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meanders, single, coupled, or
interlaced. The most general
are lines of disks, different in
dimensions, with three concentric
circles like some of the dice ;

Here the^nstru^nt "has been tllCD COIHC dotted pyramidal and

turned to make the different

serpentine lines of peculiar shape ;
the latter, which are also found on bronzes, may
denote the Genius of the Dead, or be emblems
of mortality ; whilst ducks and geese, living in air,
in water, and on earth, show the several abodes of




PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 59

the phantasm or ghost, which we will not call a
spirit or a soul. Some have nude, archaic man-
nikins, disposed in lines round the vases ; they are
drawn as children draw, with big oval heads, double
lines for bodies, and single lines for limbs perhaps
they represent the manes who watch over the
sepulchre ; and the same may be said of the ser-
pents. The accessories of the ossuaries are mostly
patera and tazze, the five double cups before figured,
shaped like dice-boxes with the central diaphragm,
standing 22 centimetres (= 8*66 inches) high, and
with an interior diameter of 16 centimetres (= 6 '30
inches) : perhaps they represent the SsVa^ ap^ixv-
TrsXAov or the 6<x-j7rsXXov of Homer (II. vi. 220), and
of Aristotle (' De Hist. Animal.' ix. 40). A fre-
quent ornament is the double line of crosses, some
contained in circles : a subject treated by the learned
Gabrielle de Mortillet, in ' Le Signe de la Croix
avant le Christianisme,' ch. 2. Finally, three ossu-
aries and one black patera (Numa nigrum catinum)
have each a meander, not engraved, but made by
a white band of superimposed paste unhardened
in the fire. This, perhaps, is an approach to
painting.

The so-called clay spindles found at Villanova



60 THE WORKS OF MAN.

number 169, and of these only 3 bear makers'
marks. 1 As 7 were yielded by a single tomb, and
an accessory vase contained 12, Count Gozzadini
suggests that they were the glandules attached to
the robe, intended to preserve the graceful form ;
for instance, in the pallium of Jupiter, the tunic
of Minerva, the chlamys of the Augustan lares,
and the peplum of Hope and of the tragedian. He
assigns the same office to 24 bronze globes and
spheroids, the ' clavi ' of Visconti, of which 8 were
produced by one sepulchre ; each was attached to
a ring, and the whole weighed 24 to 33 grammes
( = 37O'37 to 509 '26 grains avoir.). He would thus
explain that debated passage in Horace (Epist. i.
6, 50) :

Mercemur servum qui dictet nomina, Isevum
Qui fodiat latus, et cogat trans pondera dextram
Porrigere.

The metal articles were mostly bronze, with a
few iron. Analysis of the former {fibula} gave
copper 84*26 parts, and 15*74 of tin. Of the nine
specimens of ess rude, irregularly shaped (7), and

1 Count Gozzadini (Di un Sepolcreto, etc., p. 20) published eighteen
of these makers' marks, which are either upon the edges, the bellies,
or the bottoms of the vases. Usually they are supposed to show the
proprietor or the value of the article ; they may be so on the two
fibulce of Villanova, but these valueless bits of clay would hardly
deserve the honour.



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 61

parallelopipedons (2), as if cut from an ingot ; the
smallest weighed 12-52, and the largest 64' 1 8
grammes (= 193^2 1 to 989^2 grains avoir.). Count
Gozzadini, finding them only in four tombs out of
193, doubts their being Charon's fee the conclusion
is against Villanova being purely Etruscan. Of
the 7$ fibula, 550 were bronze, offering at least n
several types ; many were in pairs, as if used double
to fasten the ' plaid ; ' and one tomb produced 30,
several of them twisted and broken. The hollow
heads were stuffed with a paste containing 65 per
cent, of alum, oxide of iron and carbonate of lime,
30 of silex, and the rest water and loss ; the enamel,
which was generally dark blue and sometimes bright
yellow, was composed of lime, silex, and oxides of
iron and copper. The shapes are simple, delicate,
and elegant, with fine curves and clearly cast
angles ; the elongated forms explain why long, lean
Junius was called 'fibula ferrea' (Quinctil. vi. 3) ;
and the ornaments are as various as the modules.
Here a bird of many-coloured glass stands in relief;
there the metal contains a bit of amber, which the
old Etruscans appear to have valued as highly as
the modern Somal. 1 Others had chains, beads of

1 Prof. Capellini (Congresso Internazionale,ec.,nel 1874. Bologna :



62 THE WORKS OF MAN.

blue glass, and similar materials, with pincers, and
decorations, either pendent, or strung to the convex
portion.

The hair-pins numbered 53, besides the many
which crumbled to pieces, and 6 were found in a
single tomb. The large, hollow heads were stuffed,
like they<^/^, with siliceous paste, and the blade was
long enough to be used by Fulvia, Herodias, or
the Trasteverian virago. Some of these served to
retain the hair in position, and others are the
discriminates so called from the frontal discrimen
(parting) which, in the days of Tertullian, dis-
tinguished the matron from the maiden. Many of
the shapes are still preserved by the peasantry of
Polesina, and other parts of Italy. There were also
bundles of rings, 29 items in one sepulchre, which,
perhaps, were also used for supporting the hair.
We find in Martial (ii. 66) :

Unus de toto peccaverat orbe comarum
Annulus, incerta non bene fixus acu.

The ' tutulus,' a pyramidal or conical Etrus-
can cap, more or less acute, which represented the

Gamberini e Parmeggiani, 1874) discusses the Bolognese amber a
red, not a polychroic, variety, which is still found at Scanello, and about
Castel S. Pietro ; whilst the polychroic has recently been discovered
in the Cesenate. Thus the Umbrians and the Etruscans had no need to
seek the semi-mineral in Sicily or on the Baltic shores.



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 63

modern chignon, also required some such support *
besides the teenies (fillets) and the bronze plates,
17 millimetres broad, which resembled the a^Troxs^
of the Greek belles. There were rings of other
sorts, especially groups of fives passing through a
large circle which bore a peduncle. The average
diameter was 8 millimetres (= 3' 15 inches) ; a
single ossuary yielded 46 bunches, besides 578
scattered specimens ; they were, probably, the de-
corations of a dress consumed on the rogus, and,
though cumbrous, they are not more so than the
' jets ' still in fashion.

The small number (26) of bracelets, large and
massive, thin and cylindrical, straight and twisted,
shows that these articles were not of universal use,
as we might expect to find amongst a people
coming from the East. Some are TrspixdpTria
(wristlets), others bracelets proper, worn by both
sexes upon the upper arm (7rspi&pa%tovia} ; a single
skeleton had an iron specimen, probably valuable
in those times. One is marked with the broad
arrow J, ; it also appears on the pottery, on a



1 ' Tot premit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum
caput' (Juvenal, vi. 502), is painfully true in 1875. The tutuhts, or
lofty conical cap of the priest, is worn by women in the Grotta delle
Bighe (Dennis, i. 330 and 341).



64 THE WORKS OF MAN.

bronze hatchet from Villanova, on a cyst found
near Bologna, and on a carved ivory in the Vulci
necropolis. Some are bent and broken, evidently
by a heavy instrument.

The clavi, or buttons, 8 millimetres (= 3*15
inches) in breadth, and 199 in number, might have
been applied to the peplum or tunic. The ossuary
used also to be similarly draped in very ancient
times ; and our modern churchyards still show its
descendant in the shape of a veiled urn a mean-
ingless article until we again begin to ' cremate.'
The other buttons were, possibly, rather ornaments
than intended for buttoning. 1

The warlike weapons were two thick and heavy
lance-heads, with tangs to fit into the shaft the
lance is believed, despite Herodotus, to be of
Etruscan origin. Of the Paalstab or hatchets (?)
two were of iron and three of bronze. One of the

1 I have never been able to arrive at any conclusion concerning
the date when the button-hole originated. The oldest form, preserved
by the peoples of the nearer East, is the loop which encircles the
button. In Prof. Nicolucci's Age de la pierre dans les Provinces
Napolitaines, published by the Congres, he remarks of (p. 32) five
almond-shaped stones : 'J'ignore a quoi les instruments pouvaient
servir, mais on peut penser ou que ce sont des poingons a double
pointe . . . ou un bouton a fermoir pour ve'tements, parceque, dtroite-
ment serre*s au milieu avec un fil sur une peau ou sur du drap, ils
pouvaient etre commode'ment introduits dans un oeillet, et tenir les
pieces de vetement solidement serre'es.'



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 65

latter, found broken into four twisted fragments,
is remarkable for the disposition of its wings and
for the length, 9 centimetres (= 3*54 inches), being
exactly half the breadth. The other, measuring 1 7
centimetres (= 6^69 inches) long, and i6\ ( = 6*5
inches) broad, has the wings or lateral points
curved ; and the unusually thin blade is only i milli-
metre (= 0*04 of an inch) thick ; it might have
been used in religious ceremonies or as a votive
offering, like the large bronzes from the Danish
turbaries described by Worsaae. There are five
smaller articles (axes ?), between 8 and 1 1 centi-
metres (= 3-15 to 4-33 inches) long, by 5 (= 1-97
inch) broad ; and five have sockets instead of
grooves. One shows an iron edge set in the bronze,
which would suggest the baser metal to have been
still valuable ; yet 18 are wholly iron ; and another
bears the wedge V- Two little archaic horses pro-
bably belonged to the bridle-bit, offerings made
when the steed was slain to carry the ghost into
what Dahome calls Kutome, or Dead Man's Land.

The cultri number 10 iron to 18 bronze, which
may almost be called copper, as the percentage of
tin is only 3*93. The very thin handles of wood
or bone were rivetted by short screws. The most

F



66



THE WORKS OF MAN.



peculiar, but by no means, as has been stated, pecu-
liarly characteristic of Felsina, are a dozen 'ferra-
menta lunata' (Columella De R.R. xii. 56), with edges
only in the convex parts of the crescents. These have
been found in the islands of the Greek Archipelago,
in Attica, Bceotia, in many parts of Etruria, and
even north of the Alps. The fineness of the blade
suggests the razor, which India preserves in the
hatchet shape.




THE NOVACULA.



Thus we find in Martial (ii. 58),

Sed fuerit curva cum tuta novacula theca
Frangam tonsori crura manusque simul ; 1

and Pliny (N.H. xxxii. 5), terms a fish 'novacula

1 Varro (de R. R. ii. cap. n) tells us that the Romans began to
shave about the fifth century u.C. But the learned Prof. Rocchi has



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS.



seu orbis.' Ten large and heavy iron knives, some
with handles of the same metal, are the ' clunacula,'
used to cut up the victims, and there are a few
shovel-shaped articles, with ornamental hilts and
bevelled edges, which may have served as bis-
touries to inspect the entrails.

Six bronzes, composed of two concentric circles
united by five rays, may be phalerce or horse-frontlets ;
but no other museum possesses anything like them.





THE BISTOURIE.



THE PHALER..



Equally mysterious are the hatchet-shaped
bronzes, with large rings for handles, and in some
cases profusely ornamented on both sides. They

shown that this was a custom of the Etruscans long before that period.
The cemetery of Alba Longa and the oldest Italic tombs have not
yielded razors. Prof. Lignana (Bullet. delF Inst. Arch. Rom. Jan.-
Feb. '75), considering the words Ksura (Rig-Veda}, vp6v (Iliad, x. 173,
7Ti Kvpov 'iararai cr/e^c), the German scheere ( = shears), holds that the
shaving implement was known to the Indo-European race before its
separation.

F 2



68



THE WORKS OF MAN.



are associated with small elongated rods of bronze
capped at either end, and this suggested that
the plate is a trigonum or deltaton ; in fact, a
gong sounded with the virgula. Real tintinnabula
were known to the Etruscans, but that would not
hinder them from using an article so common




throughout the East. On the other hand, when
struck they yield no sound ; they are evidently unfit
for cutting, and the bronze nails always found near
them suggest that they were mounted on staves and
were carried in procession the 'pelekys,' or axe,
being an amulet against fascination. The Canadian,



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 69

or rather Catholic, superstition of church-bells fright-
ening away evil spirits is found in Ovid (Fast. v. 4,

23).

Temesaeaque concrepat aera
Et rogat ut tectis exeat umbra suis.

On which Gierig remarks : ' JEris autem tinnitum
aptum esse habitum ad spectra ejicienda docet
Neapolis ; ' and the Scholiast of Theocritus teaches
us that the sound of brass was used in the most
sacred rites by reason of its purity, and because
it expelled abominations. Hence the bells was
adopted by Christianity and rejected by El Islam.

Three bronzes, whose long, broad handles and
rounded heads represent capcdines or cup-ladles for
drawing wine during the sacrifices have also been
found ; one in a clay pot, probably the tirnnla fictilis
serving for the same object ; while a second was
taken from one of the six distinguished tombs. The
latter also yielded an inverted cone, with two move-
able handles, to prevent the liquor being spilt, and a
cover with the apical knob : this was probably the
amiila or acquiminarium for the lustration water,
not the situla for sacrificial wine. Here were nails
of sorts, one bearing on its broad head the cross,
interlaced with the five circles of the mystic die. It



70 THE WORKS OF MAN.

is suggested that the latter may have been used
either for the coffin, or as an offering to Charon, in
case his barque required repair. Less intelligible
are the seven hollow fusiform rods with raised cir-
cles and hatted heads which so frequently occur.
Some antiquaries have seen in them
spindles, or 'wharrow spindles' those
used when walking. But the practical
fileuse declared that they are of no ac-
count for her trade.

It is a proof of high antiquity that
only one ' idol ' or human figure for
worship was found. Better proportioned
than are most archaic specimens, it
appears, judging from the bosom, to be
a woman ; and there are signs of her
having been placed upon a pedestal.
The head bears the symbolic circle,
with two reversed birds, whilst another
pair of volatiles perches upon the
haunches ; and her arms appear to be holding two
spherical bodies. All who are familiar with modern
art in Egypt, Syria, and Persia will recognise these
bird ornaments. The other figures are those on
pottery and the archaic horses before mentioned.



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 71

Amongst minor matters are a small bronze
sphere with two projecting points ; a bronze ring
with the mystic Tau ; a little bronze handle richly
adorned ; four volsellce (tweezers) ; an aurisculpium
(ear-pick) ; five needles and nine bronze brooches.
The bone implements are fibulce, a cylinder (a
handle ?), and other articles of less importance.

As regards the tomb-people, Count Gozzadini,
judging from the phase of art and from the pre-
sence of the as rude a coin unknown to the
days of Romulus 1 determines Villanova to be not
Umbrian, but Etruscan, of the earliest iron age,
whose apogee of civilisation preceded the founda-
tion of Rome. He utterly rejects the Gauls both

1 With great satisfaction I see Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B., in his
Archceology of Rome (2 vols. : Murray, 1874), sturdily preserving
these time-honoured names, and thus protesting against the vague,
nebulous, wunderbar myth-theories with which Germany during the
last generation has infected the exact, practical, and matter-of-fact
English mind. Perizonius, Pouilly, and Beaufort began the heresy,
but left no school. As usual, it was adopted by the Germans, who
carry out, but who do not invent ; and Niebuhr so great as a his-
torian, so small as a topographer, geographer, and archaeologist took
it up as an especial hobby. It has now tyrannised over the English
mind for thirty-seven years, and the period (1825-1862) was unhappily
that when political and other matters introduced a kind of Teutono-
mania into our island. The reaction began with M. J. J. Ampere's
Histoire Romaine a Rome (1862); and lately M. F. Max Miiller's theory
has successfully been proved a 'solar myth' with a tendency, I might
add, towards the earth's satellite.



72 THE WORKS OF MAN.

here and at Marzabotto. 1 He is joined by Henzen,
who, with a host of others, first judged the sepul-
chres, chiefly from their shape, to be Keltic ; by Dr.
Forchhammer ; by MM. Minervini and Fabretti
(the great Etruscologue) ; and by Prof. Carl Vogt, 2
whose outspoken theories upon the subject of faith,
e.g. ' L'Etre Superieur est un produit de 1'ignor-
ance et de la peur,' and upon the friendship be-
tween Mr. Calvert and King Cakombau (p. 307),
must have somewhat startled the ' respectables ' of
the Bologna Congress. The late Professor Orioli,
writing anonymously in the ' Arcadia ' paper (T.
412-414, p. 58), offered the three following objec-
tions :

i. The tombs were neither rock-hewn, nor of

1 ' L'e'le'ment e"trusque de Marzabotto est sans melange avec 1'e'le'-
ment gaulois ' (Extrait des matSriaux pour Vhistoire primitive de
rhomme: Toulouse, 1873).

2 In ' Anthropophagie et Sacrifices humains' (Congres, pp. 295-
328) man is successively insectivorous, frugivorous, and carnivorous,
or rather anthropophagous (p. 296). Cannibalism denotes a relatively
advanced civilisation (p. 298). Every religion is, without exception,
' 1' enfant de la peur et del'ignorance' (p. 300); the 'Deity is unknown, and
religion is the worship of the inconnu' (ibid.}; 'Dieu est un superlatif,
dont le positif est 1'homme' (ibid.}; 'les furieux couronne's de 1'ancien
Testament' (p. 308); human sacrifice amongst the ancient Israelites
(p. 321); and a few other vigorous assertions of the kind, must have
been somewhat ' shokin' ' to the sons of that ' terre predestined,' who
combine easy incuriousness with a strong prepossession in favour of
' leaving things alone.'



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 73

opus quadratum, nor barrow-covered, after Rasennic
fashion.

2. They contained articles of small value.

3. They had few weapons he might have
added, they lacked inscriptions.

He therefore determined the tenants to be of
barbarous strain, aborigines, Pelasgi, Umbrians a
theory also supported by the distinguished Professor
G. Nicolucci or even the Boii Gauls, who ended
the Etruscan rule in the fourth century of Rome.
M. de Mortillet assigned them to the interval be-
tween the bronze age and the Etruscan occupation,
and, ' pour ne rien prejuger sous le rapport his-
torique,' he prudently indicated the epoch as that of
early Rome, First Iron. Prof. Calori reminds us
of Polybius (ii. 17), who declares that the adjacent
Gauls trafficked with the Etruscans, and that the
only art or science known to the former was agricul-
ture. This assertion, however, is somewhat modi-
fied in the matter of metal by Livy (xxxvi. 40) ; in
ornamentation by Diodorus Siculus (v. 27-30) ; and,
finally, by modern investigation. That distinguished
authority, however, is positive that ' 1'antica necro-
poli alia Certosa e Etrusca, etruschissima.' Finally,
Prof. Count J- Conestabile (pp. 74-81, ' Monumenti



74 THE WORKS OF MAN.

e Annali di Corr. Arch.,' 1856), comparing Villanova
with Stadler in the Trentine, draws from the archi-
tectonic forms and the interior disposition of the
sepulchres the two following conclusions :

1. The Etruscans everywhere varied their struc-
tures to conform with material means and with local
customs.

2. The northern Etruscans did not display in
their cemeteries scattered near the Po and about its
Campagna the wealth and luxury of Middle Etruria.
The latter has ever been the great centre, the chief,
the most evident, and the most durable image of the
civilisation and power of the race a development
which, we may add, resulted from commerce with
Greece and the nearer East

Despite this weight of authority, I must still
withhold judgment. The late Count Giovanni da
Schio (loc. cit. p. 15, etc.) seems to have shown
satisfactorily enough that, in the Vicentine, Gallic
are freely mixed with Etruscan local names. But
a stronger reason is the similarity of the catacombs
in Guernsey, not to mention other places, with these
so-called Etruscan remains. The former we know
to be Keltic from such names as ' Pouquelaye '
(Pwca= fairy, and lies, a lay or place), ' Les Rocques



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS. 75

Brayes' (in Breton, ' Roc'h Braz,' les grosses pierres ) \
and ' L'autel du Tus ' (or Thus), pronounced
' 1'autel du Dehus ' evidently the Dus or Dusius of
the Gauls. In Guernsey we have the hougue or
cairn ; the kistvaen (Chambre des Fe'es) containing
human ashes, pottery, celts, and arrow-heads ; pro-
tected by cap-stones or ledgers, and floored with
irregular slabs and round, smooth, peddles (for in-
stance, at La Creux des Fees) ; ' in which were
deposited' ('Hist, of Guernsey' by Jonathan Dun-
can. London: Longmans, 1841) ' the bones, urns,
and other vessels, with such offerings as the zeal or
affection of the friends of the deceased was disposed
to leave with them/

I would not strain the resemblance. The kist-
vaen was found by Capt. Congreve, and, since his
day (1845), by many explorers in India and other
parts of Asia. But the slab and pebble floorings,
which argue that the dead would pollute the sacred
face of earth, are highly suspicious features, sug-
gesting identity of race. On the other hand, we
shall find the huts parquetted with this rudest of
mosaic which still forms the pavement in the streets
of North Italian towns, and the 'long home' in
Etruria is often a palpable copy of the home. And,



76 THE WORKS OF MAN.

again, I have shown (p. 51, ' Anthropologia,' No. T,
October, 1873), that the Tupi Brazilians buried
water-rolled pebbles as well as stone implements
with their dead.



PART II.
THE ABODES OF MAN



'L'fitrurie, par la civilisation Romaine, a hate la civilisation de
Phumanite toute entiere, ou du moins elle lui a laisse par une longue
suite des siecles 1'empreinte de son caractere'

HUMBOLDT, Cosmos (n.)



79



SECTION I.

VARIOUS FINDS.

TAKING Bologna as a centre, the whole circle, with
a radius of 22 kilometres, and especially the line of
the Via ^Emilia, appears to be one vast repository
of Etruscan antiquities. As early as 1848 Sig.
G. Dozza discovered on the Ronzano hill, 4 kilo-
metres west-south-west of the city, various bronzes ;
a sword, with broken blade and handle ; two bridle-
bits, with small figures of horses ; and a fragment
of the fusiform and hatted rod before alluded to.
Three years afterwards Sig. P. Calari unearthed
human skeletons, bronzes, and coloured glass, near
Sta. Maddalena di Cazzano, 15 kilometres on the
riverine plains to the east- north-east. In 1854 the
property of Marchese Amorini, 13 kilometres east-
south-east of Bologna, and 6^ from Villanova,
disclosed a sepulchre containing yftfo/fe, and a
hair-pin adorned with glass. In this neighbourhood
an estate belonging to the Marchese Lodovico



8o THE ABODES OF MAN.

Mariscotti yielded such a quantity of laminated
gold wire an article found for the first time in the
Bolognese that it was secretly sold for a good
round sum, and to the great loss of archaeologists :
presently an ossuary disclosed the true character
of the find. In 1860 a slab and pebble-rivetted
kistvaen came to light in the parish Delle Lagune,
where the small torrential ' Rio Mavor ' breaks
through the Castlar gorge. It contained black
pottery ; clay ' dumb-bells ' (see Sect, iv.) marked
with a wedge (V) ; hair-pins ; and a score of
bronze fibula adorned with amber and figures of
birds. Six kilometres farther from the capital, in
the parish of Canovella, nearly opposite Marza-
botto, appeared two crescent-shaped cultri or
novacultz, and brooches {fibultz], with beads of
glass and amber. At Ramonte, in the opposite
mountains of Medelana, were found pottery ; cir-
cular bones with engraved lines ; two bridle-bits ;
a fusiform, hatted rod ; and a bronze ladle with a
handle like an S inverted. In 1865 at Pontecchio,
along the Reno, about 7 kilometres distant from
Bologna, and beyond Ronzano, a kistvaen, resem-
bling those of Villanova, was opened by Sig. C.
Monari, who gave the contents to the Communal


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