tend, as some archaeologists have supposed, to the
southern hills. The position was the normal isth-
mus, ' mull,' or peninsula ; whose base is the Reno
River, a non ignobile flumen, rising in the nearest

1 The only names which have survived this Federation are Atria
(Pelasgic), Spina (Pelasgic), Mantua, Melpum (captured by the Boii),
Felsina or Velsina, and, perhaps, we may now add, Misa.

Cav. Zannoni, of whom more presently, quotes Manetho : ' Apud
enim Tuscos, Pyseo successit Tuscus junior annis xxxix. : huic Aucnus
annis xxv., quern secutus est Felsinus annis xxxiii.' Sil. Ital. (De Bell.
Pun. lib. viii. 601): ' Ocniprisca domus.' Servius ad ^En. (x. 198) adds :
' Hunc Ocnum alii Auletis filium, alii fratrem, qui Perusiam condidit
referunt : et ne cum fratre contenderet in agro Gallico, Felsinam, quaa
nunc Bononia dicitur, condidisse.' Pliny (iii. 19) says: ' Bononia Felsina
vocitata.' Sempronius (De Div. et Chorogr. Italice) : ' Flaminea (regio)
item a Bononia ad Rubiconem amnem ante a Felsina a principe He-
trurias missis coloniis Lamonibus.' M. Cato (De Originibus) : ' Gallia
Cispadana, olim Bianora a victore Ocno, postea Felsina dicta usque


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