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words, ' on which the whole case as to the Ugric
affinities of Etruscan might safely be rested '
(pp. 93-113) kulmu (which Corssen reads culsu,
p. 380), vanth, hinthial, and nahum the second and
third are interpreted by the wildest processes. Vanth
(thanatos f) relies solely upon the ' Turkish ' fdni
(p. 102) and ' vanij ready to perish ' (p. 103) ; the
former being pure Arabic, and the latter a corrup-
tion of the active form fdni. Hinthial loses half
its superficial resemblance to the Finnic haltin (or
haldia, p. 107), 'which is, letter for letter, the same

1 I regret that no one has answered my questions in the Athenaum
(March, 1874) concerning the Etruscan camel, whether it be the
Northern (two-humped) or the Southern. And it is even more to be
regretted that in the Lost Tombs of Tarquinii (Dennis, i., 348) no
notice was taken of the elephant being African or Asiatic.


as the Etruscan word,' when we compare its other
form 'phinthial ' ; nor can we ' identify ' it (p. 109),
with ' the Turkish ghyulghe (gyulgeJi), a shadow,'
or break it into hin-thi-al, 'the image of the child
of the Grave' (p. in). Manitou (p. 136) is cer-
tainly not 'the North American heaven god : it is
simply the haltia of the Finns ; the phantasm which
resides in every material object. To such informa-
tion (p. 102), as 'the suffix d<?rt(!) in Turkish
commonly denotes abstract nouns ' we can only reply
'Pro-di-gious!' The four Arabic words melekyut
(malakiyyat, from malik), munidat (corrupted), nejdet,
and neddmet, quoted in support of this doctrine, end
with what grammarians call the Ha el-masdar (h of
abstraction). A man must be Turan-smitten, must
have caught a Tartar, to find (p. 1 24) that ' the title
of the Russian Emperor, the Tzar, is doubtless of
Tartaric origin ; ' and perhaps he would say the
same of Caesar and Kaiser. But, seriously, is all
history thus to be thrown overboard ? And why,
in the name of common sense, should we compare
the ' Indian Menu ' with Mantus, Minos, and
Manes'? (p. 122). Why, again, should not Kharun
be Charon, instead of Kara (black), and l un, an
abraded form of aina, a " spirit, or of jum t god " ' ?


(p. 1 1 8). The derivation (p. 160) of the Etruscan
mack (one), 1 though ' safe ground to tread on '
(p. 174), is another marvel. It proceeds from the
Turkic bar-mack, a finger (tzsAparmak or pdrmaK],
and the ' Turkish ' (!) mikh lab, ' the clawed foot of a
bird or animal,' i.e., the noun of instrument in Arabic
from the triliteral root khalaba, ' he rent/ So in our
vernacular the fish^/z perhaps comes from yfo-ger.
And yet this conglomerate of errors is made to take
a crucial part in the Turanian scheme ; it is the basis
of interpreting the ' invaluable ' (Campanari) dice
of Toscanella, now in the Cabinet des Medailles,
Paris, where words, taking the place of pips,
form, according to some scholars, an adjuration or
prayer, to others a name and a gift. Lord Craw-
ford explains this (bogus) ' Rosetta Stone ' of Mr.
Taylor by an adjuration which also contains an echo
of the current names of numerals in Japhetan, if not
Teutonic, speech.

1 Curious to say the only dialect in which Mack means one, is the
'Sim' of the Gipsies (see ' Anthropologia,' p. 498, vol. i), probably
derived from the Greek /uia, whilst ' Machun ' is two. Judged by its
numerals, and by Prof, von W. Corssen's undoubted failure, Etruscan
has no affinity with any known tongue, and though Mr. Ellis suspected
a double system, this has not yet been proved.


Mach (i) Thu (2) Zal (3)

(May the) Dice or ace of Zeus (two) (in) number (three)

Hut (4) Ki (twice) Sa (6)

fall twice sixes.

And the sprachforscher, Prof. Corssen proposes (pp.
28, 806) :

Mach Thu-zal Huth Ci-Sa

Magus Donarium Hoc Cisorio fecit.

Mr. Ellis (Numerals as Signs of Primeval
Unify, and Peruvia Scythica, p. 158) makes Makh
(i), Thu (2, duo ?), Zal (3), Huth (4), Ki (5), and
Sa (6) ; Mr. Taylor, inverting the sequence, Mach
(i), Ki (2), Zrt/(3), Sa (4), Thu (5), and Huth (6).
The relics were found in 1848, and probably Mr.
Taylor is not answerable for the ' dodge ' which,
in announcing his book, omitted the date and left
the public to believe that, when the find was de-
scribed in 1848 by Dr. Emilio Braun (p. 60, Bull.
Arch&ol. Inst. of Rome], and afterwards of Orioli,
Steub, Lorenz, Morenz, Bunsen, Pott, and others, a
new ' key to Etruscan ' had lately been discovered.
But he is answerable for the tone of his reply
(' Athenaeum,' May 2, 1874) to the ' Gentle Lindsay'
('Athenaeum,' April u, 1874) a painful contrast
with the courtesy of the 'earl's blood.'


Such are the process of ' exhaustion ' or ' elimina-
tion ; ' the far-fetched ' affinities ; ' the broadest con-
clusions on the narrowest of bases ; the ' curious,' or
rather supposed, ' coincidences,' the guess-work of
an unwary philologer ; the plausible agnation ; the
perverted ingenuity such as holding ancient nume-
rals to be fragments of ancient words denoting
members of the body and explaining the stone
circles round tumuli as the survivals of tent-weights,
which affiliate Etruscan with Altaic. These
' picklocks or skeleton keys ' do not open the lock
of the dark chamber, and the ' secret is locked with
more than adamantine power.' The whole volume
is a simple confusion of all scientific etymology, and
its ' abrasion-doctrine ' might be applied as profit-
ably to deriving roast beef from plum-pudding. The
' cumulative arguments ' which make the Rasenna
Ugrians are mere sorites of errors called analogies,
and exactly the same defects have been noted in the
author's ' Words and Places.' Prof. Corssen, perhaps
the profoundest Etruscologue of his age, even
asserted that of twenty-two numerals which Mr.
Taylor has claimed as proofs of the connexion be-
tween Etruscan and the Altaic branch of the Tura-
nian family of tongues, as many as eighteen are not


even Etruscan, and, of the four remaining, three are
pronouns, and one is a proper name. 1

Finally, in his preface (p. vii.), the ' Livingstone
of linguists,' as a certain reviewer entitles him, was
' conscious of the shortcomings ' of his book ; in the
Reviews he fought his ' free fight ' more obstinately
for its errors, its hallucinations, and its ignorance
than most men have fought for their truths. I was
not a little amused after noticing his contradictions
about the existence of Etruscan temples to read
the diatribe ('Athenaeum,' June 6, 1874) about my
' utter recklessness in making groundless accusa-
tions.' Let me ask, with the distinguished Arabist
Prof. Wright, quid plura f

The Family Pen has never been employed worse
than in writing ' Etruscan Researches.' Yet by
substituting a scatter of colonists from Asia Minor,
either Lydian or Lydo- Phoenician, for the pure
Turanian, we may find in Mr. Taylor a useful
picture of Etruscan life.

The conclusions which we draw from our actual

1 Prof. Corssen's numerals are Italian : Uni (i), Teis (2), Trinache
(3), Chvarthu (4), Cuinte (5), Sesths (6), Setume (7), Untave (8),
Nunas (9), Tesne (10), Tesne eka (u), and Tisnteis (20). Perhaps
these may be the Italiot, used synchronously with the Lydo-Etruscan


state of knowledge concerning the Etruscan tongue
are i. That it may possibly be proved 'Italiot';
2. That its origin and its affiliation are at pre-
sent mysterious as the Basque ; 3. That, whereas
almost all previous authorities had advocated some
form of the great Indo-European speech, Mr. Taylor
has made himself a remarkable ' Turanian ' excep-
tion ; and 4. That certain Finnish ' affinities '
deserve scientific investigation.




THE three great finds, Villanova, the Certosa, and
Marzabotto, have made but one real addition to the
inscriptive literature of the Etruscans. Whilst the
Central and the Campanian Federations proved rich,
the Circumpadan has shown itself exceptionally poor
in this point, much resembling the Phoenicians, whom
Prof. Calori assigns to the Etruscans as ancestry.
The citizens of Sidon and Tyre were probably great
writers of ledgers, invoices, and such matters, but
how few are the important epigraphs which they
have left us ! In this point they offer a curious
contrast with their immediate neighbours, the Egyp-
tians and the Assyrians.

At Villanova no engraved record was found
beyond the broad arrow, the pJueon of heraldry,
possibly representing the letter in two shapes
\J7 (' La Necropoli di Vill.,' p. 52). V (ibid. p. 56).
As a maker's mark (?) it has been detected, not



only in the other two
diggings, but also at
Adria, Mantua, Mo-
dena, and Reggio.

It is otherwise at
the Certosa, and hap-
pily so, as the single
important inscription
(see p. 240) is able
to remove all doubts
about the Etruscani-
city of the noble dis-
coveries. The accom-
panying illustration is
borrowed from a fac-
simile in lithograph
(plate ix.) by Prof.
Calori, who, after Fa-
bretti, translates it
(p. 4) : ' I am the se-
pulchre of Tanaquil
(Tankhe) wife ofTitul-
lius.' This feminine
name began to appear
at Chiusi, and it tho-


roughly establishes the Etruscan character of Old

Cav. Zannoni (' Sugli Scavi della Certosa/ pp. 2 7,
54) tells us that a rough stela showed the letters IAN,
perhaps to be read, as at Monte Alcino, from right to
left, NAI ; a similar cippus bore the letters ITV a nd NIM,
the latter in red paint, whilst the largest and most per-
fect specimen of these noble headstones had IA>|AN
inscribed under the horses' hoofs. The sigli or
marks upon pottery found at the Certosa are about
fifty, and they have been sent for publication to
the celebrated Professor Ariodante Fabretti, who
proposes to publish them in the ' Aggiunta,' or
sequel to his ' Corpus Inscript. Ital. Antiq. ^vi.'
Many fictiles are also inscribed. The familiar
KAAE and (HO HAIZ ?) KAAOS often occurs ; it is
repeated six times upon the largest tazza, suggest-
ing nuptial gifts to women, or presents to the
' beautiful boy/

Cav. Zanetti (ibid. p. 39) offers the following
scatter of sigli (marks) and graffiti :




At the base of the vases



Upon a tazza

rr \

were IT -P O S-/A A O an< ^ PEVO : anc ^ u P on tne kelebe of
the two quadrigcE, one face shows before the charioteer

| K A. ^ > between the horses' hoofs

^ h x 5 an( ^ fronting the same appear
S J ^ * The other side offers also

>Q +- t K

are fl 1^

* v * n

facing the charioteer

o. v * " f

horses' hoofs ^ 4> A *t >
with o V *

* ; and between the

| in front of them.

The circle, it will be remarked, concludes every line. The following

two words are of pure Etruscan type.



upon a pot-cover of brown clay, and A \\ \f
upon a red fragment.

The Etruscan alphabet is still a debated sub-
ject, especially in the matter of the two sibilants. Mr.
Murray believes that the fact of their being double
( M and S) points to an age when the Greeks had not
abandoned the Samech (D) as well as the Shin
(tP = ^ or ). The Etruscan alphabet of
Bomarzo (Dennis, i. 225 ; compare with the
Pelasgic or archaic Greek graffiti ; and with the
primers ii. 54, and ii. 138) begins, like all the Semitics,
with Alif (Alpha). The next three do not follow the
Hebrew form retained by the Arabs in their chro-
nological Abjad (A, B, J, D), and by the Greeks
with certain modifications. The three following are
regular, Hutti (H, Th, the Etruscan and archaic
Greek , the Arabic k, and I or Y), and the
L, M, N, are the Arabic Kalaman, omitting only,
while the old Greek and the Lycian (Fellows) retain,
the first. Then Saafas (S, Oin or Ayn, P or F,
and S= , in Hebrew Tzaddi y) is preserved only
in two Etruscan letters P and S (M), and the eighth
word Karashat (K, R, SH, and T) is likewise
reduced to R, S (Sh ? 2) and T. This certainly


suggests that the second sibilant was aspirated
(= Sh), while the absence of O is distinctly Arabic.
At Marzabotto, besides the pottery marks, we
have the following three specimens :


Aurssa (proper name) on a fibula.

1. Archaic Etruscan inscrip-
tions ('Akius') on the bottom of a
clay pot found at Marzabotto.

2. Fragment of a clay tablet
found in a ' funereal well ' at


The other four Bologna inscriptions, given in
the ' Secondo supplemento alia raccolta delle anti-
chissime iscrizioni italiche ' (per cura di Ariodante
Fabretti, Roma Torino Firenze presso i Fratelli
Bocca, Librai di S. M. 1847) are the following :

(No. i Plate.)

circularly inscribed upon the bottom of a red-clay
pot found at the Certosa. Velthur is an Etruscan
praenomen in the inscriptions of Tarquinii ; and,
as the letters are evidently traced with the tool
before the vase was burnt, it would appear to be the
name of the maker.

(No. 2 Plate.)

was forwarded, like the rest, by Cav. Zannoni to
Prof. Fabretti in Dec. 1872. It is inscribed upon a
fragment of a great dolium, found on the Arnoaldi
property, near the Certosa ; the letters are eight
centimetres long, and are held to be part of the


name of the Bolognese artificer at Marzabotto,
which Fabretti (' Corp. Inscr. Ital.' No. 46) reads
Nrus, and not Umrus, e.g.

Mi (sii) ti banyyilite titlalus, appeared copied from
a clay model in ' Primo suppl.' to the ' Corpo delle
antichissime iscrizioni italiche,' p. 2, note i. ; then
reduced to one-third natural size in the ' Atti della
R. Accademia delle Scienze,' vii. 894, and lastly
lithographed in the second supplement (plate No. 3).
It is remarkable for the squared form of the A. 1


Ml MV^Q A 5| M 1 3 = Veipi Kanmmis,

is inscribed above the two human figures, feminine
on the right and masculine to the left, upon a great
sepulchral stela from the Scavi Arnoaldi. Evidently
the sculptor had no space for the letter 1 (V), as
if he had begun from left to right, whereas the
reading is the reverse. Here we may understand
Vibia, Carmonii ^lxor.

1 The facsimile is given in page 228.



is inscribed on a figured ^/^ at the Certosa cemetery.
The upper line, which contained some twenty letters
cut into a band, is much injured ; the lower, which
separates the two human figures, is read easily
enough. ' Luchma,' probably an archaic form, like
Luchumes and Lucumu, is not without interest to
those who study the relations between Upper and
Central Etruria, which are daily developing them-
selves. The final syllable V>/ (hi) recalls to mind
the prsnomen V-4/Vy (Luchii) read upon a fictile
urn at Chiusi (' Corp. Inscr. Ital.,' No. 597 bis r).




THE contadinesca favella Bolognese is little known
in England, where Goldoni has made the witty
Venetian dialect tolerably familiar. Mr. Greville
(' Memoirs/ i. 404) simply remarks that ' the dialect
is unintelligible,' whilst Mezzofanti assured him that
it is ' forcible and expressive.' These local families,
which are numerous throughout the peninsula, may
hardly be compared with those of our counties,
even with the difference of cultivation ; they are
rather what the speech of Holland is to that of
Germany. Whilst we have, or rather had till late
years, little, if any, written monuments, the Italian
variants are rich in local literature. For example,
the only book familiar to our forefathers of what the
Gipsies now call the Peero-dillin-tem, foot-giving,
that is, 'purring ' or kicking county, and known to the
great conversational linguist of Bologna was ' Thomas
and Mary.' This generation has done much in cul-


rivaling the rustic muse ; yet the detached private
publications, as opposed to those printed by the
English Dialect Society and other learned bodies,
are generally confined to their own parts, or, at
most, to the curious in philology.

The fact of the Italian favelle being literary
and not analphabetic, containing dictionaries and
classical poems, may account, to a certain extent,
for their universal use even in educated and culti-
vated society. At home we should marvel to hear
a dinner-party of ladies and gentlemen suddenly
lapse into the broadest Yorkshire or Somersetshire,
and it is only an occasional ' original ' who persists
in retaining his or her country brogue. In Italy
the resident stranger is accustomed to the appear-
ance of the local dialect whenever the company
becomes excited or confidential, and he generally
has the sense to learn it, as otherwise he would be
utterly unintelligible to the peasantry, and partly so
to the lower order of citizens.

Italians, who hold to ' Italia una' as the first
article of faith, consider the diversitas linguarum to
be non academica sed vere Babylonica, and denounce
the practice as an unmitigated evil. I am disposed,
despite all sentiment, to agree with them. Differ-

R 2


ence of dialect tends to maintain a species of bi-
lingualism, and history tells us that bi-lingual peoples
have done next to nothing in literature, and very
little in anything else. Sometimes a genius, like
Milton, may write in Latin and Italian as well as in
English ; a Camoens may poetise in Portuguese and
Spanish, or a Swinburne may be equally happy in
French and English. These are rare exceptions
brains big enough to contain two and even three
tongues. But the multitude has enough and more
than enough to do with mastering one. It is not
only race that has prevented Wales from producing
a single writer, in verse or in prose, whose name has
become a household word to the world ; and senti-
mentalists who, like Mr. Gladstone, advocate the
Eisteddfod, offer, methinks, the worst advice of
their unreal and aesthetic school. The cultivation of
local dialects is the strongest engine for maintaining
those racial distinctions which the whole course of
modern civilisation does its best to obliterate : the
worst symptom in Jewish progress is their being
constantly reminded of the words of Moses, ' sepa-
rated for ever from all the people on the face of the
earth.' Such a study was well for that divided land,
that mere ' geographical expression ' in which the


first Lord Lytton (' Last Days of Pompeii') found
' the only hope of Italy.' How potent the instrument
may be found in political warfare, in alienating man
from man may be seen in the battle of races' at
Trieste. The Italianissimi party, opposed to the
Tedeschi and the Pan-Slavic, carefully supports half-
a-dozen weeklies or flying-sheets written in the cor-
rupt Venetian, dashed with a few words of Friuiano, 1
which distinguishes the city of Charles VI. and Maria
Theresa. Here we had or have, to mention only
a few, ' La Baba ' (the grandmother) which first
appeared ; 'El Portinajo ' ; 'El Poveretto ' ; 'El
Rusignol ' (the nightingale), which ceased to sing
in 1873 ; and ' El Ciabiatin' (the cobbler, who also
acts as house-porter), which has lately become ' El
Triestin.' Its rival is at present the ' Gazzettino
del Popolo.' 2

1 The borrowing from Friuiano is mostly of words. For this
dialect the curious reader will consult the Poesiis de Fieri Zorntt
(Pietro Zorutti), published at Udine. Some of the poems are much
admired and deserve translation : an especial favourite is the Ana-
creontic beginning

' Piovesine, fine, fine.'

2 I know only two books of proverbs in the Triestine dialect : i.
Dialoghi Piacevoli of the (Canonico) D. Giuseppe Mainati, with map
and letters of Mgr. Bonomo, which begin with the :6th century (1511),
the whole translated into Italian (Trieste, G. Marenigh, 1828) ;
and 2. Sa^gio di Proverbi Triestini, by Angelo C. Cassani (Trieste,
Colombo Coen, 1860).


The ' Bulgnes ' is one of the rudest of its kind, so
' tronco e mozzato/ (truncated and elided), that at first
strangers, familiar with Italian, can hardly understand
a word of it, especially when spoken ' stretto.' For
instance : 'A n' vuoi t' m' in parl, S'gnor ' or ' M'sier '
(I won't have you speak to me about it, Sir) rapidly
pronounced, sounds almost like one word. Again, 'Ai
me ne seng meng brisa (io non ne so mica ') with a
double negative, in Italian an affirmative; and, lastly,
to die is not morire, but ' andar in squezz ' (to go
squash or in dissolution). Yet it has its classics, such
as the works of Dr. Lotto Lotti, which run through
a multitude of editions ; nor are collections of local
poetry disdained by the learned of the present day.
In the list of modern M.A.'s and Professors at
' Blogna,' or ' Bulogna,' I see that the Senator
Conte Commendatore Carlo Pepoli published a
' Discorso Academico ' upon the patriotic subject ' Di
taluni canti dei Popoli.' The Professor of Italian
Literature, Cav. Giosue Carducci, has also printed, in
periodicals, specimens ' Di alcune poesie popolari
Bolognesi del Secolo xm. inedite ' (Bologna, 1866),
and ' Di alcune rime antiche ritrovate nei memoriali
dell'Archivio notarile di Bologna' (Bologna, 1872-73).
There is a large quarto vocabulario, or dictionary of


Bolognese-Italian, and Italian-Bolognese, by Claudio
Ermanno Ferrari (publisher, Nicola Zanichelli,
Bologna, 1858 ; price 4 lire). My kind friend Prof.
Gian Giuseppe Bianconi gave me three volumes,
whose contents may not be uninteresting to the
general reader.

The oldest is a rude little duodecimo of 158
pages, entitled ' La Togna, Commedia Rusticale,
tradotta (it was originally in the Florentine dialect)
dal timido Accademico dubbioso, recitata nella Villa
di Fossolo, e dedicata all' illustriss. Signora, la
Signora Alexandra Bianchetti, Gambalunga, ne'
Zaniboni. Con Privilegio. In Bologna, per Giacomo
Monti, MDCLIV. Con licenza de' superiori.' The
imprimatur appears at the end, signed by the
' Archiep. Bonon. & Principe,' and by two members
of the 4 Inquisitionis Bononiae.' The two opening
sonnets, ' Felsina alia Togna,' and ' Sunnett fatt pr
Caprizzi, in lod d' la Togna,' will give the measure of
elision and truncation ; for instance, in these lines

E s' in Fiurenza cun fadigh, e spes (fatigue and expense)

Fu zk mustra la gloria dal to inzegn,

Qui in Bulogna, und i Studi ban al so Regn

Thara gloria mazor, e piu pales (more evident),

we may remark that the pronouns me or mi; ti, lu,
nit, vie, and lori or ei are used everywhere between


Dalmatia and Bologna. Mi is remarkable for
occurring in so many different and far-divided
languages ; for instance, in Slav and Teutonic, where
mic/i is older than ich. The Bolognese use A or
ai for the first person, only where it would be em-
phatic. The elision of the last syllable in the noun
(inedgh for medico], in the infinitive (guardd for
guardare), and in the participle (battu for dattuto)
is similar on both sides of the Adriatic. We have
also the same omission of the liquids, as in cavai
for cavalli, and maraveia for maraviglia.

The country girl La Togna (Antonia), daughter
of Barba (Gaffer) Bigh (Biagio, Giles), is loved
by Minghett d'Greguor, and she loves Sandrin, whilst
she, or rather her father, is proposed to by Petronio. 1
The latter is a zdatin (citizen), speaking, of course,
pure Italian, and compelled by the master passion
to forget his morgue of the i yth century. Yet he
cannot help quoting (p. 108)

Allo sprone i Caualli, al fischio i Cani
Ed al bastone intendono i Villani.

The contrast of the dialects leads, in the unsmooth

1 The name is intensely Etruscan, as we learn from the tombs of
the Petruni family at Perugia. La Togna in the fisherman's dialect of
Trieste would mean ' a float.'


course of courtship, to such quid pro quo as the
following (p. 36) :

Petr. Non vedi, come per te languisco ?

Togna. Mo, ch' vien a dir languiss? D' gli anguill ? (eels ?)

Petr. N6, vuol dir ch' io moro !

Togna. Un Mor (Moor) blanch', 6 negr ?

Another zintilhuomin> also a citizen pour rire, is
Cintio Musico, who writes songs for his friend ; and
the valet Malgaratin, the 'seruitore del cio di Petronio.'
There are two ridiculous old women, Ze Drathie
(Aunt or Gammer Dorothy), and Ze Betta (Elizabeth),
who recite ' sympathetic verses ' when La Togna
faints under her troubles. After the usual peripetia
of love and cross-love, caused by the ' Diaul dl'

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