Richard Francis Burton.

Vikram and the vampire; or, Tales of Hindu devilry online

. (page 1 of 19)
Online LibraryRichard Francis BurtonVikram and the vampire; or, Tales of Hindu devilry → online text (page 1 of 19)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


TALES OF HINDU DEVILEY,



LONDON: PRINTED BY

SFOTTIS \VOODI3 AND CO., UEW-STUEET SQUAIM3
AND PAltLIAUENI STIliiiiT




During the three hours of return hardly a word passed between the pair.

Frontispiece,



VIKEAM AND THE YAMPIEE



TALES OF HINDU DEVILRY.



ADAPTED BY



RICHARD F. BURTON, F.R.GLS. &c.



' Les fables, loin de grandir les homines, .la Eat-ore et "Dien, rapetisent tout.*

LAMARTDJE (Milton).

' One who had eyes saw it ; the blind will not understand it.
A poet, who is a boy, he has perceived it.- he who understands it will
be his sire's sire.' RIG- VEDA (I. 164, 16).



WITH THIRTY-THREE ILLUSTRATIONS



ERNEST GEISET.



LONDON :
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

1870.



TO MY UNCLE,

EGBERT BAGSHAW, OF DOVERCOURT,

THESE TALES,

THAT WILL REMIND HIM OF A LAND -WHICH
HE KNOWS SO WELL,

ARE AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED.



925743



PREFACE.



6 THE genius of Eastern nations,' says an established
and respectable authority, ' was, from the earliest
times, much turned towards invention and the love
of fiction. The Indians, the Persians, and the
Arabians, were all famous for their fables. Amongst
the ancient Greeks we hear of the Ionian and
Milesian tales, but they have now perished, and, from
every account that we hear of them, appear to have
been loose and indelicate.' Similarly, the classical
dictionaries define ' Milesise fabulse ' to be ' licentious
themes,' c stories of an amatory or mirthful nature,'
or ' ludicrous and indecent plays.' M. Deriege seems
indeed to confound them with the 'Moeurs du
Temps ' illustrated with artistic gouaches, when he
says, c une de ees fables milesiennes, rehaussees de
peintures, que la corruption romaine recherchait
alors avec une folle ardeur.'

My friend, Mr. Richard Charnock, F.A.S.L.., more



viii PREFACE.

correctly defines Milesian fables to have been origi-
nally c certain tales or novels, composed by Aristides
of Miletus ; ' gay in matter and graceful in manner.
'They were translated into Latin by the historian
Sisenna, the friend of Atticus, and they had a great
success at Borne. Plutarch, in his life of Crassus,
tells us that after the defeat of Carhes (Carrhse?)
some Milesiacs were found in the baggage of the
Roman prisoners. The Greek text and the Latin
translation have long been lost. The only surviving
fable is the tale of Cupid and Psyche, 1 which Apu-
leius calls " Milesius sermo," and it makes us deeply
regret the disappearance of the others.' Besides this
there are the remains of Apollodorus and Conon, and
a few traces to be found in Pausanias, Athenseus, and
the scholiasts.

I do not, therefore, agree with Blair, with the dic-
tionaries, or with M. Deriege. Miletus, the great
maritime city of Asiatic Ionia, was of old the
meeting place of the East and the West. Here the
Phoenician trader from the Baltic would meet the
Hindu wandering to Intra, from Extra, Gangem;
and the Hyperborean would step on shore side by
side with the Nubian and the JEthiop. Here was

1 Metamorphoseon, seu de Asino Aureo, libri XL The well known
and beautiful episode is in the fourth, the fifth, and the sixth books.



PREFACE. ix

produced and published for the use of the then civi-
lised world, the genuine Oriental apologue, myth
and tale combined, which, by amusing narrative and
romantic adventure, insinuates a lesson in morals or
in humanity, of which we often in our days must
fail to perceive the drift. The book of Apuleius, before
quoted, is subject to as many discoveries of recondite
meaning as Rabelais. As regards the licentious-
ness of the Milesian fables, this sign of semi-civili-
sation is still inherent in most Eastern books of the
description which we call ' light literature,' and the
ancestral tale-teller never collects a larger purse of
coppers than when he relates the worst of his e aurei.'
But this looseness, resulting from the separation of
the sexes, is accidental, not necessary. The follow-
ing collection will show that it can be dispensed with,
and that there is such a thing as comparative purity
in Hindu literature. The author, indeed, almost
always takes the trouble to marry his hero and his
heroine, and if he cannot find a priest, he generally
adopts an exceedingly left-hand and Caledonian but
legal rite called e gandharbavivaha.' 1

The work of Apuleius, as ample internal evidence
shows, is borrowed from the East. The groundwork

1 This ceremony will be explained in a future page.



x PREFACE.

of the tale is the metamorphosis of Lucius of Corinth
into an ass, and the strange accidents which precede
his recovering the human form.

Another old Hindu story-book relates, in the
popular fairy-book style, the wondrous adventures of
the hero and demigod, the great Gandharba-Sena.
That son of Indra, who was also the father of Vikra-
majit, the subject of this and another collection,
offended the ruler of the firmament by his fondness
for a certain nymph, and was doomed to wander over
earth under the form of a donkey. Through the
interposition of the gods, however, he was permitted
to become a man during the hours of darkness,
thus comparing with the English legend

Amundeville is lord by day,
But the monk is lord by night.

Whilst labouring under this curse, Gaiidharba-
Sena persuaded the King of Dhara to give him
a daughter in marriage, but it unfortunately so
happened that at the wedding hour he was unable
to show himself in any but asinine shape. After
bathing, however, he proceeded to the assembly, and,
hearing songs and music, he resolved to give them a
specimen of his voice.

The guests were filled with sorrow that so beauti-



PREFACE. xi

ful a virgin should be married to a donkey. They
were afraid to express their feelings to the king, but
they could not refrain from smiling, covering their
mouths with their garments. At length some one
interrupted the general silence and said :

* king, is this the son of Indra ? You have
found a fine bridegroom ; you are indeed happy ;
don't delay the marriage ; delay is improper in doing-
good ; we never saw so glorious a wedding ! It is
true that we once heard of a camel being married to
a jenny-ass ; when the ass, looking up to the camel,
said, " Bless me, what a bridegroom ! " and the camel,
hearing the voice of the ass, exclaimed, " Bless me,
what a musical voice ! " In that wedding, however,
the bride and the bridegroom were equal ; but in
this marriage, that such a bride should have such a
bridegroom is truly wonderful.'

Other Brahmans then present said :

6 king, at the marriage hour, in sign of joy the
sacred shell is blown, but thou hast no need of that '
(alluding to the donkey's braying) .

The women all cried out :

' O my mother ! l what is this ? at the time of
marriage to have an ass ! What a miserable thing !

1 A common exclamation of sorrow, surprise, fear, and other emotions.
It is especially used by women.



xii PREFACE.

What! will he give that angelic girl in wedlock to a
donkey ? '

At length Gandharba-Sena, addressing the king
in Sanskrit, urged him to perform his promise. He
reminded his future father-in-law that there is no
act more meritorious than speaking truth ; that the
mortal frame is a mere dress, and that wise men
never estimate the value of a person by his clothes.
He added that he was in that shape from the curse
of his sire, and that during the night he had the
body of a man. Of his being the son of Indra there
could be no doubt.

Hearing the donkey thus speak Sanskrit, for it was
never known that an ass could discourse in that
classical tongue, the minds of the people were
changed, and they confessed that, although he had an
asinine form, he was unquestionably the son of Indra.
The king, therefore, gave him his daughter in mar-
riage. 1 The metamorphosis brings with it many
misfortunes and strange occurrences, and it lasts till
Fate in the author's hand restores the hero to his
former shape and honours.

Gandharba-Sena is a quasi-historical personage,
who lived in the century preceding the Christian era.

1 Quoted from View of the Hindoos, by William "Ward, of Serampore
(vol. i. p. 25).



PREFACE. xiii

The story had, therefore, ample time to reach the
ears of the learned African Apuleius, who was born
A.D. 130.

The Baital-Pachisi, or Twenty-five (tales of a)
Baital l a Vampire or evil spirit which animates dead
bodies is an old and thoroughly Hindu repertory.
It is the rude beginning of that fictitious history
which ripened to the Arabian Nights' Entertainments,
and which, fostered by the genius of Boccaccio, pro-
duced the romance of the chivalrous days, and its
last development, the novel that prose-epic of mo-
dern Europe.

Composed in Sanskrit, c the language of the gods,'
alias the Latin of India, it has been translated into
all the Prakrit or vernacular and modern dialects of
the great peninsula. The reason why it has not
found favour with the Moslems is doubtless the highly
polytheistic spirit which pervades it ; moreover, the
Faithful had already a specimen of that style of
composition. This was the Hitopadesa, or Advice of
a Friend, which, as a line in its introduction informs
us, was borrowed from an older book, the Pancha-
tantra, or Five Chapters. It is a collection of apo-
logues recited by a learned Brahman, Vishnu Sharma

1 In Sanskrit, Vetdla-pancha- Vinshati. ' Baital ' is the modern form
of ' Vtoala.'



xiv PREFACE.

by name, for the edification of his pupils, the sons
of an Indian Eaja. They have been adapted to or
translated into a number of languages, notably into
Pehlvi and Persian, Syriac and Turkish, Greek and
Latin, Hebrew and Arabic. And as the Fables of
Pilpay, 1 they are generally known, by name at least,
to European litterateurs. Voltaire remarks, 2 ' Quand
on fait reflexion que presque toute la terre a ete
infatuee de pareils contes, et qu'ils ont fait 1'educa-
tion du genre humain, on trouve les fables de Pilpay,
Lokman, d'Esope bien raisonnables.'

These tales, detached, but strung together by
artificial means pearls with a thread drawn through
them are manifest precursors of the Decamerone,
or Ten Days. A modern Italian critic describes the
now classical fiction as a collection of one hundred
of those novels which Boccaccio is believe.d to hav
read out at the court of Queen Joanna of Naples.
and which later in life were by him assorted
together by a most simple and ingenious con-
trivance. But the great Florentine invented neither
his stories nor his 'plot,' if we may so call it.
He wrote in the middle of the fourteenth century
(1344-8) when the West had borrowed many things

1 In Arabic, Bidpai el Hakim.

2 Dictionnaire philosophique, sub v. ' Apocryphes.



PREFACE. xv

from the East, rhymes l and romance, lutes and drums,
alchemy and knight-errantry. Many of the 6 Novelle '
are, as Orientalists well know, to this day sung and
recited almost textually by the wandering tale-tellers,
bards, and rhapsodists of Persia and Central Asia.

The great kshatriya (soldier) king Yikramaditya, 2
or Yikramarka, meaning the * Sun of Heroism,'
plays in India the part of King Arthur, and of Harun
El Eashid further West. He is a semi-historical
personage. The son of Gandharba-Sena the donkey
and the daughter of the King of Dhara, he was pro-
mised by his father the strength of a thousand male
elephants. When his sire died, his grandfather, the
deity Indra, resolved that the babe should not be
born, upon which his mother stabbed herself. But
the tragic event duly happening during the ninth
month, Yikram came into the world by himself, and
was carried to Indra, who pitied and adopted him,
and gave him a good education.

The circumstances of his accession to the throne,
as will presently appear, are differently told. Once,
however, made King of Malaya, the modern Malwa,
a province of Western Upper India, he so distin-

1 I do not mean that rhymes were not known before the days of El
Islam, but that the Arabs popularised assonance and consonance iu
Southern Europe.

2 ' Vikrama ' means ' valour ' or ' prowess.'



xvi PREFACE.

guished himself that the Hindu fabulists, with their
usual brave kind of speaking, have made him c bring
the whole earth under the shadow of one umbrella.'

The last ruler of the race of Mayura, which reigned
318 years, was Raja-pal. He reigned 25 years, but
giving himself up to effeminacy, his country was
invaded by Shakaditya, a king from the highlands of
Kumaon. Vikramaditya, in the fourteenth year of
his reign, pretended to espouse the cause of Raja-pal,
attacked and destroyed Shakaditya, and ascended the
throne of Delhi. His capital was Avanti, or Ujjayani,
the modern Ujjain. It was 13 kos (26 miles) long
by 18 miles wide, an area of 468 square miles, but a
trifle in Indian history. He obtained the title of
Shakari, ' foe of the Shakas, 3 the Sacae or Scy-
thians, by his victories over that redoubtable race.
In the Kali Yug, or Iron Age, he stands highest
amongst the Hindu kings as the patron of learning.
Mne persons under his patronage, popularly known
as the ' Nine Gems of Science,' hold in India the
honourable position of the Seven Wise Men of Greece.

These learned persons wrote works in the eighteen
original dialects from which, say the Hindus, all
the languages of the earth have been derived. 1

1 Mr. Ward of Serampore is unable to quote the names of more than
nine out of the eighteen, namely : Sanskrit, Prakrit, Naga, Paisacha,



PREFACE. xvii

Dhanwantari enlightened the world upon the sub-
jects of medicine and incantations. Kshapanaka
treated the primary elements. Amara-Singha com-
piled a Sanskrit dictionary and a philosophical
treatise. Shankubetalabhatta composed comments
and Ghatakarpara, a poetical work of no great merit.
The books of Mihira are not mentioned. Varaha
produced two works on astrology and one on arith-
metic. And Bararuchi introduced certain improve-
ments in grammar, commented upon the incantations,
and wrote a poem in praise of King Madhava.

But the most celebrated of all the patronised ones
was Kalidasa. His two dramas, Sakuntala, 1 and
Vikrarn and Urvasi, 2 have descended to our day;
besides which he produced a poem on the seasons,
a work on astronomy, a poetical history of the gods,
and many other books. 3

Gandharba, Rakshasa, Ardhamagadi, Apa, and Guhyaka most of
them being the languages of different orders of fabulous beings. He
tells us, however, that an account of these dialects may be found in the
work called Pingala.

1 Translated by Sir Wm. Jones, 1789 ; and by Professor Williams,
1856.

* Translated by Professor H. H. Wilson.

8 The time was propitious to savans. Whilst Vikramaditya lived,
Magha, another king, caused to be written a poem called after his name.
For each verse he is said to have paid to learned men a gold piece,
which amounted to a total of 5,280. a large sum in those days, which
preceded those of Paradise Lost. About the same period, Karnata, a third
king, was famed for patronising the learned men who rose to honour at



xviii PREFACE.

Vikramaditya established the Sambat era, dating
from A.C. 56. After a long, happy, and glorious
reign, he lost his life in a war with Shalivahana,
King of Pratisthana. That monarch also left behind
him an era called the c Shaka,' beginning with A.D. 78.
It is employed, even now, by the Hindus in recording
their births, marriages, and similar occasions.

King Yikramaditya was succeeded by his infant
son Yikrama-Sena, and father and son reigned over
a period of 93 years. At last the latter was sup-
planted by a devotee named Samudra-pala, who
entered into his body by miraculous means. The
usurper reigned 24 years and 2 months, and the
throne of Delhi continued in the hands of his
sixteen successors, who reigned 641 years and three
months. Vikrama-pala, the last, was slain in battle
by Tilaka-chandra, King of Yaharannah. 1

It is not pretended that the words of these Hindu
tales are preserved to the letter. The question about
the metamorphosis of cats into tigers, for instance,
proceeded from a Gem of Learning in a university

Vikram's court. Dhavaka, a poet of nearly the same period, received
from King Shriharsha the magnificent present of 10,000. for a poem
called the Ratna-Mala.

1 Lieut. Wilford supports the theory that there were eight Vikrama-
dityas, the last of whom established the era. For further particulars,
the curious reader will consult Lassen's Anthologia, and Professor H. IL
Wilson's Essay on Vikram, (New) As. Kes. ix. 117.



PREFACE. xix

much nearer home than Gaur. Similarly the learned
and still living Mgr. Gaume (Traite du Saint-Esprit,
p. 81) joins Camerarius in the belief that serpents bite
women rather than men. And he quotes (p. 192)
Cornelius a Lapide, who informs us that the leopard
is the produce of a lioness with a hyaena or a pard.

The merit of the old stories lies in their sugges-
tiveness and their general applicability. I have
ventured to remedy the conciseness of their language,
and to clothe the skeleton with flesh and blood.



CONTENTS.



PA<!K

INTRODUCTION ..... 1

THE VAMPIRE'S FIRST STORY.
IN WHICH A MAN DECEIVES A WOMAN . . " . . .54

THE VAMPIRE'S SECOND STORY.

OP THE RELATIVE VILLANY OF MEN AND WOMEN . 97

THE VAMPIRE'S THIRD STORY.
OF A HIGH-MINDED FAMILY . ' . . . .140

THE VAMPIRE'S FOURTH STORY.

OF A WOMAN WHO TOLD THE TRUTH . . . 156

THE VAMPIRE'S FIFTH STORY,

OF THE THIEF WHO LAUGHED AND WEPT . . . .167



xxii CONTENTS.

THE VAMPIRE'S SIXTH STORY.

PAGE
IN WHICH THEEE MEN DISPUTE ABOUT A WOMAN. . . 190

THE VAMPIRE'S SEVENTH STORY.

SHOWING THE EXCEEDING FOLLY OF MANY WISE FOOLS. . 209

THE VAMPIRES EIGHTH STORY.

Off THE USE AND MISUSE OF MAGIC PILLS . . . .238

THE VAMPIRES NINTH STORY.

SHOWING THAT A MAN'S WIFE BELONGS NOT TO HIS BODY BUT

TO HIS HEAD 267

THE VAMPIRES TENTH STORY.

OF THE MARVELLOUS DELICACY OF THREE QUEENS . . 285

THE VAMPIRES ELEVENTH STORY.

WHICH PUZZLES RAJA VIKRAM 290

CONCLUSION . 307



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



DURING THE THREE HOURS OF RETURN HARDLY A WORD PASSED

BETWEEN THE PAIR . . '.''.. * ' . Frontispiece

HE WAS PLAYING UPON A HUMAN SKULL WITH TWO SHANK BONES J0. 43
HE ONCE MORE SEIZED THE BAITAI/S HAIR . . . , .48

WENT UP TO HER WITH POLITE SALUTATIONS . , TofoCB 66

HAVING SAID THIS, HE THREW ONE OF THE SWEETMEATS TO THE

DOG . . . To face 85

MOUNTING THEIR HORSES, FOLLOWED THE PARTY . . . .93

HE DISMISSED THE PALANQUIN-BEARERS . . . . . 117

HE SET OUT ALONE WITH HIS ILL-GOTTEN WEALTH . To face 118

THE KING, PUFFING WITH FURY, FOLLOWED HIM AT THE TOP OF

HIS SPESD, AND CAUGHT HIM BY HIS TAIL . . To fdCB 139

IN THE MEANTIME A TRAVELLER, A RAJPUT, BY NAME BIRBAL . 143
THE BAITAL DISAPPEARED THROUGH THE DARKNESS . To face 165
AS, HOWEVER, HE PASSED THROUGH A BACK STREET . To fdCB 170
AFTER A FEW MINUTES THE SIGNAL WAS ANSWERED . . .173

THE TWO THEN RAISED, BY THEIR UNITED EFFORTS, A HEAVY

TRAP-DOOR k . . k ' . . To face 174



xxiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE
TREADING WITH THE FOOT OF A TIGER-CAT 177

THE KING WAS CUNNING AT FENCE, AND SO WAS THE THIEF To face 179
PRESENTLY THE DEMON WAS TRUSSED UP AS USUAL . . .188

BAMAN, THE SECOND SUITOR, TIED UP A BUNDLE AND FOLLOWED 198
MEANWHILE MADHUSADAN, THE THIRD, BECAME A JOGI . .199

THE HOUSEHOLDER'S WIFE CAME TO SERVE UP THE FOOD, BICE

AND SPLIT PEAS To face 203

MADHUSADAN PROCEEDED TO MAKE HIS INCANTATIONS, DESPITE

TERRIBLE SIGHTS IN THE AIR .... TofdCe 205

VIKRAM PLACED HIS BUNDLE UPON THE GROUND, AND SEATED

HIMSELF CROSS-LEGGED BEFORE IT ... To face 207

THEY TRIED TO LIVE WITHOUT A MONTHLY ALLOWANCE, AND

NOTABLY THEY FAILED 223

AN EDIFYING SPECTACLE, INDEED, FJR THE WORLD TO SEE: A
CROSS OLD MAN SITTING AMONGST HIS GALLIPOTS AND

CRUCIBLES To face 228

THE BONE THEREUPON STOOD UPRIGHT, AND HOPPED ABOUT . 230

WITH A ROAR LIKE THUNDER TofoCC 235

THEY PREPARED FOR THEIR TASK 234

BUT THEIR EYES HAD MET 241

AS THEY EMERGED UPON THE PLAIN, THEY WERE ATTACKED BY

THE KIRATAS To face 277

THEN A HORRID THOUGHT FLASHED ACROSS HER MIND } SHE PER-
CEIVED HER FATAL MISTAKE To face 279

THERE HE FOUND THE JOGl . . . . . . .310

AS HE BENT DOWN TO SALUTE THE GODDESS . . . .317

TAILPIECE .... ,319



VIKRAM AND THE VAMPIEE,



INTEODUCTION.

THE sage Bhavabhuti Eastern teller of these tales
after making his initiatory and propitiatory conge
to Ganesha, Lord of Incepts, informs the reader that
this book is a string of fine pearls to be hung round
the neck of human intelligence ; a fragrant flower to
be borne on the turban of mental wisdom ; a jewel of
pure gold, which becomes the brow of all supreme
minds ; and a handful of powdered rubies, whose
tonic effects will appear palpably upon the mental
digestion of every patient. Finally, that by aid of
the lessons inculcated in the following pages, man
will pass happily through this world into the state
of absorption, where fables will be no longer re-
quired.

He then teaches us how Vikramaditya the Brave
became King of Ujjayani.

Some nineteen centuries ago, the renowned city of



2 VIKRAM AND THE VAMPIRE.

Ujjayani witnessed the birth of a prince to whom
was given the gigantic name Yikramaditya. Even
the .Sanskrit-speaking people, who are not usually
pressed fotf tiise,- shortened it to ' Vikram,' and a
r little , further. Went it would infallibly have been
docked down to * Vik.'

Vikrani was the second son of an old king Gan-
dharba-Sena, concerning whom little favourable has
reached posterity, except that he became an ass,
married four queens, and had by them six sons, each
of whom was more learned and powerful than the
other. It so happened that in course of time the
father died. Thereupon his eldest heir, who was
known as Shank, succeeded to the carpet of Eajaship,
and was instantly murdered by Vikram, his e scorpion,'
the hero of the following pages. 1

By this act of vigour and manly decision, which
all younger-brother princes should devoutly imitate,
Vikram having obtained the title of Bir, or the Brave,

1 History tells ixs another tale. The god Indra and the King of
Dhara gave the kingdom to Bhartari-hari, another son of Grandharba-
Sena, by a handmaiden. For some time, the brothers lived together ;
but presently they quarrelled. Vikram being dismissed from court,
wandered from place to place in abject poverty, and at one time hired
himself as a servant to a merchant living in G-uzerat. At length, Bhar-
tari-hari, disgusted with the world on account of the infidelity of his
wife, to whom he was ardently attached, became a religious devotee,
and left the kingdom to its fate. In the course of his travels, Vikram
came to Ujjayani, and finding it without a head, assumed the sovereignty.
He reigned with great splendour, conquering by his arms Utkala, Vanga,
Kuch-behar, Gruzerat, Somnat, Delhi, and other places ; until, in his
turn, he was conquered and slain by Shalivaban.



INTRODUCTION. 3

made himself Raja. He began to rule well, and
the gods so favoured him that day by day his do-
minions increased. At length he became lord of all
India, and having firmly established his government,
he instituted an era an uncommon feat for a mere
monarch, especially when hereditary.

The steps, 1 says the historian, which he took to
arrive at that pinnacle of grandeur, were these :

The old King calling his two grandsons Bhartari-
hari and Yikramaditya, gave them good counsel
respecting their future learning. They were told to
master everything, a certain way not to succeed in
anything. They were diligently to learn grammar,
the scriptures, and all the religious sciences. They
were to become familiar with military tactics, inter-
national law, and music, the riding of horses and ele-
phants especially the latter the driving of chariots,
and the use of the broadsword, the bow, and the
mogdars or Indian clubs. They were ordered to be
skilful in all kinds of games, in leaping and running,
in besieging forts, in forming and breaking bodies of
troops ; they were to endeavour to excel in every
princely quality, to be cunning in ascertaining the
power of an enemy, how to make war, to perform
journeys, to sit in the presence of the nobles, to sepa-
rate the different sides of a question, to form alliances,
to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty,

1 The words are found, says Mr. Ward, in the Hindu History com-
piled by Mrityungaya.



4 VIKRAM AND THE VAMPIRE.

to assign proper punishments to the wicked, to ex-
ercise authority with perfect justice, and to be liberal.
The boys were then sent to school, and were placed
under the care of excellent teachers, where they


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryRichard Francis BurtonVikram and the vampire; or, Tales of Hindu devilry → online text (page 1 of 19)