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(plain, 36; ornamented, 20 or i'8o to 100 of the
figured, and one in a marble vase.

II. 41 were in fosses, or o'56 to 100 of the

III. The two wells had each one.

There is little at present to view in the Char-
treuse, except the local lion, its modern cemetery.

1 Here, again, we have the precaution of not allowing the corpse
to touch the earth. The Moslems, on the contrary, do not permit the
earth to touch the corpse ; the idea being that it would cause pain to
the still sentient clay. I wonder much that when all the press in Eng-
land, during the winter of 1874-5, was discussing an improved form of
sepulture, suggested by Mr. J. Seymour Haden, no one pointed out
how the system had extended through the Moslem East since the
days of Mohammed, and probably for an indefinite period before him.


The entrance-hall contains the monuments which
precede the seventeenth century ; and one of them,
a sarcophagus on four dwarf pillars, resembles
Petrarch's tomb at Arqua. The necropolis is
thoroughly Italian, and one of the most remarkable
of its kind. Series of arcades, developing their long
galleries around the cloisters, embrace the little old
Certosa church which formed the nucleus of the big
new establishment. The bodies of the wealthy are
deposited under the pavement, or in the thickness
of the walls ; whilst the poor lie in the open central
grounds. The walls of the Campo Santo are
adorned with busts, reliefs, and statues, some of
which pretend to considerable art and value its
general effect is somewhat that of a museum or a
sculpture-gallery. The only remnants of the old
tenants are a heap of water-worn oviform stones in
the western cloister, and two similar mounds in the
eastern, still showing the locality of the find. Even
in the church, skeletons were disinterred, as may be
seen from the fractures of the marble pavement
fronting the altar ; and a wall-tablet records the visit
of the fifth Archaeological Congress.

At the Certosa the useless arcade I speak as a
Briton crosses the Florence highway, and runs up


to the hill church of S. Luca, a favourite place of
pilgrimage, with a glorious view. Like that of
Vicenza, this gallery once bore frescoes showing the
' stemmata ' of noble families who built the several
arches, but during French occupation it was degraded
by whitewash. Our Gallic neighbours have not left
pleasant memories in this part of the world ; they
seem to have taken example from their forefathers,
the Boii, with the trifling difference of carrying off
instead of destroying. A mile and a half from the
Certosa places us at the villa of Count Denis Talon,
whose grounds command a prospect ready made for
its painter. Deep below the clay bank here sleep-
ing in stagnant pools, where during frosts boys slide ;
there trotting in a thready streamlet, whose bed is a
broad, white Arabian wady, in summer mostly bone-
dry lies the Reno River, no taciturnus amnis\ at
times the turbulent mountain-torrent, the general
drain of many a burrone or gully, springs from its
couch, in a mighty brown flood, and violently invades
the fields on either side. 1 A solid dam of masonry
crosses the Fiumara bed, and from the left bank sets

1 For its classical claims consult the volume Dell' Antico Ponte
Romano sul Reno lungo I' Emilia, e della precisa postura dell' Isola del
Congresso Triumvirale. Memoria del Dott. Luigi Frati (Anno vi. Atti
e Memorie). Bologna, 1868.


off the leat which supplies the city. Fertile ledges,
the site of the ancient river-valley, limited north as
well as south by mound-like and conical hill-ranges,
denoting the old bank, mark where it debouches
upon the plain. And afar, stretching from west to
south-west, are the steel-blue peaks, bluffs, and
blocks which, snow-capped in winter, part us from
Tuscan Pistoja.

Madame de Talon takes an intelligent interest in
the excavations upon her property beyond the Reno.
We cross the stream by a solid bridge of stone-
work, not too solid for its task, as the five arches,
of which three are full-sized, are sometimes choked
by the floods. Here is the modern ' Casalecchio,' a
common term in this part of Italy, meaning a group
of houses Casalecchio di Rimini has lately distin-
guished itself by discovering a foundry of the later
bronze age. The sixty tenements are covered by a
tete de pont, and this forms a part of the earthwork
line of vallation which defends Bologna on all but the
southern or hill side. At the Osteria del Calza,
famed for revelry on Sundays and Saint Mondays,
we turn to the right, and ascend to the plane of the
Diluvial epoch, when the Glacial disappeared in ca-
taracts and cataclysms that swept everything before


them. The bank shows a section of the ground ;
humus based on a stratum of ' ghiaia,' and these
water-rolled pebbles overlie miocenic marl, resting
upon impermeable clay we shall need this observa-
tion at Marzabotto. Vines and wheat flourish, but
the trees are stunted. The find was made when dig-
ging a trench to replant the elms. Ancient Casa-
lecchio stood at the very edge of the raised river-
bank, limiting the stream to the north, with a dainty
view, as if it had been chosen by Carthusians. The
little cemetery lay behind it. In Roman cities we
usually look for graveyards to the south ; in the
Greek colonies of Italy and Sicily to the north (De
Jorio, p. 52) ; the only rule of Etruria is to seek the
main lines of road. Three skeletons facing east-
wards had been exhumed, and one was transported
to Villa Talon, much to the horror of certain inmates.
It was declared to be Roman by the fact of its lying
upon broad tegultz, or pan-tiles, under a sloping
cover formed by two rows of the same pottery. This
is probably the local variety for the earthenware
coffins (Jictilia solia) of Pliny (xxxv. 46). The
remains in situ were puddings of broken and
crushed wine-jars; the ciottoloni (water-rolled pebbles)
used as flooring for house and tomb; and a bit of


intonaco (plaster or daub), an adobe-like mass, burnt
red, but still showing marks of calcined stalks and
the tracery of leaves. The other articles were a few
coins comparatively modern ; the sheath of a fibula,
with faz. patina ; a number of solid amphora, and
a fragment of pottery with bits of carbonised clay
set, by way of ornament, in the lighter-coloured mate-
rial. The owner will dig in a straight line between
the skeletons, and if the labourers come upon the
ancient highway a rich trouvaille may be expected.
A little further down stream lies the property of
Marchese Boccadelli, who is also preparing to make
fouilles, especially upon the northern range of
hillocks, the bank of a Reno much larger than it is




BEYOND Casalecchio the Florence road follows the
left of the valley, passing through well-cultivated
lands, where even wheel-ploughs are seen, and
amongst villas which must be charming in the sum-
mer heats. A total of i hour 15 minutes' sharp driving
places us at the Borgo del Sasso, a substantial vil-
lage, with the size of a hamlet and the houses of a
city. Near it is the Ca di Bassi, in the Predio Cor-
nelli, where six tombs were unearthed. One of them
contained the skeleton, with bronze vases, a clay
tazza, dice, and pebbles (counters ? ) ; the other five
showed remnants of the pyre, bronze engraved
fibula, with burnt-red pots, on some of which were
graffiti, whilst the sigli, or makers' marks, were very
clear. This is known from its owner as the ' Cor-
nelli find ' ; and in the precipitous face of the rock-
wall on the right are several caves : the entrances


are of that converging form by which the Egyptians
effected an economy of lintel ; and, if they have not
been dug, the sooner it is done the better.

Beyond the Borgo we debouch upon the con-
fluence of the Setta from the south-east with the
Reno from the south-west. The picturesque view of
sulphur-blue water, in broad, glaring white beds
overhung by high banks ; of gashed ravine and of
shaggy foot-hill backed by the true Apennines, is
justly admired, even in the land of ' rock, ruin, and
ravine.' Nor less singular is the road at this pass, a
blending of the highway and the railway. A deep
cutting in the sandstone rock leaves a slice standing
as a 'gardefou' upon the tall river-cliff; and, under
the off or right side, 'pedionomitic,' ^^-troglodytic,
abodes, cut, like those of Ariano (Capitanata), in the
' molassa,' line the bottom of the scarp. This bend
much resembles the place where the French line
from Beyrut to Damascus overlooks the picturesque
Wady Hammanah. Thence we run up and down the
left side of the Reno, where the road is built on arches
against inundations, and, after I hour 30 minutes
which will stretch to two or three if you ride in a
one-horse voiture de place we reach the little station
and village of Marzabotto. It is usually placed at


27 kilometres from Bologna : Dennis (i. 35, 'Cities
and Cemeteries,' etc.) says fourteen English miles ;
but I hardly think that we travelled at the rate of
three leagues an hour. Here we find a decent
'osteria;' and we enjoy all the civility and cordiality,
the good cooking, and the comfortable ingleside, com-
bined with the moderate charges which characterise
such places in the byways of Italy.

The bran-new Villa, with its single tall tower on
the hill overlooking Marzabotto, belongs to the Aria
family, now Counts of the Italian kingdom. The
site has been known to Etruscologists for some
years. As early as 1831 a number of bronze
statuettes and other important objects attracted the
attention of Micali (' Monument. Inediti,' p. 115, pi.
xviii.). In 1850, again, other antiquities came to light,
but they were readily dispersed. About 1862 systema-
tic research was begun by the father of the present
owner, the late Cav. Pompeo Aria, who died in May
1874 at the fine age of eighty-five. It is a thousand
pities that he had not more sentiment of archaeology
than to build up the old stones in his new house ;
and that he did not employ more competent investi-
gators than the rude men who superintended the
works. On the other hand he was fortunate in


persuading Count Gozzadini to overlook part of the
excavations ; and he wisely printed and published at
his own expense two illustrated brochures by his
learned friend. These are entitled ' Di una antica
Necropoli in Marzabotto,' &c. (20 figs., 1865), and
'Di ulteriori scoperte,' &c. (17 figs., 1870). The two
large quartos (Fava e Garagnani), followed by ' Ren-
seignements sur une ancienne Necropole a Marza-
botto,' 1871 a brochure for the use of the Anthropo-
logical Congress have been noticed by a host of
foreign writers. The Villa contains on the first floor
a fine collection, of which the earlier discoveries are
noticed by Count Gozzadini (p. 17, ' Di alcuni Se-
polcri,' &c., and pp. 9-17 of the ' Renseignements ') ;
and the town-house has, we are told, another. Unfor-
tunately, when Count Aria goes to Rome he takes his
keys with him, and, perhaps, the less a stranger sees
of the ' fattore, fatto re,' Giacomo Benni, a ' lewd
fellow of the baser sort,' the better for the temper of
both ' parties.'

The site of this Etruscan city, whose name, unless
embalmed in the modern Misanello and Misano, has
utterly perished, requires careful study. Count Goz-
zadini's plan is old, and it wants a profile and section
of the ground ; but there is nothing better to offer,


nor will there be until Cav. Zannoni has published
his valuable volume.

Here the swift and brawling Reno, flowing from
the south-west, forms a loop, with the long diameter

A, Misanello. B, The Campuccelliera tombs, c, Morello tombs. D, High street and road.
E, E, Prolongation of the ancient city now washed away by the Reno. M, Misano.
x, Cross street to the east, y, Cross street to the west.

facing to the south-east, and then bends to the
north and north-east. At the most important point
it hugs the left bank, a perpendicular of friable ma-
terials, at least 80 feet high ; and thus it flows round


three sides of the wedge-shaped projection, which
measures 700 yards in length by 350 of average
breadth. This area, of 245,000 square yards( = 5O'62
acres), has two distinct levels ; the upper, which sup -
ports Misanello, is the oldest part of the river-site,
backed by the hills forming its bank. The lower
(Misano) is a flat ledge, the raised side of the
present river.

We begin by visiting Misanello. Passing through
the cour d'honneur and the southern gate of the
Villa Aria, we walk a few yards along a broad
gravelled walk, dividing the garden, to a newly-
built pillar ; and we regret to see that these ' modern
enrichments' almost equal in number the old re-
mains. It records the names of Aria and Gozzadini,
with the date MDCCCLX. ; and it bears on one side
(V)MRVS probably a family name, which some have
hastily connected with the Umbrians and on the
other AKIVS. Both are in Etruscan characters ; they
were found upon fragments of tiles, and a third
inscription was yielded by a fibula. Beyond it
begin the ruins, and here we at once enter upon
debated ground. Count Gozzadini, followed by
Prof. Count J. Conestabile and others, sees a
necropolis ; the Abbe G. Chierici and Cav. Zannoni


detect the abodes of the living, not of the dead.
The foundations of the dry walls are water-rolled
pebbles, varying from 1*40 metre (=4 feet 7 inches)
to two metres in thickness. Upon these is laid the
opus guadratum, of dimensions considerably smaller,
and seldom exceeding two courses. The coarse
calcareo-marly stone according to the guide, an
intelligent gardener is still quarried in the Virgata
Valley, some five or six miles up stream, and we
shall find that it is nearly the only material used.
The proprietor is entitled to our gratitude for the
precaution of defending the old walls from Apennine
weather by loose tiles, which can readily be removed
on gala days. The numerous water-pipes, tubes
hollowed in cubes of stone, an industry still ex-
tending from Trieste to Recoaro, suggest, as in
Palmyra, the utilisation of rain. And now we come
upon what appears to be distinctly the foundation, a
house with a compluvium and a central cistern. I
offer the following rude sketch, made upon the spot.
The central well is fed by pipes, and the cavcedium,
the patio (Arabic 'bathah') of modern Iberia, is sur-
rounded by a corridor, upon which the rooms and
bed-chambers opened. We can restore the frontage
of the Etruscan house with the aid of a basso-rilievo



in the Museum of Florence. It shows two figures,
the one sitting, the other standing, backed by a door-
way and two flanking windows, the latter of double




J gfo. Iff*. I


a, Main entrance to Atrium, b, 5 steps to Cavaedium platform, c, The Cavaedium, 15 feet
square, d, The cistern (impluvium). e-l, The rooms.

lights, and provided, like the Egyptian, with a
square-headed and overhanging lintel, or rather cap-
ping of stone : this feature may be compared with
the rod-moulded door in Dennis (i.
233) ; his sketch, however, has panels
recessed one within the other, perhaps
suggesting the idea of a perspective.
Of our Etruscan house at Misanello Count Gozza-
dini writes (' Renseignements,' p. 8) : ' Un de ces
puits s'eleve sur 1'ancienne surface de la necropole par
un rectangle de quatre metres 36' de large (=14 feet
3-65 inches), et de i metre 20' (= 3 feet n inches)
de haut, bati en grosses pierres et en moellons a sec.


II y a des degres ' (five can still be counted) ' pour y
monter, comme dans les tombeaux de Castel d'Asso
dans 1'Etrurie moyenne, peut-etre pour aller celebrer
sur le defunt des silicernes annuels.' With this
conclusion we simply join issue.

The wells which, with the two at the Certosa, 1
number twenty-seven have again given rise to a
long debate. We will begin by dividing them into

Round-bottomed Well.

two kinds, the round-bottomed, and the pointed like
the amphora. The average depth varies from
2'io metres ( = 6 feet 10*68 inches) to 10*25 metres

1 In the Certosa wells the bodies, as has been said, were burnt.

I 2



(=33 feet 7*54 inches). The most remarkable is
seen in section upon the lower or Misano level, cut
by the modern Pistoja road, which took the place
of the highway on an upper gradient. It is well
preserved; still fed by drainage, and said to be 16
metres (=52 feet 5*92 inches) deep : no corpses were
found in it. The orifice varies from 30 centimetres

Sharp-bottomed Well.

( =11*8 1 inches) to 77, and even 80 ( = 30*31 to
31*50 inches), abolishing the theory which makes
the mouth too narrow to admit a human being, and
suggesting, consequently, that the walls had been
built up around the remains. In all cases there


is a revetment of mortarless pebbles, allowing
percolation, whilst the bottom is sunk, to prevent
loss, into the impermeable clay which we remarked
at Casalecchio.

These so-called puits funtraires, ' which would
be a unique feature of Etruria,' 1 were found to
contain bronze vases and rings, ceramic tablets
one inscribed with a single name pottery, and
painted urns, with several strata of bones, chiefly
of sheep and goats, pigs and dogs. According to
Prof. Count J. Conestabile ('Congres,' p. 257), but
upon what authority I know not, ' from one to three
human bodies were found in them, sometimes in the
raised and doubled position, as shown by certain
tombs of the Stone Age. They were surrounded
by pebbles, which also underlay the head, probably
for protection ; whilst in the lower part and under
the skeleton there was generally a large urn.'
Similar constructions have been found in Savoy and
in Transalpine Gaul, especially at Troussepoil, Beau-
gency, Villeneuve-le-Roi, Trigueres, and Gourge.
According to M. Quicherat this custom began, not
during Gallic autonomy, but only after the Roman

1 This was asserted by Prof. Conestabile at the Congress, but it is
by no means the case, as will presently appear.


conquest. In Middle Etruria, Dennis (i. 121) at
first believed them to be ' silos,' the ' sili ' of Sicily,
and the a-sipoi or a-ipoi of the Cappadocian and
Thracian Greeks, but he presently ' had not the
smallest doubt of their sepulchral character.'

I find it easier to believe either that a similar
form was superstitiously used for the sepulchre and
for secular purposes, or that these were simply
cisterns and ' silos ' proper, into which skeletons
and other articles have been thrown, perhaps during
the sack of the settlement. If Misanello be a
village they cannot be funerary ; and, at any rate, the
way in which they are scattered over the lower
level (Misano) instead of being aligned, like all other
Etruscan sepulchres, along the main roads, is a
strong argument in disfavour of the sepulchral
theory which is now generally waxing obsolete.

We presently reach a feature even more interest-
ing. Count Gozzadini tells us (loc. cit. p. 9) : ' Une
tombe, bien plus remarquable et bien plus grandiose,
mesure 10 metres de longueur sur chaque cote, sans
compter un avant-corps avec degres ' (five also here
visible), ' lesquels auront servi au mme usage que
ceux du puits funeraire, c'est a dire a monter pour
celebrer les silicernes annuels. II ne reste de cette


tombe que le soubassement de tuf, opere quadrato,
de i metre 19' (= 46*85 inches) de haut, de style
Toscane severe, bien sculpte, et correspondant a
celui de semblables monuments sepulcraux de
1'Etrurie moyenne, et notamment de Vulci, de
Caere, de Alsio, et de Tarquinii, qui cependant en
different par ce quits sont circulaires! *

But the latter is an essential difference. At first
sight I recognised a temple, an cedicula in antis, and
I was pleased to find that the same idea had oc-
curred to Cav. Zannoni and to the Abbe G. Chierici.
We cannot forget that a modern author, whose
Etruscan vagaries will be alluded to in a future
page, absolutely asserts 2 the non-existence of Etrus-
can temples, despite the ' Fanum Voltumnae ' of

1 The italics are mine.
2 What can we make of parallel passages like these ?

' There are reasons to be- ' There is not a vestige left of
lieve that there were temples in a single Etruscan temple, or of a
some of the Etruscan cities ' single Etruscan palace. Their
(p. 49). constructive powers and the re-

sources of their decorative arts
were lavished on their tombs '
(p. 41).

Nor can I see by what right Mr. Isaac Taylor declares (p. 326) that
' the Fanum Voltumnae was not a temple.' Its identification with the
cemetery of Castel d' Asso or Castellaccio has been questioned by
Dennis (i. 239), who shows some reasons for preferring Viterbo (i. 196)
and its church of Sta. Maria in Volturna.


Livy (iv. 23, &c.), where the deputies of the
Federation met, and the express statement of
Servius (ad ALneid, i. 422) that every city of
Etruria, 'genetrix et mater superstitionis,' had its
threefold temple outside, not inside, the walls
lodging the Triad, Jove, Juno, and Minerva, whence
the triple shrine of the Roman Capitol (Dennis,
i. 520).

The most careful excavations in this platform
failed to produce any trace of human remains.
The following is Cav. Zannoni's rough restoration
of this highly-interesting building. The direction
of the long walls is from north to south ; and
the steps show the entrance. The podium sup-
ported four monoliths, truncated columns, of which
some were found with socket-holes, probably to
hold wooden pillars. Vitruvius (iv. 7) represents
the epistylia to have been wooden ; hence the
broader intercolumnations than in the Greek orders,
and hence, probably, the reason why none of the
temples are standing. We have remarked that the
system is not yet wholly obsolete at modern Bo-
logna : a house in the Via Maggiore, close to the
two great Leaning Towers, still preserves the old
Etruscanism ; but this survival is about to be ' im-


proved off.' The posts supported architrave and
cornice ; there was, probably, a tympanum with cen-
tral light, possibly with sculptured figures ; and a

Profile of the base still existing.

Height of base 3 feet io'8s inches.

sloping roof is denoted by the find of many large
tiles and antefixae. These civilised ornaments,
hiding the ends of the joint-tiles, number 1 10,


suggesting that they were also equally applied to
sacred and profane buildings, sepulchres, or houses.
Some are plain ; others are encaustic with human
heads in demi-relief; and a few are decorated
with graceful palmlets raised and coloured.

Prolonging our walk for a few yards with an
easterly bend where the ancient river-bank slopes to
a lower level, we find another modern building in-
scribed ' Sorgente Etrusco,' from a relic which has
been unwisely removed. Beyond it a bran-new
obelisk single, as usual, for greater disgrace bears
the name of Prince Humbert, President of the fifth
Anthropological Congress, and the date of his visit
(October 5, 1871). The base shows at the four
angles as many archaic rams' heads, with the profiled
eye drawn, after the Egyptian fashion, as if fronting
the spectator. 1 They are copied from a colonnette

1 My venerable friend Prof. Owen (Journal of the Anthro. Insti-
tute, p. 244, vol. iv., no. I., April July, 1874) explains the 'elongate,
deeply-fringed, almond-shaped eye-aperture' of the Egyptian Middle
Empire by the effects of solar glare and sandy khamsin contracting the
winker-muscle (orbicularis palpebraruni}. The strong action of this
muscle, whose rixed point of attachment is to the inner side of the orbit
rim, a little below its equator, would draw the line of the eyelids ob-
liquely downwards and inwards. Hence, in artistic work, the slight
exaggeration of the rim of the outer and the dip of the inner canthus.
The law once passed in so hieratic a country would become unalterable

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