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rim with a zig-zag ornament, and with horizontal channellings
from mid-belly to bottom. A three-barbed fibula of bronze
and the ' razor ' were found with the bones.

No. 2 fosse was somewhat larger (roo metre x roo
metre) ; to the east stood the great ossuary (same type),
with engraved fibula, pins, and fragments of armillcz, all of
bronze ; westward lay some smaller brown pots ; and a
terra-cotta cist with bands still stood upright. The 'razor'
lay flat in the middle of the western side. It is not plain,
each face has three zones cut parallel with the blade-back ;

1 NOTE BY THE TRANSLATOR. After seeing the Chinese blades,
little hatchets, I cannot attach importance to either of these objections.



268 APPENDIX.

the uppermost is straight, the central is a zig-zag, and the
lowest is in short and parallel perpendicular lines.

No. 3 fosse was of the same size as the second. The
ossuary (same type) was subtended northwards and south-
wards by brown and reddish pots ; there were only traces
of bronze fibula, and amongst the burnt bones lay the
' razor ' engraved with parallel lines along the back.

No. 4 was a little smaller (0*90 metre x 0*90 metre),
than the two latter. The ossuary had its cup-cover, and
near its mouth was a three-barred fibula like that of No. I ;
westward lay a few small vases, of which one was zig-
zagged in relief at the rim. Upon the burnt bones of the
ossuary stood a few engraved fibula and some bronze
pins. Among the bones was the ' razor,' much oxidised.

In these four cases, then, the ' razor ' is always inside
the ossuary ; it is accompanied by fibula, bronze pins,
brown and red earthenware, and a few engraved potteries.
It remains to consider it in connection with the pre-
Villanovan (Pelasgic ?) age.

No. i tomb was walled with slabs of molassa or yellowish
sandstone ; the inside (i metre x 070 metre) showed a
cup-covered ossuary, engraved after the Grecian fashion.
Upon the bones lay the 'razor,' together with certain
twisted bronze fibula of novel form, and the last found
was a very long pin, also of bronze.

No. 2, similarly walled, showed the great ossuary
opening to the north-west. It was similarly worked, and
covered with a cup, also engraved, upon which lay an
amber-headed bronze pin. With the bones were fragments
of fibula, armlets, and a bronze ligula ; at the southern
angle lay three small bronze rings ; and to the north, on a
level with the belly of the ossuary, stood the 'razor,'
worked with ' wolves' teeth ' near the blade-back.

No. 3 was stopped by a large pebble, under which,



APPENDIX. 269

with its mouth opening south, lay the main ossuary, cup-
covered and adorned under the lips and around the belly
with Grecian tracery in white. Beneath this urn appeared
a pin, and to the east a small bronze celt with cylindrical
socket (a bossolo cilindrico). Little rings of the same metal
lay below it. Mixed with the bones was a ligula, broken
into very small bits, and two fibula with amber; finally, at
the bottom of the urn the ' razor ' lay flat, worked like that
of No. 2.

No. 4 tomb resembled Nos. I and 2, but it was
much richer. A rectangle of roo metre x 070 metre,
its sandstone revetment formed a fallen cover for the
ossuary, whose mouth was turned southwards. Both it and
the cup had large graffiti in the Greek style. Among the
bones were two large bridle-bits of bronze, with their
respective belongings ; * a pin and engraved fibula. Near
the rim was a little bronze paalstab (axe), like those of
Scandinavian type, and then the ' razor.'

No. 5 was covered with a large revetment of sand-
stone. Underneath it stood the cup-covered ossuary
turned southwards. The burnt remains were accompanied
by a long cylinder of bone, worked in straight lines after
the Greek fashion. To westward lay flat a very large
and peculiar paalstab, whose faces v/ere engraved also after
the Greek way, with triple zones in zig-zag and with
toothed lines. On the south was an unusually long pin
with amber under the head, and near it lay the ' razor.'
The latter is peculiar in its greater size, in its shape, and
in its ornamentation. It is especially noteworthy for the
part between the back and the handle ; and each face is
engraved near the blade-back with Grecian ornaments like
the paalstab, the lowest being a zig-zag zone.

1 TRANSLATOR'S NOTE. In the original 'la relativa bardatura,'
which means the whole harness or equipment of the horse evidently
not intended here.



270 APPENDIX.

Such, then, are the five pre-Villanovan (Pelasgic ?)
sepulchres containing the ' razors.' The principal accom-
panying objects are, as I have shown, urns with large
graffiti, celts, paalstabs, fibula, and pins differing from
those of the early Villanovan era.

Under different circumstances the ' razors ' were also
found in three tombs explored by my excellent colleague,
Awocato Arsenio Crespellani (see his paper ' Di un Sepol-
creto pre-romano a Savignano sul Panaro ; ' Modena, 1874).
He discovered one adorned with ' wolves' teeth ' in a sepul-
chre which has all the characteristics of the Benacci group,
of older date than the Villanovan ; and the two others in
tombs which belong to the first Villanovan epoch.



INDEX.



ALB

A LBA Longa, foundation of, 161
** Albanian language, the, 164

note
Albano crater, first eruption of the,

160

Aldovrandi cited, 153
Alphabet. See Etruscan
Amorini estate, discoveries on the,

79

Ampere, J. J., cited, 71

Anthropology. See Man, Palaeon-
tology, Craniology, Italy, Bologna

Antiquities. See Etruscan

Apennines, configuration of the, 4

Apuleius cited, 43

Aria collection, 48, 109 ; villa, 109,
no, 112

Arnoaldi diggings, 95, 266, 267

Aryan, derivation of the word, 163 ;
language, 217

Aryo-Pelasgi, emigration of the,
165, 1 68 ; in Italy, 169

Asnie, Torr dai, 82

T) ACTRIANA, one of the earliest

seats of civilisation, 164
Basques, the, 164
Bassi, Ca di, tombs of, 107
Bedawin, the, 216
Bells, Etruscan, 68 ; Pagan and
Christian, 69



BOL

Benacci diggings, 93 ; tombs, 268

Bianconi, Prof. G. G., 45, 258

Birch, Dr., 223, 224, 225

Boccadelli estate, intended exca-
vations on, 1 06

Boii, the, 200

Bologna, excavations in, 3 ; its site,
4, 5 ; characteristics of, 6 sq, ;
modern improvements, 7 ; clubs
and newspapers, 8 ; statue of
Neptune in, 9 ; mediaeval and
modern, 10 ; its contadini and
aristocracy, n ; University, 12;
Anthropological Congress of 187 1
noticed, 12,28,45, 72, 85, 122, 123,
126, 129, 149, 150, 157, 175, 177,
178, 1 80, 183; antiquarian re-
searches, 14 sq. ; the city of
Felsina, 18 ; of Bononia, 19 ;
the Via Emilia, 20 ; collections
of Etruscan antiquities, 21 sq. ;
museums, ib. ; discoveries near,
79 sq. ; antiquarian factions, 82 ;
Tortorelli excavations, ib. ; Pra-
dello diggings, 85 ; scavi della
Porta S. Mamolo, 88; della
Strada S. Petronio, 90 ; of the
Certosa and Casalecchio, 93 sq. ;
ancient inscriptions, 239 ; intro-
duction of the printing press,
262



.



272



INDEX.



Bolognese, the modern dialect, 242
sq. ; its classics, 246 sq. ; pro-
verbs, 258

Bonaparte, Prince Lucien, cited,
213,214

Bononia, ancient city of, 19

Broca, Dr. Paul, his classification of
skulls, 176; cited, 197, 204, 219

Brock, Mr. E. W., 48

Bronzes, Etruscan, 33 sq., 38 sq.,
60, 65 sq.,6j, 71, 160 ; Cav. Zan-
noni on, 265

Busk, Prof., cited, 153

/^ALABRESE superstition, 35

Calari, Signor P., his discovery
of Etruscan remains, 79

Calori, Prof. L., cited, 73, 88, 91,
1 68, 187, 210, 211 ; his craniolo-
gical researches, 187 sq. ; on the
Etruscan religion, 191 ; language,
193 ; civilisation, 195 ; general
conclusions, 208 sq.

Calvert, Mr. F., on the antiquity of
man, 150

Cantalupo Mandela, skulls from, 179

Capellini, Prof. G., cited, 61, 140,
141 ; originates the Bologna
Congress, 177 ; on cannibal re-
mains, ib.

Casalecchio, excavations near, 104.
See Certosa

Cato, Major, cited, 18

Cavedoni, M., cited, 26

Celts. See Kelts

Ceramic art, Etruscan, 219

Certosa, excavations at the, 22 sq.,
93, 9S, 97; plan of, 98, 101,
265 sq. ; antiquity of, 143 ; skulls,
197,204, 210 ; inscriptions, 234

Chabas, M., cited, 15

Chierici, Abb(5, cited, 130, 131

Cieco, Francesco, Bolognese poem
by, 261



Conestabile, Prof., cited, 28, 29, 44,

53,73, H7, 139
Corssen, Prof., cited, 194, 228, 231,

236

Craniology, 175 sq. ; palaeolithic
and neolithic skulls, 175, 176,
179 ; skulls of the Bronze epoch,
178, 180 ; of Villanova and Mar-
zobotto, 1 80 sq. ; of Sardinia,
184 ; Oscan and Etruscan cal-
variae, 185, 186; Prof. L. Calori's
researches in, 187 sq.
Crawford, Lord, cited, 39, 224
Cremation, Etruscan, 101, 139
Cyprus, discoveries of General di
Cesnola and Mr. Lang in, 124



pvAHOME, skulls from, 199
-^ Davis, Dr. J. B, 185, 186,

189, 197

Dawkins, Mr. W. B., cited, 153
De Jorio, cited, 53
De- Lucca, excavations of Cav. F.,

94

Dennis, Mr., his 'Cities and Ceme-
teries of Western Etruria,' cited,
23,63,91, 118, 120,124, 129,217,

22O, 222, 226

De Rossi, discoveries of, 158
De Rouge", M., cited, 15
Desor, M., cited, 131
Dozza, Signor G., his discovery of,
Etruscan remains, 79



T7LBA, skulls from, 178, 180
Ellis, Mr., cited, 228, 229
Etruria, early settlers of, 15 sq. ;

federations of, 15, 18, 191 ; modes

of sepulture in, 17, 141, 172 sq.,

191
Etruscan antiquities, collections of,

21 sq. ; rings, cysts, &c., 23



INDEX.



=73



tombstones, 29 sq. ; pottery, 32 ;
bronzes, 33 ; stone implements,
35 ; cylinders, 36 ; bone dice, 39 ;
toilette articles, 40 ; vases, 42 ;
the Villanova collection, 48 sq. ;
burial of the dead, 55, 131, 139 ;
discoveries on the Via ymilia,
79 sq. ; mortuary feasts, 83 ;
graffiti, id. ; the Malvasia calves,
84 ; discoveries at Pradello, 85 ;
the Mamolo < find,' 88 ; legend
of the Creation, 92 ; Certosa and
Casalecchio, 93 sg. ; fosses at
the Certosa, 100 sq. ; Marza-
botto, 109 sq. ; Misanello, 112;
funerary wells, 115 ; necropolis
of Misano, 127 sq. ; varieties of
sarcophagus, 137 sq. ; animal re-
mains, 140; alphabet, 173, 209,
237 ; skulls, 175, 187 sq., 201 ;
religion, 191 ; inscriptions, 233
sq.

Etruscan language, origin, theories,
and affinities of, 193, 210 sq.

Etruscans, their first settlements in
Italy, 172 sq. ; their rule, 174

Euganean tombstones, 28 ; lan-
guage, 194

Eugano-Veneti, the, 168

Eugubine Tables, versions of the,
'5



"TJ^ELSINA, Etruscan city of, 3,
1 8 ; remains of, 81, 97 ; skulls

of, 205 sq. ; necropolis and city,

208 ; epochs of, 268
Frati, Cav. L., relics found by, 97
Freeman, Mr. E. A., cited, 166



Cav. A., on Etruscan
^^ craniology, 182
Garbiglietti, Cav. A., cited, 182



KAR

Gellius, A., cited, 43
Geology of Italy. See Italy
Gozzadini, Count, his collection of
antiquities, 48 sj. ; cited, 56, 57,
60,61,83,85, 89, no, in, 114,
1 1 8, 129, 134, 143, 144, 1 80
Grasco-Pelasgi, their arrival in Italy,

170; decay of, 172
Greville, Mr. (' Memoirs '), cited, 242
Grotefend (' Zur Geographic von

Alt-Italien *), cited, 168
Guernsey, catacombs in, 74



TTERNICIAN valley, the, 159

Hincks, Dr., cited, 190
Horace, cited, 60
Hunfalvy, Prof. P., cited, 16, 24



' TALY, rivers of Upper, 4 ; modes
of sepulture of the Etruscan
settlers, 17, 55, 131, 139 ; geolo-
gical history of, 149 sg. ; Lower
Pliocene epoch, 150; Diluvial
epoch, 151 ; primitive man, 152
sg., 157 ; Glacial epoch, 154 ;
Alluvial epoch, 155 sg. ; eruptive
eras, 159 sg. ; modern epoch,
161 ; immigration of the Lithu-
ano-Slavs, 168 ; aborigines, ib.;
influx of the Umbrians, 169; of
the Latins, 1 70 ; of the Grasco-
Pelasgians, ib. ; of the Pelasgo-
Tyrrhenians, 172 ; of the Etrus-
cans, ib. ; cannibalism in, 177 ;
craniology of ancient, 175 sg.,



J



U VENAL, cited, 55, 63



TT'ARNAK Inscription, noticed,
1V 15



T



274



INDEX.



KEL



IV ILL.

Kelts, emigration of the, 164; their

wide extension, 165
Kistvaens, 52, 53, 75, 80, 86



T ANGUAGE. See Etruscan

Latins, their first appearance
in Italy, 170

Latium, first cities of, 159 ; vol-
canoes in, 1 60 sq.

Liano, discoveries near the Co-
mune di, 81

Lithuano-Slavs, emigrations of the,
167

Livy cited, 161

Lotto Lotti, Dr., his Bolognese
works, 246

Lucretius cited, 160



]V /TAIN A, skulls of Torre della,

1V1 i 80

M-alvasia calves, the, 84

Mamolo, discoveries near the Porta

a, 88

Man, prae-historic in Italy, 15, 150,
ip 157, I59> 164, 179; early
civilisation and emigrations, 164
sq. ; the Kelts, ib. ; Aryo-Pelasgi,

165 sq. Scandinavo-Teutons,

1 66 ; Lithuano-Slavs, 167 ; waves
of immigration in Italy, 168 sq.

Mandela, Cantelupo, skulls from,

179
Mariscotti estate, discoveries on

the, 80

Martial cited, 37, 62, 66
Marzabotto, discoveries at, 109 ;

prevalence of cremation at, 139 ;

antiquity and Remains of, 143 ;

skulls from, 180, 181, 182, 183 ;

inscriptions, 238 sq.
Matray, relief of, 35
Misanello, discoveries at, \\2sq.;



PIL

an Etruscan house at, 1 14 ;
funerary wells, 115; temples,
119,121 ; aqueduct of, 123 ; skele-
tons, 124; group of Mars and
Venus, 125

Misano, necropolis of, 127 sq.,
135 sq. ; bronze weapons, 129;
thoroughfares, 132 sq.

Montegazza, Prof. P., cited, 183

Mortillet, Gabrielle de, cited, 59,
131, 144; on the tombs of Vil-
lanova, 73

Moslems, mode of sepulture of, 101

Miiller, Max, cited, 7 1



XTICOLUCCI, Prof., cited, 64,
^ 150, 178, 181, 182, 186
Niebuhr cited, 71, 195
Nunzi, Camell, Bolognese poetry
of, 256



r\ VI D, cited, 55,69
^ Orioli, Prof., cited, 72
Owen, Prof., on the conformation
of the Egyptian eye-aperture, 122



PALAEONTOLOGY of Italy,
149 ; the Romans not igno-
rant of, 152 ; first traces ot
Italian man, 153. See Italy.
Man

Palmaria island, Pigeon grot of,
140

Parker, Mr. J. H., cited, 71

Pelasgo-Tyrrhenians occupy Italy,
171

Pelloutier('Hist. des Celtes'), cited,
165

Phoenicians in Italy, 194

Pila, Monte, first eruption of,
1 60



INDEX.



275



PLI

Pliny cited, 35, 81, 171, 172
Pontecchio, remains in, 80
Ponzi, Senator, cited, 149, 153, 157
Pradello, Etruscan remains found

at, 85
Propertius cited, 32

"DAMONTE, Etruscan remains
1V at, 80

Religion, Etruscan, 191 sq.
Reno, River, 103, in
Rome, German myth theories con-
cerning, 71 ; dialects in, 250

CARCOPHAGUS, varieties of

Etruscan, 125, 137
Sardinia, ethnography of, 184, 186
Scandinavo-Teutons, emigration of,

1 66
Schio, Count G. da, cited, 28, 36,

37, 194

Sempronius cited, 18
Sepulture, 17,55, I3 1 , *39, HI
Sgarzi, Prof., cited, 34, 57
Silius Italicus cited, 172
Skulls. See Craniology
Smith, Mr. George, his discoveries

in Assyria, 91, 92
Sogdiana, one of the earliest seats

of civilisation, 164
Spedali, cemetery of Campo degli,

97,98

Strabo cited, 171, 172
Suetonius cited, 152 sq.
Suidas cited, 91, 92

'pAGLIAVINI diggings, 266 sq.
Talon estate, explorations of
the, 103, 104

Taylor, Rev. I., on Etruscan tem-
ples, 119 ; cited, 195 ; his Etrus-
can Researches, 210 sq

Temples, Etruscan, 119 sq., 121

Thucydides cited, 168



ZAN

Tignoso, Monte, skulls from, 176
Tombs, Etruscan, 22 sq.
Tortorelli excavations, 82
Turanians, their creed, 216
Turscha, the, 172

TJMBRIANS, their influx into
^ Italy, 169; skulls of the,
198 sq.

WARRO cited, 173

Velsina. See Felsina

Venice, dialect in, 250

Via vEmilia, discoveries on the,
79 sq.

Vibrata valley, 85

'Vienna, La Liberazione di,' Bo-
lognese poem, 250

Villanova collection of remains,
48 sq. ; accounts of, ib. ; tombs
and skeletons, 50 sq., 269 ;
pottery, 56 ; ossuaries, 58 ; clay
spindles, 59, 70 ; bronze articles,
60, 65, 67,69, 71 ; toilette articles,
62 ; war implements, 64 sq. ;
novacula, 66 ; tintinnabula, 68 ;
idol, ib. ; tombs, 72 ; great anti-
quity of, 141; skulls from, 180,
181, 182, 183 ; inscriptions, 233

Virgil cited, 55, 171, 180

Vogt, Prof. Carl, 72, 177, 178, 181,
213

VXTELLS, Etruscan funerary,
115^,130

"V7"ULE, Colonel, on Aryan ety-
mology, 223

T'ANNETTI, Cav., on Etruscan

inscriptions, 235

Zannoni, Cav., his excavations, 22
sq., 97 ; cited, 39, 46, 87, 88^ 127,
235 ; on Etruscan bronzes, 265 sq.



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