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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



GIFT OF

Pter Seott



"TO THE PURE ALL THINGS ARE PURE"

(Paris omnia para)

Arab Provtrb.

Niuna corrotta mente intese mai sanamente parole."

-"Decameron " conclusion.



" Erubuit, posuitque meum Lucretia libram

Sed coram Bruto. Brute I recede, leget. "

Martial.



*' Mieulx est de ris que de larmes escripre,

Pour ce que rire est le propre des hommes. "

RABELAIS.



41 The pleasure we derive from perusing the Thousand-and-Qae
Stones makes us regret that we possess only a comparatively small
part of these trely enchanting notions."

CRICHTON'S "ftittory of Arabia.







TO THE BOOK OF THE



a



WITH NOTES ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND EXPLANATORY



VOLUME III.



BY



RICHARD F. BURTON




\L*



PRINTED BY THE BURTON CLUB FOR PRIVATE
SUBSCRIBERS ONLY



Shammar Edition

Limited to one thousand numbered sets,
of which this is

Number ,/. s S



TO
HENRY EDWARD JOHN, LORD STANLEY OF ALDERLEY,

THIS

THE MOST INNOCENT VOLUME OF THE NIGHTS
IS INSCRIBED BY HIS OI D COMPANION,

THE AUTHOR.



2227723



FOREWORD.



THE peculiar proceedings of the Curators, Bodleian Library, Oxford,
of which full particulars shall be given in due time, have dislo-
cated the order of my volumes. The Prospectus had promised that
Tome III. should contain detached extracts from the MS. known
as the Wortley-Montague, and that No. IV. and part of No. V.
should comprise a reproduction of the ten Tales (or eleven, in-
cluding " The Princess of Darydbar "), which have so long been
generally attributed to Professor Galland. Circumstances, how-
ever, wholly beyond my control have now compelled me to devote
the whole of this volume to the Frenchman's stories.

It will hardly be doubted that for a complete receuil of The
Nights a retranslation of the Gallandian histoires is necessary.
The learned Professor Gustav Weil introduced them all, Ger-
manised literally from the French, into the Dritter Band of his
well-known version Tausend und eine Nacht ; and not a few
readers of Mr. John Payne's admirable translation (the Villon)
complained that they had bought it in order to see AH Baba,
Aladdin, and others translated into classical English and that
they much regretted the absence of their old favourites.

But the modus operandi was my prime difficulty. I disliked

,tr

the idea of an unartistic break or change in the style, ever
" TAchant de rendre mien cet air d'antiquit,"

and I aimed at offering to my readers a homogeneous sequel.
My first thought for securing uniformity of treatment was to
render the French text into Arabic, and then to retranslate it into



irtti Foreword.

English. This process, however, when tried was found wanting ;
so I made inquiries in all directions for versions of the Gallandian
histories which might have been published in Persian, Turkish, or
Hindustani. Though assisted by the Prince of London Biblio-
poles, Bernard Quaritch, I long failed to find my want : the
vernaculars in Persian and Turkish are translated direct from the
Arabic texts, and all ignore the French stories. At last a friend,
Cameron MacDowell, himself well known to the world of letters,
sent me from Bombay a quaint lithograph with quainter illustra-
tions which contained all I required. This was a version of
Totdrdm Shdydn (No. III.), which introduced the whole of
the Gallandian Tales : better still, these were sufficiently orien-
talised and divested of their inordinate Gallicism, especially their
longsome dialogue, by being converted into Hindustani, the Urdii
Zaban (camp or court language) of Upper India and the Lingua
Franca of the whole Peninsula.

During one of my sundry visits to the British Museum, I was
introduced by Mr. Alexander G. Ellis to Mr. James F. Blumhardt,
of Cambridge, who pointed out to me two other independent
versions, one partly rhymed and partly in prose.

Thus far my work was done for me. Mr. Blumhardt, a practical
orientalist and teacher of the modern Prakrit tongues, kindly
undertook, at my request, to english the Hindustani, collating,
at the same time, the rival versions ; and thus, at a moment when
my health was at its worst, he saved me all trouble and labour
except that of impressing the manner with my own sign manual,
and of illustrating the text, where required, with notes anthro-
pological and other.

Meanwhile, part of my plan was modified by a visit to Paris
in early 1887. At the Bibliotheque Nationale I had the pleasure
of meeting M. Hermann Zotenberg, keeper of Eastern manu-
scripts, an Orientalist of high and varied talents, and especially
famous for his admirable Chrotiique de Tabari. Happily for



Foreword. tx

me, he had lately purchased for trie National Library, irom a
vendor who was utterly ignorant of its history, a MS. copy of
The Nights, containing the Arabic originals of Zayn al-Asnam
and Alaeddin. The two volumes folio are numbered and docketed
"Supplement Arabe, Nos. 2522-23;" they measure 31 cent,
by 20; Vol. i. contains 411 folios (822 pages) and Vol. ii.
402 (pp. 804) ; each page numbers fifteen lines, and each folio has
its catchword. The paper is French, English and Dutch, with
four to five different marks, such as G. Gautier ; D. and C. Blaew ;
Pro Patria and others. The highly characteristic writing, which is
the same throughout the two folios, is easily recognised as that
of Michel (Mikhafl) Sabbagh, the Syrian, author of the Colombe
Messagere, published in Paris A.D. 1805, and accompanied by a
translation by the celebrated Silvestre de Sacy (Chrestomathie
iii. 365). This scribe also copied, about 1810, for the same
Orientalist, the Ikhwdn al-Safd.

I need say nothing more concerning this MS., which M.
Zolenberg purposes to describe bibliographically in volume
xxviii. of Notices et extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothequa
nationale public's par FAcadtmie des inscriptions et belles lettres,
And there will be a tirage a part of 200-300 copies entitled
Histoire a" 'Aid al-Dtn ou La Lampe Merveilleuse, Texte Arabe t
publif par H. Zotenberg, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1 888 ; includ-
ing a most important contribution : Sur quelques Manuscrits des
Mille el une Nuits et la traduction de Galland. 1

The learned and genial author has favoured me with proof
sheets of his labours : it would be unfair to disclose the discoveries,
such as the Manuscript Journals in the Bibliotheque Nationale
(Nos. 15277 to 15280), which the illustrious Galland kept regularly

1 M. Zotenberg empowered me to offer his "Aladdin " to an " Oriental" publishing-
house well-known in London ; and the result was the " no-public " reply. The morti-,
fying fact is that Oriental studies are now at their nadir in Great Britain, which is
beginning to show so small in the Eastern World.



X. Foreword.

till the end of his life, and his conversations with " M. Hanna,
Maronite d'Halep," alias Jean Dipi (Dippy, a corruption of Diab) :
suffice it to say that they cast a clear and wholly original light
upon the provenance of eight of the Gallandian histories. I can,
however, promise to all " Aladdinists " a rich harvest of facts which
wholly displace those hitherto assumed to be factual. But for
the satisfaction of my readers I am compelled to quote the
colophon of M. Zotenberg's great "find" (vol. ii.), as it bears
upon a highly important question.

" And the finishing thereof was during the first decade of Jamdi the Second,
of the one thousand and one hundred and fifteenth year of the Hegirah (=A.D.
1703) by the transcription of the neediest of His slaves unto Almighty Allah,
Ahmad bin Mohammed al-Tarddf, in Baghdad City : he was a Shafi'f of
school, and a Mosuli by birth, and a Baghdadi by residence, and he wrote it
for his own use, and upon it he imprinted his signet. So Allah save our lord
Mohammed and his Kin and Companions and assain them ! Kabfkaj." l

Now as this date corresponds with A.D. 1703, whereas Galland
did not begin publishing until 1704 1705, the original MSrof
Ahmad al-Tarddf could not have been translated or adapted from
the French ; and although the transcription by Mikhail Sabbagh,
writing in 1805 10, may have introduced modifications borrowed
from Galland, yet the scrupulous fidelity of his copy, shown by
sundry marginal and other notes, lays the suspicion that changes of
importance have been introduced by him. Remains now only to
find the original codex of Al-Taridf.

I have noticed in my translation sundry passages which appear
to betray the Christian hand ; but these are mostly of scanty con-
sequence in no wise affecting the genuineness of the text.

The history of Zayn al-Asnam was copied from the Sabbdgh
MS and sent to me by M. Houdas, Professeur d'Arabe vulgaire &
I'&cole des langues orientates vivantes ; an Arabist, whose name is
favourably quoted in the French Colonies of Northern Africa.

1 P.N. of a Jinni who rules the insect- kingdom and who is iovoked by scribes to
protect their labours from the worm..



Foreword. jef

M. Zotenberg kindly lent me his own transcription of
Alaeddin before sending it to print ; and I can only regret
that the dilatory proceedings of the Imprimerie Nationale,
an establishment supported by the State, and therefore ignoring
the trammels of private industry, have prevented my revising
the version now submitted to the public. This volume then
begins with the two Gallandian Tales, "Zeyn Alasnam " and
" Aladdin," whose Arabic original was discovered by M. Zotenberg
during the last year : although separated in the French version, I
have brought them together for the sake of uniformity. The other
eight (or nine, including the Princess of Daryabar), entitled

History of Khudadad and his Brothers, and the Princess
of Daryabar ;

the Blind Man, Baba Abdullah ;

Sidi Nu'uman ;

Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal ;

AH Baba and the Forty Thieves ;

AH Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad ;

Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-banu ;

the two Sisters who envied their Cadette,
are borrowed mainly from the Indian version of Totardm
Shayan.

And here I must quote the bibliographical notices concerning
the sundry versions into Urdu or Hindustani which have been
drawn up with great diligence by Mr. Blumhardt.

"The earliest attempt to translate the Arabian Nights was madebyMunshi
Shams al-Din Ahmad Shirwdni. A prose version of the first two hundred
Nights made by him * for the use of the College at Fort St. George ' was litho-
graphed at Madras in the year A.H. 1252 (A.D. 1836) and published in
8vo volumes (pp. 517, 426) under the title ' Hikayat ool jaleelah ' l (Hikayat al-



1 Both name and number suggest the "Calc. Edit." of 1814. See ''Translator's
Foreword " vol. i., xix. xx. There is another version of the first two hundred Nights,
from the "Calc. Edit." into Urdu by one Haydnr AH, i vol. roy. 8vo liihog. Calc.
1263(1846). R.F. B.*'



xii Foreword.

jalflah). The translation was made from an Arabic original but it does not
appear what edition was made use of. The translator had intended to bring
out a version of the entire work, but states in his preface that, being unable
to procure the Arabic of the other Nights, he could not proceed with the
translation, and had to be content to publish only two hundred nights. This
version does not appear to have become popular, for no other edition seems
to have been published. And the author must not be confounded with Shaykh
Ahmad Shirwdni, who, in A.D. 1814, printed an Arabic edition of the Arabian
Nights Entertainments (Calcutta, Pereira) which also stopped at No. CC."

" The next translation was made by Munshi 'Abd al-Karfm, likewise in prose.
From the preface and colophon to this work it appears that 'Abd al-Karfm
obtained a copy of Edward Foster's English version of the Arabian Nights-,
and after two years' labour completed a translation of the whole work in
A.H. 1258 (A.D. 1842). It was lithographed at the Mustafai Press at KdnpuY
(Cawnpore) in the year A.H. 1263 (A.D. 1847) and published in four vols., in
two royal 8vos, lithographed ; each containing two Jilds (or parts, pp. 276, 274 ;
214 and 195)."

" A second edition appeared from the same press in A.H. 1270 (A.D. 1853)
also in two vols. 8vo of two Jilds each (pp. 249, 245 ; 192, 176). Since then
several other editions have been published at Cawnpore, at Lakhnau * and
also at Bombay. This translation is written in an easy fluent style, omitting
all coarseness of expression or objectionable passages, in language easily
understood, and at the same time in good and elegant Hindustani. It is there-
fore extremely popular, and selections from the 4th Jild have been taken as text
books for the Indian Civil Service examinations. A Romanized Urdu version 1
of the first two Jilds according to Duncan Forbes' system of transliteration,
was made ' under the superintendence of T. W. H. Tolbort,' and published under
the editorship of F. Pincott in London, by W. H. Allen and Co. in 1882.* There
has been no attempt to divide this translation into Nights : there are headings to
the several tales and nothing more. To supply this want, and also to furnish the
public with a translation closer to the original, and one more intelligible to
Eastern readers, and in accordance with oriental thought and feeling, a third
translation was taken in hand by Tota'ra'm Shdydn, at the instance of Nawal
Kishore, the well-known bookseller and publisher of Lucknow. The first
edition of this translation was lithographed at Lucknow in the year A.H. 1284
(A.D. 1868) and published in a 410 vol. of 1,080 pages under the title of HazaV
Dastin. 3 Totaidm Shdydn has followed 'Abd al-Karim's arrangement of the
whole work into four Jilds, each of which has a separate pagination (pp. 304

1 " Alf Leilah " in Hindostani, 4 vols. in 2, royal 8vo, lithographed, Lakhnau, 1263
(1846). R. F. B.

a This is the " Alif" (!) Leila, Tarjuma-i Alif (!) Laila ba-Zuban-i-Urdu (Do Jild,
ba-harfat-i-Yurop), an Urdu translation of the Arabian Nights, printed entirely in the
Roman character, etc., etc. R. F. B.

3 i.e. The Thousand Tales.



Foreword, xifi

320, 232, and 224). The third Jild has 251 Nights: the other three 250 each.
The translation is virtually in prose, but it abounds in snatches of poetry, songs
and couplets taken from the writings of Persian poets, and here and there a
verse-rendering of bits of the story. This translation, though substantially
agreeing in the main with that of 'Abd al-Karim, yet differs widely from it in the
treatment. It is full of flowery metaphors and is written in a rich ornate style,
full of Persian and Arabic words and idioms, which renders it far less easy to
understand than the simple language of 'Abd al-Karim. Some passages have
oeen considerably enlarged and sometimes contain quite different reading from
that of 'Abd al-Karim, with occasional additional matter. In other places
descriptions have been much curtailed so that although the thread of the story
may be the same in both translations it is hard to believe that the two trans-
lators worked from the same version. Unfortunately Totrdm Shdyin makes no
mention at all of the source whence he made his translation whether English or
Arabic, This translation reached its fourth edition in 1883, and has been
published with the addition of several badly executed full-page illustrationi
evidently taken from English prints."

" Yet another translation of The Nights has been made into Hindustani, and
this a versified paraphrase, the work of three authors whose takhallus or noms
de plume, were as follows, " Nasfm " (Muhammad Asghar Ali Khdn), translator of
the first Jild, " Shayin " (Totdrdm Shdydn), who undertook the second and third
Jilds, and " Chaman " (Shddl Lai) by whom the fourth and last Jild was trans-
lated. The work is complete in 1,244 pages 4to, and was lithographed at
Lucknow ; Jilds L in. in A.H. 1278 (A.D. 1862) and Jild iv. in 1285 (A.D.
1869). This translation is also divided into Nights, differing slightly from the
prose translation of Totdrdm Shdyan, as the first Jild has 251 Nights and the
others 250 each."

And now I have only to end this necessarily diffuse Foreword
with my sincerest thanks to Mr. E. J. W. Gibb who permitted me
to print his version of the Turkish Zayn al-Asnam ; to Mr.
Clouston, the Storiologist, who has brought his wide experience
of Folk-lore to bear upon the tales included in my Third Sup-
plemental Volume ; and to Dr. Steingass, who during my absence
from England kindly passed my proofs through the press.



RICHARD F. BURTON



SAUERBRUNN-ROHITSCH, STYRIA.
Sept. 15, '87.



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



FAG*

I. THE TALE OF ZAYN AL-ASNAM ....... 3

a. THE TURKISH VERSION BY E. J. W. GIBB .... 41

a. ALAEDDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP 51

a. THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF GALLAND .... 195

3. ADVENTURES OF KHUDADAD AND HIS BROTHERS . . 269

a. HISTORY OF THE PRINCESS OF DARYABAR 281

4. HISTORY OF THE CALIPH'S NIGHT ADVENTURE ... 307

. STORY OF THE BLIND MAN, BABA ABDULLAH .... 311

b. HISTORY OF SIDI NU'UMAN 325

c. HISTORY OF KHWAJAH HASAN AL-H ABBAL 341

5. STORY OF ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES . . , 369

6. STORY OF ALI KHWAJAH AND THE MERCHANT OF

BAGHDAD . . . . . . . . . . .405

7. ADVENTURES OF PRINCE AHMAD AND THE FAIRY PERI-

BANU ............ 419

ft. TALE OF THE TWO SISTERS WHO ENVIED THEIR CADETTE. 491



Contents.



APPENDIX : VARIANTS AND ANALOGUES

Or THE TALES IN THE SUPPLEMENTAL IflGHTS, VOL. til.

Bv W. A. CLOUSTON.

PAGB

THE TALE OF ZAYN AL-ASNAM 553

ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP. . ... . 5*4

KHUDADAD AND HIS BROTHERS 57*

THE STORY OF THE BLIND MAN, BABA ABDULLAH ... 58*

HISTORY OF SIDI NU'MAN . 58$

HISTORY OF KHWAJAH HASAN AL-HABBAL 587

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES 59

ALI KHWAJAH AND THE MERCHANT OF BAGHDAD 59$

PRINCE ADMAD AND THE PERI BANU 600

THE TWO SISTERS WHO ENVIED THEIR CADETTE ... 617

ADDITIONAL NOTES :

THE TALE OF ZAYN AL-ASNAM . . . . ., 649

ALADDIN ; OK THE WONDERFUL LAMP . . . . >: 650

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES. . . . . . 65

TUB TALE or PRINCE AHMAD ....... 653



THE TALE OF ZAYN AL-ASNAM.

(ARABIC.)



fofort it foas t&e ffm J^untJtrtf anfc

QUOTH Dunyazdd, " O sister mine, an thou be other than sleepy,
tell us one of thy fair tales, so therewith we may cut short the
waking hours of this our night ; " and quoth the King, " Let it be

THE TALE OF ZAYN AL-ASNAM?*

Shahrdzad replied : With love and good will ! It hath reached

me, O King of the Age, that in Bassorah-city 8 reigned a puissant
Sultan, who was opulent exceedingly and who owned all the goods
of life; but he lacked a child which might inherit his wealth and
dominion. So, being sorely sorrowful on this account, he arose
and fell to doing abundant alms-deeds to Faldrs and the common
poor, to the Hallows and other holy men and prayed their re-
course to Allah Almighty, in order that the Lord (to whom belong



1 From the MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Supplement Arab. No. 2523) vol. ii.,
p. 82, verso to p. 94, verso. The Sisters are called Dinarzad and Shahrdza'd, a style
\vhich I have not adopted.

2 The old versions read "Ornament (Adornment?) of the Statues," Zierde der Pild-
S'aulen (Weil). I hold the name to be elliptical, Zayn (al-Din = Adornment of The
Faith and owner of) al-Asndm = the Images. The omission of Al-Din in proper names
is very common ; e.g., Fakhr (Al-Din) Al-Iftakhari (Iftikhar-al-Din) and many others
given by De Sacy (Chrest i. 30, and in the Treatise on Coffee by Abd al-Kidir). So
Al-Kamal, Al-Imad. Al-Baha are = Kamal al-Din, etc. in Ibn Khallikan, iii. 493.
Sanam properly = an idol is popularly applied to all artificial figures of man and beast.
I may note that we must not call the hero, after Galland's fashion, unhappily adopted by
Weil, tout bonnemcnt " Zayn."

Galland persistently writes "Balsorah," a European corruption common in his day,
the childhood of Orientalism in Europe. The Hindostani versions have " Baasri,"
which is worse.



4 Supplemental Nights.

Might and Majesty !) might of His grace bless him with issue.
And the Compassionate accepted his prayer for his alms to the
Religious and deigned grant his petition ; and one night of the
nights after he lay with the Queen she went away from him with
child. Now as soon as the Sultan heard of the conception he
rejoiced with exceeding great joyance, and when the days of de-J
livery near drew he gathered together all the astrologers and sages
who strike the sand-board, 1 and said to them, " 'Tis our desire
that ye disclose and acquaint us anent the birth which is to be
born during the present month whether it shall be male or
female, and what shall befal it from the shifts of Time, and what
shall proceed from it." Thereupon the geomantists struck their
sand-boards and the astrophils ascertained their ascendants and
they drew the horoscope of the babe unborn, and said to the
sovran, " O King of the Age and Lord of the Time and the Tide,
verily the child to which the Queen shall presently give birth will
be a boy and 't will be right for thee to name him Zayn al-Asndm
Zayn of the Images." Then spake the geomantists, saying,
' Know then, Ho thou the King, that this little one shall approve
liim when grown to man's estate valiant and intelligent ; but his
days shall happen upon sundry troubles and travails, and yet if
he doughtily fight against all occurrence he shall become the
most opulent of the Kings of the World." Exclaimed the Sultan,
w An the child approve himself valorous, as ye have announced,
then the toil and moil which shall be his lot may be held
for naught, inasmuch as calamities but train and strengthen the
sons of the Kings." 2 Shortly after this the Queen gave birth to
a man-child, and Glory be to Him who fashioned the babe with
such peerless beauty and loveliness ! The King named his son



1 For notes on Geomancy (Zarb Ram!) see vol. iii. 269.

2 The Hindostani Version enlarges upon this: "Besides this, kings cannot escape
perils and mishaps which serve as warnings and examples to them when dealing their.
decrees."



The Tale of Zayn al-Asnam. 5

Zayn al-Asnam, and presently he became even as the poets sang
of one of his fellows in semblance :

He showed ; and they cried, " Be Allah blest I * And who made him and

formed him His might attest !
This be surely the lord of all loveliness ; o And all others his lieges and

thralls be confest.

Then Zayn al-Asnam grew up and increased until his age attained
ate fifteenth year, when his sire the Sultan appointed for him an
experienced governor, one versed in all the sciences and philos-
ophies ; * who fell to instructing him till such times as he waxed
familiar with every branch of knowledge, and in due season he
became an adult. Thereupon the Sultan bade summon his son
and heir to the presence together with the Lords of his land and
the Notables of his lieges and addressed him before them with
excellent counsel saying, " O my son, O Zayn al-Asnam, seeing
that I be shotten in years and at the present time sick of a
sickness which haply shall end my days in this world and which
anon shall seat thee in my stead, therefore, I bequeath unto thee
the following charge. Beware, O my son, lest thou wrong any
man, and incline not to cause the poor complain ; but do justice
to the injured after the measure of thy might. Furthermore, have
a care lest thou trust to every word spoken to thee by the Great ;
but rather lend thou ever an ear unto the voice of the general ;
for that thy Grandees will betray thee as they seek onlywhatso
suiteth them, not that which suiteth thy subjects." A few days
after this time the old Sultan's distemper increased and his life-
term was fulfilled and he died ; whereupon his son, Zayn al-
Asnam, arose and donned mourning-dress for his father during six
days ; and on the seventh he went forth to the Divan and took
seat upon the throne of his Sultanate. He also held a levee

tj ~~

^In the XlXth century we should say " All the ologies."



6 Supplemental Nights.

wherein were assembled all the defenders of the realm, and the
Ministers and the Lords of the land came forward and condoled
with him for the loss of his parent and wished him all good
fortune and gave him joy of his kingship and dominion and prayed
for his endurance in honour and his permanence in prosperity.
And Shahrazad was surprised by the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.



Jiofo fofjen ft toas tfje Jour f^untrreU an& j5limtB=et$tf)



QUOTH Dunyazad, " O sister mine, an thou be other than sleepy,
tell us one of thy fair tales, so therewith we may cut short the
waking hours of this our night ; " and quoth Shahrazad : - It hath



Online LibraryRichard Francis BurtonSupplemental nights to the Book of the thousand nights and a night (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 29)