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turies A.D. ; and the Sarmatian words, Hun, Geloni,
and Sciri, or Scirri, have given a terrible significance
to the modern Scythian. But we may fairly doubt this
movement of the Slavs. The learned Fortis has
detected not a few Slav roots in the names of regions
and cities preserved by the Roman biographers and



168 THE ETRUSCAN MAN,

historians of Dalmatia ; and the Eneti or Veneti
of the Baltic, who, distinct from the Euganeans, 1
named Venice, and whom Mommsen suggests may
be Illyrians or Albanians, are still preserved in the
Wenden of adjoining Styria, popularly known as
Slovenes. This would denote the presence of the
Slavs in Southern Europe many centuries before the
date usually assigned to them : the question is
highly interesting, but here our business is with the
second, not the fourth, member of the family.

The first wave of the Aryo-Pelasgi may have
displaced the palaeolithic peoples to whom many
attribute such archaic titles of the Tiber as
Albula, Rumon, and Serra. These were the Fauns
and Satyrs, the Caci and Cyclopes, the nymphs and
dryads of a subsequent mythology : here we find the
terra filii, the aborigines of the classics,

Gensque virum truncis et duro robore natum.

The earliest families would be the lapyges of
Apulia ; the old Italian or Messapian coast, now the
Calabrias ; the Ausones and the Opici, 2 Obsci, or Osci,

1 The brachy cephalic Euganeo- Veneti are generally reputed Illyrians
or Illyrio-Greeks (the brachycephalic Albanians ?). Grotefend (Zur
Geographic von Alt-Italien. Hanover, 1840-2) would derive the Italic
aborigines from Illyria which, to say the least, is not proven.

8 Thucydides (vi. 2). On this Prof. Calori remarks : (loc. cit. p. 19)



THE ARYO-PELASGI. 169

who drove into Sicily the Siculi of Central Italy and
the other kindred tribes of Lucania and Campania
in fact, those thrust into the extremities of the
Peninsula by subsequent invaders. They found the
mysterious Ligurians who occupied, not -only modern
Liguria as far south as the Tiber, but also the greater
part of Italy, and who apparently extended for con-
siderable distances northwards and north-westwards,
to parts of France and even into Spain. The Ligu-
rian type of brachycephalic skull is found, not only
in the Certosa, but at Torre della Maina in the
Modenese (Calori and Nicolucci : ' La stirpe Ligure
in Italia ne' tempi antichi e moderni.' Atti del'
Accad. delle Scienze di Napoli, i. 1865). The
author holds that this race, cognate with the Iberians
and the Siculi, occupied the greater part of Italy.

The second great influx is that of the Um-
brians and the Prisci Latini, forming the ' groupe
Italiote ' of Mommsen. The former rounding the
head of the Adriatic and penetrating into the
Apennines, occupied Tuscany (Dion. Hal. i. 19),
the region between the Alps and the Apennines in
fact, the eastern lowlands of Italy. The Volsci,

' Per Opici non si devono intendere gli Oschi soli, ma i terrigeni od
originarii italici, da Ope terra.' Philistus in Dion. (i. 22) declares that
the occupants of Sicily were Ligurians, led by Siculus, son of Italus.



i;o THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

Samnites, and Sabines, the ,/Equi and Campani
(antiquissimus populus, Pliny and Florus) were
branches of this tree, and it can hardly date after the
twentieth century B.C. The Latins, who appeared
about the same time as, or a little after, the Umbri,
taking the westward line after leaving Lombardy,
established themselves on the occidental lowlands of
Latium, upon the basin of the Tiber, where the
marshes and lagoons of that age permitted, and
perhaps in Campania, the lands of the Opici.
These tribes, marching by land, must consequently
have passed through Venetia, Lombardy, Emilia,
and Romagna, doubtless leaving scattered settle-
ments en route, for the course of history was not so
regular as it appears on paper. All had a know-
ledge of metals, certainly of bronze, and, perhaps,
except the earliest, of iron : this fact we find in
the pre-historic terramare or mariere, the kitchen-
middens and the pile-villages.

The Umbro- Latins were shortly followed by the
earliest maritime emigration that of the Graeco-Pe-
lasgi, which poured into Italy via Arcadia, Thessaly,
and especially Epirus (Albania). They settled
themselves in Magna Graecia, containing lapygia
(Apulia), Italia Proper (the Calabrias), and CEnotria



THE PELASGO-TYRRHENIANS. 171

(Lucania). By degrees these three great groups,
marching over as many several routes to the
centre of the Italic Peninsula, conquered, by arts
rather than arms, the Ligurians, and the vividus
Umber, including his Sabine, Samnite, and other
kinsmen, 1 together with the Prisci Latini ; extended
themselves into Tuscany and the Padan valley,
where their earliest settlement was known as Spina ;
and reduced to Pelasgian rule all the choicest
regions east of the modern Lamone or Santerno
River. Their empire, characterised by its Cyclopean
or Pelasgian constructions, must be held to begin
with the fifteenth or even the seventeenth century
B.C. ; and its decadence, which might have arisen from
cosmical causes, earthquakes and eruptions, is re-
lated by history with fables and supernaturalisms
which, superficially considered, have made the name
of Pelasgi sound quasi-mythical ' like the knights-
errant of the Round Table.' And yet there is no

1 'Nam Umbria pars Tuscias est,' says Servius (ad dEn. xii. 753) ;
and Strabo (v. i) informs us that before Rome rose to power the
Umbri and the Tyrrheni fought for supremacy. Pliny (iii. 8) tells us :
'Umbro (the modern Ombrone river which bisects Tuscany) navigio-
rum capax et ab eo tractus Umbriae portusque Telamon.' Again:
' Etruria est ab amne Macra.' Solinus, Servius, and Isidore report :
' Veterum Gallorum Umbros propaginem esse,' and the former would
derive the name ' ab imbribus.'



172 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

people concerning whom the voice of antiquity
speaks with a clearer or a surer sound. 1

The decay of the Graeco-Pelasgi was followed
by the emigration of the Pelasgo - Tyrrhenians, 3
the Lydians, or Mseonians, from Asia Minor, which
still kept up its connection with Greece and Italy.
The Turscha, Turs'a, Tuirs'a, and Turis'a of the
Egyptian annals, the acerrimi Tiisci of Virgil,
are supposed to have come by sea about the four-
teenth century B.C., and they occupied, as a great
military power, the central peninsula with 300
oppida (Pliny, iii. 14), raising themselves upon
the ruins of the former races. They are generally
believed to have first founded the Tyrrhenian
Federation of the west, ' Etruria Madre,' and to
have crossed the Apennines and occupied the
Circumpadan regions, ' Etruria Nova,' as far as
the Alps (Herod. 'Clio,' 94), and, lastly, Etruria
Campania or Opicia, in the twelfth or, perhaps, in

1 Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Virgil
and his commentators (Servius), Strabo (especially, v. i), Pliny, Pau-
sanias, Silius Italicus, ' e non pochi moderni fino alia noja.' The tra-
dition of the three streams is preserved in the names of lapyx, Daunus,
and Peucetius, the three sons of the Illyrian king Lycaon.

3 Pliny (iii. 8) : ' Umbros, inde exegere antiquitus Pelasgi, hos Lydii.'
Dionysius Hal. (Antiq. Rom. i. 20) tells us that the Pelasgi, uniting
with the aborigines, took Umbrian Crotona and used it as an arx and
a defence against its former owners.



THE ETRUSCANS. 173

the thirteenth century B.C. 1 This would be about the
date of the Trojan war (popularly B.C. 1184), and
some four centuries before Rome was built. But
the superior antiquity of the Rhceto - Etruscan
alphabet, the rarity of Felsinean inscriptions ob-
served in almost every tomb of Middle Etruria, and
the archaic finds of the Tyrol and Bolognese ter-
ritories, may suggest that emigrations by land, and
perhaps settlements, accompanied, or even preceded,
the sea voyages ; hence, possibly, the north-eastern
was the most sacred quarter to the Etruscans.
These peoples brought with them the Phcenico-
Greek alphabet, and applied it to the dialect peculiar
to or adopted by them. Thus the learned Corssen
(' Die Sprache der Etrusker ') finds that the Etruscan
alphabets form three groups Common, Campa-
nian, and Northern whilst each has some peculiar
letters, and others similar in form, but different
in sense. They are closely related to the oldest
Greek of the peninsula (Cumse and Neapolis), and
this, again, is the same as used by the Chalcidian
colonies of Sicily. They had learned the use of
tin in the Caucasian regions, which supplied Egypt :

1 Varro (De Die Natali, cap. 17) says 450 years before Rome was
founded. Niebuhr (i. 138) also carries back the first Etruscan saculum
to B.C. 1 1 88, or 434 years A.U.C.



174 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

the mines next worked were in Spain, and lastly
came the Kassiterides, with which the Phoenicians
had traded, probably during the domination of the
Shepherd - kings, the Syro - Aramaean Bedawi in-
vaders of Egypt, typified by Abraham and Lot,
between the twenty-first and the seventeenth cen-
turies before our era. The Etruscan rule, which,
in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., embraced nearly
all Italy, lasted with the interval of conquest by
the Kymric Boii in B.C. 396 l till B.C. 281, and its
dialect till B.C. 202 ; thus the life of the nation
ranged between nine hundred and a thousand years.

1 The legend says that on the same day Veil was taken by the
Romans.



CRANIOLOGY. 175



SECTION III.

CRANIOLOGY.

THE collection of skulls exhibited at the Congress
of 1871 was in no wise remarkable except for its
poverty. The principal contribution of the palaeoli-
thic (post-Pleiocene) age was the (Colledel) ' Olmo
skull ' from near Arezzo, now in the Royal Museum
of Natural History, Florence : this calvaria or calotte
was, as I have said, found in the diluvial travertine.
The (Isola del) ' Liri skull,' also dolichocephalous,
and probably synchronous, was discovered in sand
under a stratum of the same concretionary deposit,
80 centimetres in thickness. The cubic contents of
the latter are laid down at only 1,306 cubic centimetres
( = 79701 cubic inches), showing a brain of 1,156
grammes (=2 Ibs. 878 oz.) ; and the likeness to the
Engis skull has been generally remarked. The neo-
lithic specimens were more abundant. Two skulls
from the Monte Tignoso cave, near Leghorn one
exceedingly brachycephalic (ceph. ind. 92), the other



176 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

very dolichocephalic (c. i. 71)* show, during the
second Stone Age, the existence of the two distinct
types still characterising the Italian race. It is an
observation generally made that the modern peoples
of upper Italy are mostly short-headed, and the
southerners long-headed, whilst the two forms blend
in the Island of Elba, in modern Umbria, and in
the Province of Rome, where, however, the brachy-
cephalic is said to be waxing rarer.

The Tignoso skulls are both small, with restricted,
depressed, and narrow frontal regions, and exagge-
rated occiputs. Two brachycephalic skulls from the
Grotta di Castello, on the Monte Pisano, beyond the
Serchio, greatly resembled them, although only the
calvaries remained. A third pair, from the neo-

1 Dr. Paul Broca, the learned Secretary of the Anthropological
Society of Paris (p. 398, Sur la . Classification et la Nomenclature
Cephaliques, &>c.j Revue d'Anthropologic, established five several
groups :

1. Dolichocephals : Cephalic Index. Simple Fractions.

True Dolichocephals, 75 : 100 and below = \ or f.

Sub-Dolicocephals, from 75*01 : 100 to 77-00 = f.

2. Mesati'cephals, from 7778 : 100 to 80-000 = | or T 8 S .

3. Brachycephals :

Sub-Brachy., from 80-01 : 100 to 83-33 = I or .

True Brachy., all above 83-33.

It is rare, he tells us, that the mean cephalic index of a race, not in-
cluding its deformities, natural or artificial, descends to 71 or rises to
87, thus giving an ecart of 16 ; the normal extremes being respectively
65 and 92 (= 27).



CRANIOLOGY. 177

lithic Caverna della Matta, fortunately had lower
jaws : one was of the dolichocephalic division (c. i.
68), very long, and flattened at the sides, a type
found in Sardinia, but rarely on the adjacent con-
tinent : the other was of the marked brachycephalic
or Ligurian type (c. i. 84). To the latter people
probably belonged the cannibals of the Palmaria
Island in the Gulf of Spezia : their remains have
been ably described ('Grotta de' Colombi ') by
Professor Giovanni Capellini, a native of that place,
who, at the early age of 34, has risen to be Rector
of the venerable University of Bologna. He it was
who conceived the idea of the Congress of Bologna,
who has taken a leading part at every meeting
of the kind, and who had the moral courage to
declare his belief (' L'Antropofagismo in Italia all'
Epoca della pietra,' ' Gazzetta dell' Emilia,' no. n,
1869) in the universal prevalence of cannibalism,
and who consequently was long regarded, with the
usual inconsequence, as little better than a canni-
bal himself. I am pleased to find in this savant,
as in my distinguished friend, the anthropologist
Professor Carl Vogt, such efficient support for the
theory which I formed and published many years
ago. It is still my conviction that anthrophagy has,

N



178 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

like polygamy and slavery, belonged to all peoples
at some epoch of their history ; that cannibalism,
like both the so-called ' patriarchal institutions,'
not only satisfied physical wants, but led to moral
progress ; that human sacrifice ending in bestial sacri-
fice, which in turn has yielded place to the ' bloodless
sacrifice ; ' and thus that it was not only beneficial
to the state of society which recorded it, but it
has also tended to the progress and the develop-
ment of mankind.

The only specimens of the Bronze Epoch were
three skulls discovered in a sepulchral cave of Monte
Calamita (Elba) ; and they were described by
Professor Vogt (' Di alcuni antichi crani rinvenuti
in Italia.') Those of the terramare of the Emilia,
also bronze, have not been found ; but the kitchen-
middens of Modenese Gorzano yielded two of
Ligurian type, probably buried in subsequent times.

Most of these skulls and other synchronous
finds (e.g. the brachycephalic Mezzana Corte, etc.)
have been commented upon by Cav. Dott. Gius-
tiniano Nicolucci, the well-known craniologist, and
the accomplished author of the volume ' Delle Razze
Umane.' According to him (' L'homme pre-his-
toriqueen Italic,' ' Congres,' pp. 233-238), thispalseo-



CRANIOLOGY. 179

lithic or early Quaternary man represented the
original and primitive type of the actual Italian
races. The cranium, here short, there long, was
of small capacity and solid thickness ; the form
was an ogival arch spreading out posteriorly ; the
frontal region was low, narrow, and retreating, with
prominent and even connecting glabellce ; and an
external crest, with a corresponding internal channel,
ran from the mid - forehead to the centre of the
sagittal suture, whilst the foramen magnum abnor-
mally approached the occiput. As the lower maxillae
are wanting in the earliest specimens, it cannot
safely be determined whether the race was pro-
gnathic or orthognathic ; but the strongly-marked
attachments for muscles show vigour accompanying
short stature.

In the earlier neolithic age, as we see by the two
skulls from Cantalupo Mandela, near Rome, there
is considerable improvement ; the crania, both long
and short, are less thick ; the temporal region is
higher, straighter, and broader, the great foramen
is nearer the axis, and the posterior as well as the
anterior divisions are better proportioned. The
capacity and the contents, which in the Quaternary
Liri skull were 1,306 c. c., and 1,156 grammes now



N 2



i8o THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

become 1,408 c. c. (=85-926 cubic inches) and 1,245
grammes (-=2lbs. 11-91 ounces). Both the skulls
above specified have a slight maxillary prognathism,
corrected, however, by the position of the teeth,
which are set vertically in the alveoli, and we have
reason to believe that the whole body had followed
the progress of the head.

In the Bronze Age, as we see by the skulls from
Torre della Maina and from Elba (/Ethalia, Ilva,
an Etrurian State, according to Virgil, x. 173), the
process of development is not arrested ; the bones
again become thinner, the capacity is 1,500 c. c.
( = 91*540 c. c. i.), and the contents 1,326 grammes
( = 2lbs. 14-7802.); about the same, in all three
points, as in the modern man. Lastly, the Age of
Iron shows the greatest removal from the Quater-
nary peoples ; and the types begin to distribute them-
selves into those of the modern Italian areas, with
modifications arising only from cosmic conditions
and mixture of blood!

At the Congress, Count Gozzadini exhibited a
valuable series of 26 skulls, two from Villanova and
24 from Marzabotto. Two of the former were pro-
gnathous, possibly distorted by pressure ; most of the
latter were fragmentary, and all showed brachy-



CRANIOLOGY. 181

cephalism as well as dolichocephalism. Prof. Nicolucci
(Sui cranii rinvenuti nella Necropoli di Marzabotto
e di Villanova), who recognised the two types, the
dolichocephalic being 63 to 37 of the other, having
compared one cranium from Villanova and three
from Marzabotto with undoubted Etruscan speci-
mens (in his Antropologia dell 1 Etruria : Naples,
1869) decided that the four former were non-
Etruscan. Having also failed, after equal study, to
detect any affinities with the Kelts of Cisalpine
Gaul ; he therefore concluded that they belong to
the men still holding Bolognese ground, that is, to
the Italic Umbri. This well-known anthropologist,
whose opinions carry great weight, defended his
Umbrian theory in two letters addressed to Count
Gozzadini, against the Etrusco-Ligurian ideas of
Prof. Carl Vogt. The latter had judged a skull
from Villanova to be of Etruscan type, whilst he
attributed those of Marzabotto to the Ligurians
('Sur quelques Cranes antiques trouves en Italic,'
' Bulletin de la Soc. Anthrop. de Paris,' torn, i.,
serie 2, fasc. i) ; but he also persisted, with Lag-
neau, in reviving the old theory of Baer (1839)
versus Andreas Retzius (1842), that the Etruscans
were dolichocephals. Prof. Nicolucci's theory is dis



1 82 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

cussed by the learned Cav. Dott. Antonio Garbi-
glietti, one of the first to call the attention of anthro-
pologists to the peculiarities of Etruscan type (p. 39,
Sopra alcuni recenli scritti di craniologia etnografica
dei Dottori G. Nicolucci e J. Barnard Davis : Torino,
tip. Favale, 1866). The learned Professor Cav.
Alberto Gamba (Special Report to the Royal Academy
of Medicine, Turin}, after honourably mentioning
his brother anthropologist, declares ' di non potere
abbracciare in modo assoluto 1'opinione del Nicolucci,
e cio perche la differenza di forma, di proporzione e
di misure che i cranii Etruschi e quelli di Marzabotto
e Villanova non sono abbastanza pronunziati per
dichiarare questi ultimi di stirpe piu moderna.'
After offering reasons for this conclusion, he adds :
' Se noi osserviamo lo specchietto dall' illustre dott.
Nicolucci presentato, noi vediamo che i cranii di
Marzabotto e Villanova appartengono ad una stirpe
differente perfettamente dalla Celtica, e la differenza
sta principalmente nella forma, o tipo generale
del cranio. Ma se osserviamo le differenze dal
Nicolucci notate fra i due cranii di Villanova e
Marzabotto e quelli Etruschi, io vi confesso ingenu-
amente, di non poterne sottoscrivere la sentenza di
separazione, ne di epoca storica, ne di stirpe.' He



CRANIOLOGY. 183

thus pronounces all to be of the same race, guarding
himself, however, by noting the insufficient number
which had come under his observation ; and finally,
he offers a wise caution concerning the difficulty of
determining the characteristics that distinguish the
Etruscan cranium. A people which emigrated from
three different regions at various eras not deter-
mined by history and which mingled with four
older races, the Umbri, the Ligurians, the Osci, and
the lapygian Volsci, perhaps even with the Cisalpine
Kelto-Galli, cannot have acquired the racial type of
cranium without passing through centuries of change
and the progressive development of pacific institu-
tions. He would therefore hold as characteristic
only the crania of the Twelve Cities of Middle
Etruria during their most flourishing period 500 to
400 B.C.

On the other hand, Professors P. Montegazza
(' Congres,' p. 239) and A. Zannetti (p. 166, Studi sui
crani Etruschi. Arch, per I' Antrop. e la Etno. :
Florence, 1871) compare, and find a resemblance
between, the Villanova and Marzabotto skulls
and those of Chiusi, Tarquinii, and well-known
Etruscan centres. But the former denies, in the
present obscurity of Italian ethnography, the right



1 84 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

of giving scientific definitions to the racial elements
which we call Umbrian, Etruscan, Roman. He
cites the case of Sardinia, where he made a fine col-
lection, and which he carefully visited, not neglecting
even the smaller villages. Popular scientific opinion
divides the island into two zones, Latin in the
north ; in the south Arab, or rather Semitic : yet he
observed, without noticing other secondary elements,
such as Siculi, Catalans, and others, a distinctly
Egyptian type, which extends even to the neighbour-
ing terra forma ; whilst the peasantry of the Canno-
bina Valley retain the characteristics of its old
colonists, the Romans. Prof. Montegazza espe-
cially denies our ability to deduce, in the actual
state of science, the intellectual hierarchy of the
brain from the shape or size of the skull which con-
tained it, and he concludes with the sensible obser-
vation : ' Ou s'introduit la passion, la ve"rite" se cache
la figure de ses deux mains.'

Not a few have attempted to prove, I have
said, that the Boian conquerors buried their dead
in the same cemeteries with the Etruscan. This
' funereal infiltration ' is generally rejected ; although
the shapes of the swords, the forms of certain
objects of luxury, and even the mode of burial,



CRANIOLOGY. 185

seem to prove an interchange or a reciprocity of
ideas between the Etruscans and the Gauls.

The 'Thesaurus Craniorum' (London, 1867)
of my learned correspondent Dr. J. Barnard Davis,
a work of which I am glad to say that a Supplement
has been issued, contains a description of one
Oscan and of two Etruscan calvaries. The former
is quasi-brachycephalic, and the very narrow fore-
head is a striking contrast with the typical Roman.
Of the latter pair, one (No. 769) was found at
Villanova ; unfortunately, it is imperfect : the second
is by far the finest of the three (No. 1,173,
p. 85, accompanying the Etruscan inscription).
This large calvarium of a young woman, exhumed
in 1857 near Perugia, is exceedingly like an ancient
Roman skull. The author records also the remarks
of Professor L. Calori, which are principally directed
to oppose the impression, derived from certain cases
of prognathism, that the Etruscans were allied to
the Ethiopic races, and cites Dr. Antonio Garbiglietti's
study of an Etruscan skull, which exhibits on both
sides the singularity of a suture running along the
lower edge of the os jugale, and dividing the bone
into two portions. Regarding Professor Calori's
' Phoenician Origin of the Etruscans ' I shall have



186 THE ETRUSCAN MAN.

more to say of it Dr. Barnard Davis considers

that the opinion of such a competent and thoroughly

honest investigator deserves every consideration.

The author of the ' Thesaurus,' however, has one

good example of an ancient Phoenician skull (No.

1,174, p. 86) from Sardinia, and he seems to think

that it does not agree very closely with the ancient

Etruscan. He mentions the fact that Dr. G.

Nicolucci, who described and figured the skulls in

the Museum of Antiquities, Cagliari, classed them

with those of the Semites Arabs and Jews.

Finally, he has an Oscan skull (No. 1,049, P- 84)

from Nola, strikingly distinguished from the Roman

by the narrowness of the frontal region.



PROFESSOR C A LORI. 187



SECTION IV.

PROFESSOR CALORI.

IN order to interview the Etruscan, a visit should be
paid to the learned anatomist and naturalist Prof.
Commendatore Luigi Calori, whose published works
require no quotation, whilst his kind and genial
reception encourages even the ' profane ' in the
Latin and Italian sense of the word. His study,
behind the theatre where he lectures, contains 19
old Etruscan skulls, and he will at once point out


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