Richard Francis Burton.

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the Etruscans and Romans. The profile (facial
angle 76*25) shows an arch more or less pro-
nounced; some are flat, 1 and one has the cacumen
rising to the phrenologist's region of firmness, often
noticed in Piedmontese skulls. Forehead not high ;
occiput projecting, and tubercle well developed ;
glabella larger than in Etruscan ; temporal fossae
rather deep, and zygomata turned out ; auditory meatus
central ; orbits straight, round, or oval, and nose
Etruscan. The teeth are fine, somewhat large, and
all more or less worn. The occipital foramen is
central or posterior. Thus the Felsinean dolicho-
cephalics of the Certosa show a considerable Italic
and Etruscan innervation.

(b] The six brachycephalic Felsineans (Nos. 22-28,
plates xv.-xvii.) are mostly of fine proportions. The

1 The traveller, however innocent of craniology, cannot fail to re-
mark that races in the lower, if not the lowest, stages of society for
instance, the so-called Red Man of North America have the upper
part of the skull most level ; it is also a marked feature in the pure
negro of Central Intertropical Africa. The cacumen at the apex of
the cranium is highly developed in the Bedawin, a race of no ' educa-
tion ' but of much culture.


average c.i. is 83*21 ; the mean cran. cap. 1,487 c.c.
( = 90749 c.i.). The post-auricular prevails as 8470
per cent., the occiput showing a pronounced tuber-
cle. The ovoid is more or less short and broad,
in one case almost an ellipsis. The forehead
(fac. ang. 75*5o), straight or oblique, is moderately
high ; the meatus auditorius is central ; the orbits
are rather horizontal and circular ; the nose is
gently curved, and the mandible is robust, with fine
large and vertical teeth. The facial region is
elongated. The occipital foramen is less central
than in the dolichocephalics.

Thus the Felsineans are the least dolichocephalic
of the three races, the c.i. averaging 79*35 ; the
Umbrians 78*2 1, and the Etruscans 76*22 : whilst
the maximum is 86*36, and the minimum is 75*00
an extreme difference of only 11*36. In cran. cap.,
i, 464 c.c. ( 89*345 c.i.) they stand between the
Umbrians (1,386 c.c. =84*385 c.i.) and the Etrus-
cans (1,481 c.c. =90*383 c.i.) Assuming 100 as the
post-auricular unity in both directions, the relative
pre-auricular proportions are expressed by the follow-
ing numbers :


Felsinean Skulls. Etruscan. TJmbrian.

90-68 95- 1 7 9071

84-89 89-26 85-18


Thus the post-auricular, which invariably pre-
ponderates, is less in the Etruscans, whilst the
Felsineans and Umbrians, although the circum-
ference differs in both, show nearly equal propor-
tions. The Felsineans, compared with a hundred
modern Bolognese skulls, are in some points
remarkably similar ; the difference of the cran. cap.
(Fel. 1,464, and Bol. 1,475) i s only n cub. cent.
The Bolognese is shorter and broader, his post-
auricular being 264, to 262 millimetres (10*3937 to
10*3149 inches) of pre-auricular, figures which in the
Felsineans are 279 and 253 (=10*9842 to 9*9606).
The general conclusions which Prof. Calori draws
from his minute craniological observations, of which
this is the merest sketch, are the following :

1. The old necropolis 'alia Certosa' is that
of the * Lucumonian City,' Etruscan Felsina. It
probably continued to be the Felsineo-Etruscan
cemetery after the Boian invasion, and, as the uncial
as seems to prove, it served till the end of the sixth
century of Rome. There is no proof of any Boian
element having entered it.

2. Felsina was first an Umbrian and afterwards
an Etruscan city ; its population was composed of
Umbrians, or rather Italic peoples, of Etruscans,
and of other races in minor proportions.


3. The Italic tree, of whom the Umbrians were
an important off-shoot, is a branch of the Italo-
Grecian stem in one word, Aryan.

4. On the other hand, we cannot with equal
certainty define, either by history, by monumental
remains, or by anthropological science, the origin of
the Etruscans, or determine whether they were
Aryans or Semites, or a mixture of both, or Aryans
and ' Hamites ' or ' Hamitico-Semites.' Fourteen
centuries before our era we find them, leagued with
the Lycians and other Mediterraneans, battling with
the Pharaoh on the left bank of the Nile ; and we see
them in remote ages the most civilised and power-
ful of the Etruscan peoples. Beyond that, our view
is limited by the glooms of the past.

5. The Umbrian and Etruscan skulls show an
intermediate or transitional rather than a pure
dolichocephalism, and the long is more common
than the short head ; whilst brachycephalism is more
frequent amongst the Umbrians than amongst the

6. In the Umbrian and the Etruscan dolicho-
cephalic skulls the latter are distinguished by a
superior cranial capacity, by a somewhat longer
form, by less disproportion between the pre-auricular



and the post-auricular halves, by increased length of
face, by more frequent prognathism, and, finally, by
greater disproportion between the transverse dia-
meter of the lower frontal and the inter-zygomatic
lines peculiarities which make the true Etruscan
skull a well-marked type.

7. In the Umbrian and Etruscan brachycephalic
skulls there are also distinctions : the former espe-
cially cannot be confounded with the Ligurian ;
they appear to belong to another root (stirpe] ;
perhaps to the Illyrian, the Albanese, or the Epi-

8. In the Certosa skulls we also find more
frequent brachycephalism, nearly in the same ratio
observed amongst the Umbrians, and an inter-
mediate dolichocephalism neither decidedly Um-


brian nor decidedly Etruscan, but, as in the case
of mixed races generally, sharing the peculiarities
of both peoples.

9. The brachycephalic Felsineans may have
been mixed with the Ligurians, but the proportions
in that case were small ; the greater number points,
like the Umbrians, to another root, or, perhaps, to
several different roots.

10. We have no data to determine whether the


Boians, Lingonians, and Keltic Gauls were dolicho-
cephalic or brachycephalic ; and, supposing that they
modified the Felsineans, we can hardly conjecture
what that modification may have been.

n. Finally, the modern Bolognese skullsf are
more frequently brachycephalic, and show a much
greater pre-auricular development than the old





PROFESSOR CALORI showed scant sympathy with
the Turanian or Mongolian theory, which has been
patronised by Pruner Bey and G. Lagneau, and
which was not wholly rejected by the learned
Nicolucci. In England the Altaic, or as the
author calls it, Ugric tribe of Turanian has lately
been advocated in England, on linguistic and
mythological grounds, by one of those marvellous
popular-scientific books, like ' The One Primaeval
Language,' and ' India in Greece,' by which the
abuse of ' private judgment,' and, perhaps, a ' com-
pound ignorance ' of the subject, periodically causes
the reading world of Europe to laugh, and the
British Orientalist to blush.

' Etruscan Researches/ by the Rev, Isaac
Taylor (London, Macmillan & Co., 1874), sets out
with a thoroughly erroneous and obsolete assertion
which succeeds in vitiating almost every research.


We are told at the first opportunity (p. 2) that ' the
ultimate and surest test of race is language.' As
the multitude of general readers still allows itself
to be misled upon this point, whose proper deter-
mination is essential to all correct anthropology,
I will consider it in a few words.

Long ago my friend Prof. Carl Vogt asserted and
proved that ' un peuple peut toujours avoir adopte
une langue qui n'^tait pas la sienne.' We have
familiar instances of the Longobardi in Italy, the
Franks in France, and the Visigoths in Spain,
changing their own tongues for various forms of
neo-Latin. The Aryan-speaking Baloch merge their
rugged variant of Persian into the Arabic of Maskat,
and into the African Kisawahili or lingua-franco,
of Zanzibar. Well worth repeating are the words
of Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte (' Anthrop. Inst.'
Feb. 9, 1875): ' It is a bold theory to advance
that language is a test of race, and a no less bold
opinion that language should be rejected as an
evidence in the question.' Finally (p. 356), we
have the obsolete ' Grimm's Law ' about the '. drei
Kennzeichen der Urverwandtschaft ; ' the three
signs of primordial affinity of languages, being the
numerals, the personal pronouns, and certain forms


of the substantive verb. The importance of nume-
rals is especially laid down ^p. 158), when all know
that they are exceedingly liable to phonetic decay,
especially those most used ; for instance, eka (San-
skrit), ii$, unus, and jedian (Slovene). Mr. Robert
Ellis has fallen into the same trap when advocating
primaeval unity.

Bearing in mind Prince Bonaparte's sensible
limitation we proceed to the process by which the
Etruscan Researcher, who speaks (p. 182) of 'the
discovery of Sanskrit,' has invented for the Etrus-
cans a dialect of his own. Before him others have
adopted the facile plan of compulsing a host of
dictionaries, vocabularies, and strings of words,
Hebrew, Chaldaic, Arabic, and Syriac, Himyaritic,
Ethiopic, and Coptic, and of compelling one of them
to afford the explanation required. This is a pro-
cess which, by-the-by, I am sorry, in the interests
of ' glottology,' to see spreading : without exact
historic knowledge and extensive linguistic practice
it can only do harm. Similarly our author, by
turning over the eleven volumes of ' Nordische
Reisen,' etc., and Alexander Castren (Finn, Myth,
etc.), and by borrowing from the dialects of some
48 detached Turanian tribes, ranging between the


Ainos and the Magyars, the Finns and the Seljuks
(Osmanlis), has created a conglomerate never
yet spoken, nor ever possible to be spoken, by
mortal man. He rarely attempts an explanation
of the phonetic laws which govern his cognate
languages ; he relies, not upon grammar and for-
mative system, but on detached words ; and he
treats the digraphic and other inscriptions, not as
a decipherer or an archaeologist, but as a 'com-
parative philologist.' And will it be believed?
this pseudo-speech is made, with dogmatic
self-confidence, to explain the origin of, not
only Lycians, Carians and Phyrygians, Cilicians
and Pisidians, Ligures and Leleges, but of the
debated Euskaric and even the ancient Egyptian
(Coptic, p. 39), whilst in p. 68 we are told
that Egypt is a Semitic region ; and, finally, the
mysterious Albanian is simply the vulgar Finnic
' Tosk ' being converted, not honestly, into
' Toscans ' (p. 20).

Another unsupported and erroneous assertion
is, that mythology, like language, is an 'absolutely
conclusive test of (racial) affinity' (p. 85). It often
represents certain phases of social development
through which all civilised peoples have passed,


and the same basis of religion which we may, in
the absence of a better word, call Fetishism has
served for the Aryan and the Semite as well as for
the Turanian.

The worship of the dead is held by some
reviewers to be the strongest argument of Turanian
affinities. They will find it throughout half-civilized
Africa, Dahome, for instance. The ' Ugric practice
of sorcery ' (p. 14) is simply universal ; every
reader of Blackland travels is familiar with that stage
of society ; and ' magic ' need not be derived from
' Magi ' (p. 79) when we have the Persian equiva-
lent 'mugh' (/**) a. magus. Animism is repre-
sented to be the peculiar creed of the Turanians
(P- 35)' wnen it is the dawn of faith, the belief
in things unseen ; therefore it was universal, and
it lingers in the most advanced creeds for instance,
in Christianity, to whose spirit the material ghost is
opposed. We have (p. 84) the vague assertion that
"Semitic races tend to a theocracy, while the ten-
dency of the Aryans is to a democratic government: "
this view is formed by reading only Jewish, Greek,
and Roman history ; but the Bedawin, the type of the
so-called Semitic race, have never shown a symptom
of theocracy, and, indeed, may be said to be of no


religion at all. ' The Turanian tombs are family-
tombs ' (p. 36) ; but what are the so-called ' Tombs
of the Kings' and 'of the Prophets' near Jeru-
salem ? What are those of Dahome, Ashanti, and
Benin ? perhaps these also are Turanian ! Of the
contradiction about the temple and the tomb (pp. 41
and 49) I have already spoken. Even Stonehenge
(p. 43) is a primaeval sepulchre of the Turanian
type, when Mr. James Fergusson has proved it to
be comparatively modern. I presume that Pococke's
' two black demons ' who ' dwell in the sepulchre
with the (Moslem) dead' (p. 117, from Dennis i.,
310) are our old friends the Angels Munkir and
Nakir, known to Lord Byron ; they simply visit the
corpse for the purpose of questioning it. And most
people know that the Arab Jinn was a human shape
made of fire, not 'an unsubstantial body of the
nature of smoke' (p. 127).

The geographer and anthropologist stand aghast
before the seven ' Ethnographic Notes ' which con-
tain such assertions as these. ' This is an absolute
note : No Aryan or Semitic people is found
separated by any great interval from other nations
of a kindred race ' (p. 69). Some have traced the
Aryan tongue to South America, and what are the


Gipsies scattered about the Old and New Worlds ?
Are the Jews Semites or Turanians ? And the
Arab, who, in pre-historic times, spread north-east
to Samarkand, south-east to Malabar, south - west
to Zanzibar and Kafirland, and west to Morocco
and to Spain ? Is this ' an unbroken continuous
block without detached outliers'? How can it be
said that the ' conquests of the Goths, Vandals, and
other Teutonic (add, Scandinavian), and Slavonic
(Slav) 1 races' were the 'conquests of armies rather
than the migrations of nations ' (p. 81) ? It sounds
passing strange to an Englishman in Istria, sur-
rounded by vestiges of Kelts and Romans, and
preserved by a Scythian population. We read,
again, (ibid.} the ' Turks have developed a re-
markable genius for the government and organisa-
tion of subject races,' when the experience of the
Eastern man is embodied in the proverb that where
the Osmanli plants his foot the grass will not grow.
Nor did the Turks ' instinctively take to the sea'
(ibid.}; they engaged Greek, Dalmatian, and other
Aryans to man their ships. How are the Nairs
of the Malabar coast ' hill^tribes ' (p. 57) ? are they
confounded with the Todas of the Nilgiri ? We

1 I am sorry to see Mr. Freeman using the debased form ' Slave.'


are told (p. 66) that 'geographically, ancient Etruria
is modern Tuscany,' without the qualification that
there were two other sets of ' duodecim populi'
one to the south, the other to the north-east, 1 so as
to embrace nearly the whole peninsula ; and in 1874
the author had apparently no knowledge of the
immense finds which since 1856 have enriched
Bologna. Converging door -jambs (p. 353) are,
doubtless, Egyptian and Etruscan, but also they
belong to all primitive architecture, the object being
simply to facilitate the construction of the lintel ;
we find them in Palmyra, and we find them in the
far West of America. I read (p. 66) that ceramic
art is the one permanent legacy which the Etrus-
cans have bequeathed to the world, when all their
highest works were either imitations of the Greeks
or were imported from Greece ; nor have we a
word about the merchant-prince Demaratus of
Corinth, who is said to have brought the alphabet
to Etruria (Tacit. 'Ann.' xi. 14, and others) with
the fictores Eucheir and Eugrammos (titles, not
names). The ' passion for vivid and harmonious

1 Dr. Paul Broca (loc . cit.) remarks that Etruria ' Media ' is a
purely geographical term, which, anthropologically speaking, should
be 'Antiqua,' opposed to 'Nova' (Circumpadana), and to ' Novis-
sima ' or ' Opicia ' : the latter is disconnected by Latium, which was
never occupied by the Etruscans.


colour' is not only Turanian (p. 65); even we
English have received it in Fair Isle from Spain,
which received it from Morocco. ' Tracing descent
by the mother's side' (p. 14) is common to an
immense number of barbarous races ; the Congoese
Africans, for instance, can hardly be Turanian, and
even the old Icelanders, who have nothing in com-
mon with the ' Skrselingjar,' under certain circum-
stances took the surer matronymic. 1 Exogamy,
again (p. 58), belongs to a certain stage of society
where all the members of the tribe are held to be
of one blood, and where marriage would be within
the prohibited degree. We find it amongst the East
African Somal, who will be Turanians only when
the Copts are.

It would be fastidious work again to slay the
slain after the critique upon the vocabulary of
'Etruscan Researches,' printed in the 'Athenaeum'
of March 28th, 1874, by Mr. Wm. Wright. But

1 The case stands thus : The Lycians (Herod, i., 173) always traced
their descent, unlike the Greeks and Romans, through the maternal
line, and this has been verified by Fellows (Lycia, 276). The Etrus-
cans (Dennis, i., 133) 'being less purely Oriental, made use of both
methods.' But this careful author is hardly justified in deriving the
custom from the East : it would arise naturally from the high position
of women in a people of diviners, augurs, and, perhaps, of mes-
merists ; but we cannot say that such dignity is an Asiatic custom.


the absolute ignorance of all Eastern languages,
and the unscrupulous ingenuity with which names
of persons and places are distorted, require some
notice. The authority of MM. Lenormant, Sayce,
Edkins, and Sir Henry Rawlinson is invoked
('Athenaeum,' May 2nd, 1874) to defend as Tura-
nian or ' Turkish ' such familiar Arabic words as
Nasl, Jinn, and Ghoul ; but what of ' li-umm '
(Lemures !) meaning simply in Arabic ' to the
mother ' ? The learned interpreter of Cuneiform
must be charmed with the role here assigned to
him. The name of Attila, we are told, is ' of an
Etruscan type, and can be explained from Etruscan
sources ' (p. 75), when we' find it even in the
Scandinavo-Aryan Atli. ' The name of the Budii,
a Median tribe,' is 'seen in the town-name of Buda
in Hungary '(p. 78); the latter (tufa), signifying
literally a ' boy,' was the proper name of Atil or
Attila's brother, put to death by him. The dis-
puted word ' Ogre ' is derived ' from the Tartar word
ugry, a thief (p. 376), which also named the
' Ugrian,' I should rather find its equivalent in the
Hindu agkor, as aghorpanthi, the religious mendi-
cant, part of whose Dharma (duty) was cannibalism.
' The very name of DARIUS, the Mede, can be


explained from Finnic sources,' which seem able,
like a certain statesman, to explain away everything
(p. 79); but we trace its cognate in the modern Persian
Dara. 'Tarquin' (Tar^i) is Tark-Khan, the pru-
dent prince (ibid.} ; ' Lucumo' (p. 322) means 'great
Khan, from hi and kan (for 'khan'); and here we
may note that the ' great Cham of Tartary,' which
the unlettered Englishman is tempted to pronounce
as in ' c/iam'-ber, came to us through the Italians.
Perfunctory enough are the connection (pp. 266-8) of
the prsenomen Vele (an axe-handle, or ful in Yeni-
seian) with Caius (a cudgel, Latin, caja}, which
was Gaius ; and such resemblances as Soracte with
Ser-ak-Tagh, snow-white mountain (p. 346) worse
than Nibly's Pelasgic S>fo-'AxT>5 as Ascanius with
Szon Khan, and as lulus with Eszen Hi (p. 374),
ancestors of the Turkomans. Father Tiber (p. 330)
hails from ' Teppeh-ur ' (peh Teppeh, hill, Persian
ur, water, Turanian ?); but what of Varro's Thebris
or Dehebris, and of Thepri, Thephri, the forms given
by Dennis (ii. 481)? Who has attributed the in-
vention of dice to the Etruscans (p. 332) ? The
derivation of Kiemzathrm (p. 188), explained, as
2-|-i+4+ I o+i, to mean twice forty or eighty,
from the Yeniseio-Ariner ' kina-man-tschau-thjung,!


is a masterly waste of time to the reader as well as
to the writer. If Juno (p. 133) come from Jomu,
God, we will take the liberty of associating with her
our old friend ' Mumbo Jumbo,' not worshipped in,
the Mountains of the Moon.

In p. 315 the Etruscan ' Antai,' the winds, are
identified with ventus, oivsfj.oc, and the Teuton wind,
when the Sanskrit vdta shows the nasal not to be
radical. Why go to the Ugric ker, or akcr in Lapp,
for ager, when even in Scandinavian we have
Akkr (p. 333). As Dr. Birch remarks ('Athenaeum,'
June 20, 1874), Mr. Taylor has made a ' petitio
principii in assuming that thapirnal = niger;
kahatial violens, kiarthalisa = fuscus, and
vanial sees calis, whatever that may mean.' It
by no means appears that the Roman words in the
bilingual epitaphs were translations of the Etruscan ;
they might have been aliases. ' In fact, kahatial
is translated in the bilingual inscriptions cafatia
natus and varnalisa by varid natus, not Rnftis,
which, added afterwards, was something besides
which he was called, as an agnomen in Latin,
but not Etruscan. In p. 3 19 we are informed that
there is no tenable Aryan etymology for popu 7 us,
the poplar-tree, whence Populonia. Colonel Yu 7 e


('Some Unscientific Notes on the History of Plants,'
p. 49, ' Geog. Mag.,' Feb. 1875) has shown the
contrary to be the case ; like d/mrja, the birch, the
word accompanied the earliest emigration from the
East. Popidus, pioppo {fioppa, in Bolognese),
peuplier, and poplar are the Sanskrit pippala,
the modern Hindu pipal (Ficus religiosa), whose
superficial likeness causes the French to name the
Indian fig ' peuplier d'Inde' and the Palermo gar-
dener to baptise it 'pioppo delle Indie.' Major
Madden also found the populus ciliata of Kumaon
called by the people ' Gar-pipal.' Lord Crawford
explains the Etruscan Bacchus by this process
' Pampin= fauTrsX = Phuphl + ans, uns or ana =
Phuphluns, Pupliana, i.e., " God of the Vine." :
The existence of the Huns in Etruscan days is
proved (pp. 76 and 367) by the word HVINS (mirror
engraved by Gerhard. Taf. ccxxxv.), the terminal
sibilant being ' probably the Etruscan definite
article.' I suggested (' Athenaeum,' March 28,
1874) that the word might also be read HLTNS,
(Hellenes ?) part of an inscription over what has
generally been supposed to be the Trojan Horse.
Dr. Birch, however, says ('Athenaeum,' June 20,
1874) that it ' may, with equal, if not greater, proba-


bility, be referred to the capture of Pegasus (Pecse)
by Vulcan (Sethlans), and to the Fountain Hippo-
krene, or Fons Caballinus, in Etruscan huins, analo-
gous to the Latin fans. He suggests ' Etule Pecse
Sethlans,' as equivalent to the Greek ' Edoulene
Pegason Hephaistos;' but 'under any circumstances
the Huns take to flight' -Again, it is evident that the
inscription ' Nusthieei ' or ' Nusthieh' (pp. 112-113)
should be read the other way, Heithzun, or, probably,
Heiasun lason or Jason, according to Dr. Birch.
The difficulty is that the E faces from left to right
and the s from right to left.

' The French Marechal,' a groom or farrier
(p. 267), is not fairly explained. Our popular
derivation is from the Scandinavian mara, a mare
hence nott-mara, a night-mare and skjald, a ser-
vant The latter has passed through sundry vicissi-
tudes before he became a m^r-skal. I would, how-
ever, observe that the Illyrian and other Slavs have
mara or marra, meaning a witch. It is unpardon-
able to make (p. 113) historic ' ezhdiha ' Turkish ;
everyone knows the origin of this Persian word,
the old Bactrian and intensely Aryan az-i-dahdka>
the biting snake ; the aki, the midgardsorm, the
zohak of Firdausi slain, according to Zendavestan



tradition, by Thraetavna (Indra). Curiously enough,
the Illyrian Slavs still retain azdaja (pron.
'azhdaya') for a 'dragon.' The CAMEL, 1 with capi-
tals (p. 151), as if alluding to Henri Heine's 'Great
Camel Question,' is, we are assured, ' Turanian ; '
when the Semitic jamal pronounced, probably, by
the Jews and Phoenicians, and certainly by the
modern Bedawin, ' gamal ' became the kamel-os of
the Greeks. It may explain Camillus, but if so, the
word is, like Cadmus, Semitic. Of the four test-

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