C. A. (Charles A.) Higgins.

To California over the Sante Fé Trail online

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VI) v


the collection of the

PreTinger h




'T^HIS book is wholly devoted to a description of Western

It is a trustworthy descriptive book of travel, unencumbered
with statistics or itineraries. It is hoped, however, that a perusal of
its pages will create a desire to visit the scenes described. The
reader who wishes to know something specifically about the cost
and other details of such a journey is respectfully requested to con-
sult a representative of the Santa Fe System lines. A list of
Agents is given on reverse side.

Excursion tickets for the round trip to California over the Santa
Fe are on sale at all times of the year in principal offices through-
out the country. The fares are low, and liberal provisions are
made for stop-overs and final-return limit, allowing ample time for
a prolonged stay at the many points of interest en route.

The trains of the Santa Fe are confidently recommended to a
discriminating traveling public as unsurpassed in the important
Items of speed, safety, and luxurious equipment. The dining-car
and dining-room service is unrivaled. The employes are uni-
formly courteous.


Passenger Traffic Manager,
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway System.

CHICAGO, February, 1912.


iger Agent.

i^er Agent,
iger Agfcnt.

, Kan., 412 Commercial St F. W. MYEKS, General Agent

Ga, 14 N. Pryor St JSgA^OQEl's T th8 7- *"&*** A *

H H \VHTTF ^raveling Passenger

BEAUMONT, Tex., New Crosby Hotel.... R.'D.' FIELD, Cit^pliseneerTS 1 ***'"

BOSTON, Mass., 336 Washington St S. W. MANNING, General New England Agent.

wr w L CH ; EK ' Passenger Agent.
M. H. GAGE, Traveling Agent.

as.senger Dept.

BUFFALO, N. Y., 201 Ellicott Sq. Bldg. . .PETER PALMATEER pLsen^r

CHICAGO, 111., 64 West Adams St GEO. T. GUNNIP, General AgtYP.

F. R. CONNELL, Mgr. Cal Tourist Service
THOS. W. CONWAY Traveling Pa ,,enger Af-;ent.
L. N. NELSON, City Passenger Agent,
Dearborn Station .... J. Q. AD A MS, Depot Passenger Agent.

CLEBURNE, Texas EARL klRKp'ATRYcK, g City 8 passfe r uger 'Agent.

CLEVELAND, O., 28 Taylor Arcade A. J. KENNEDY, Passenger Agent

COLO. SP'GS. 118 E. Pike's Peak Ave C. C. HOYT, City Passenf er Agent '

DALLAS, Tex., 1205 Main St CHAS. L. HOLLAND, City Passenger Agent.

J. P. WRIGHT, Traveling Passenger Agent.
DENVER, Colo., 601 17th St J. P. HALL, General Agent, Passtn


C. A. MOORE, Traveling Passenger Agent.

DETROIT, Mich., 151 Griswold St F.' T. HENDRY,' Generafljen^pf slfenfe^Dept.

G. G. ROBERTSON. Passenger Agent.
EL PASO, Tex., 122 San Francisco St W. R. BROWN, Division Passenger Agent.

J. S. MORRISON, City Ticket Agent,

G. H. DONART, Traveling Passenger Agent,

W. A. CAMERON, Traveling Passenger Agent.

FT. WORTH, Tex. , 702 Houston St T. P. FENELON. City Passenger Agent.

FRESNO, Cal., 2040 Tulare Street R. W. HOBART, General Agent.

GALVESTON, Tex., 224 Tremont St MAX NAUMANN, Gen'l Agent, Passenger Dept.


HOUSTON, Tex., 904 Texas Ave J. R. GREENHILL, City Passenger Agent.

KANSAS CITY, Mo., 905 Main St GEO. W. HAGENBUCH, Gen'l Agent, Pass'r Dept.

T. A. WOLCOTT. Traveling Passenger Agent.

G. B. NEWMAN, City Passenger Agent.
Room?, Union Depot... E. 0. OTT, Depot Passenger Agent.
Room 7, Union Depot.. .L. B. SMITH, Traveling Passenger Agent.

LEAVEN WORTH. Kan E. E. HOOK, General Agent.

LONDON, Eng., 60 Haymarket HENRY V. ELK1NS, General European Agent,

LONG BEACH, Cal.. 33 Pine Ave E. R. GREGORY, Traveling Passenger Agent.

LOS ANGELES, Gal., 334 So. Spring St.. .E. W. McGEE, General Agent Passenger Dept.

G. A. HOPPE. Jr., Traveling Passenger Agent.

MEXICO CITY, Mex W. S. FARNS W ORTH, General Agent,

MINNEAPOLIS Minn., Metropolitan

Life Bldg 0. 0. CARPEN TER, Passenger Agent.

MONTREAL, Quebec, 83 St. James St. ...D. W. HATCH, Traveling Agent.

NEW ORLEANS, La., 223 St. Charles St...W. L. McWHIRTER, General Agent.

NEW YORK CITY, 377 and 1236 Broadway. GEO. 0. DILLARD, General Eastern Pass'r Agt.

W. F. MILLER, City Passenger Agent.

CLARENCE E. EATON. Traveling Pass'r Agent.

OAKLAND, Cal., 1218 Broadway J. J. WARNER, General Agent.

OKLAHOMA CITY, Okla. 16 N.Broadway .THOS. BOYLAN, City Passenger Agent.

PEORIA.I11..325Main St O. H. THOMAS, Passenger Agent.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 711 Chestnut St.. .S. B. ST. JOHN, Passenger Agent.

R. B. VANDEGRIFT, Traveling Passenger Agent.

PHOENIX, Ariz W.8. GOLDS WORTHY, Gen. Agt.,S. F. P.&P. Ry.

PITTSBURG, Pa., 405 Park Building F. E. SHELLABERGER, General Agent.

CHAS. E. MARSH, Passenger Agent.

PORTLAND, Ore., 252 Alder St H. E. VERN ON, General Agent.

A. R. ANDERSON, Traveling Passenger Agent.
City Ticket Agent.
, Agent.

. . General Agent.

SACRAMENTO, Cal., 1024 8th St T. H. WARRINGTON, General Agent.

PUEBLO, Colo., 225 North Union Ave 0. G. NIKIRK, City

RIVERSIDE, Cal., Mission Inn J. H. BAUMAN.Agf

ROCK ISLAND, 111., 210 18th St H. D. MACK, Genen

SACRAMENTO, Cal., 1024 8th St T. H. WARRINGTON, General Agent.

ST. JOSEPH, Mo., 114 South Fifth St ....GEO. BUTTERLY, City Passenger Agent.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., 209 N. 7th St GEO. C. CHAMBERS. Gen'l Agent, Pass. Dept.

GEO. R. BAINTER, City Passenger Agent.
F. K. SMITH, Traveling Passenger Agent.
SALT LAKE CITY, Utah, Room 233 > C. F. WARREN, General Agent.

Judge Bldg 3 E. R. LEIS, Traveling Agent.

SAN ANTONIO, Tex.,101 W. Commerce St.EVERETT H. DALLAS, District Pass'r Agent.
HAN BERNARDINO, Cal., 3d and F Sts.. W. R. DOWLER, General Agent.

SAN DIEGO, Cal.. Grant Hotel Bldg S. C. PAYSON, General Agent.

SAN FRANCISC6, Cal., 673 Market St I. B. DUFFY, General Agent, Passenger Dept.

LOUIS R. EVERETT, Trav. Passenger Agent,
JAS. F. MOSES, City Ticket Agent.

SAN JOSE, Cal., 28 E. Santa Clara St H. R. STERNE, General Agent.

SANTA BARBARA, Cal., 812 State St H. B. GREGORY, General Agent.


SYDNEY, Australia, 5 Gresham St V. A. SPROUL, Passenger Agent.

TEMPLE. Tex H. Y. WILLIAMS, Traveling Passenger Agent.

TOPEKA, Kan., A. T. & S. F. General ) W. J. CURTIS, Passenger Agent.

Office Building J GLENN EDDIE, Passenger Agent.

TORREON. Coiilv. Mex HARRY C. ARCHER, Trav. Passenger Agent.

WICHITA, Kan., Santa Fe Depot H. A. KING, City Passenger Agent.

YOKOHAMA, Japan, 4 Water St GEO. H. CORSE. Jr., G. P. A., San Francisco

n. '<!.. <i l?/-n-it<>


Over the Santa Fe Trail


Over the Santa Fe Trail
by C. A. Higgins

Illustrations by

J. T. McCutcheon, Carl N. Werntz
& John W. Norton

Passenger Department, Santa Fe
Chicago, 1912

Copyright, 1907,
By W. J. Black,

Four Hundred and Fifty-five Thousand,
Revised Edition.

Ad. 613. 1-12-12. 10M.



ii. NEW MEXICO .......... . . 19

RATON TO LAS VEGAS .....,.. 27


SANTA FE .......... o . . 34

PUEBLOS ...... ....... 38

HI. ARIZONA .......... ... 47


PETRIFIED FORESTS . . . . . ..... 55

MOKIS ......... . . , . 59

CANYON DIABLO ....... ... 64

FLAGSTAFF ............ 65





iv. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ......... 90

OF CLIMATE ............ 97


CAPISTRANO ............ Il6

STORY OF THE MISSIONS ..... , . . 119

LOS ANGELES ............ 127

PASADENA ............ 140

MOUNT LOWE ........... 144


SEASIDE RESORTS ...... .... 153


SANTA BARBARA .......... 159

OSTRICH FARMING .......... 162

WINTER. SPORTS ........... 163

A LAND OF FLOWERS ......... 167


v. CENTRAL CALIFORNIA ......... 170

SAN FRANCISCO ........... 174

OAKLAND .......... . . 185


A PACIFIC TOUR .......... l88

COAST LINE ............ 192

YQSEMITE VALLEY ......... 197


It wound through strange scarred hills, down canyons lone

Where wild things screamed, with winds for company ;

Its milestones were the bones of pioneers.

Bronzed, haggard men, often with thirst a-moan,

Lashed on their beasts of burden toward the sea :

An epic quest it was of elder years,

For fabled gardens or for good, red gold,

The trail men strove in iron days of old.

To-day the steam god thunders through the vast,
While dominant Saxons from the hurtling trains
Smile at the aliens, Mexic, Indian,
Who offer wares, keen-colored, like their past :
Dread dramas of immitigable plains
Rebuke the softness of the modern man ;
No menace, now, the desert's mood of sand ;
Still westward lies a green and golden land.

For, at the magic touch of water, blooms
The wilderness, and where of yore the yoke
Tortured the toilers into dateless tombs,
Lot brightsome fruits to feed a mighty folk.

RUharet Burton in Tht Centurj,



THE California trains of the Santa Fe (except
the California Fast Mail) leave Chicago
either in early evening, or at a later hour, when
most travelers are ready to retire to the seclusion
of their berths. In either event the earliest stages
of the journey offer little of interest to the tourist
aside from the drainage canal, whose white rock-
debris closely parallels the way for thirty miles.

The same natural conditions which made the
Chicago River a favored route for the early explorers
made possible the creation of this most remarkable
of civic sanitary undertakings. The low water-
shed over which Marquette, Joliet, La Salle and
their fellows dragged light canoes, from the head
waters of the Chicago River to those flowing south-
westward to the Mississippi, has been penetrated
by the great canal. It is literally true, therefore,
<hat the current of the Chicago River has been
diverted from its natural direction into Lake Michi^
gan, and now flows by way of its source, " uphill."
The primary incentive for this stupendous under-

taking was the desire to divert the drainage of tht
city from its outflow into Lake Michigan, where
it contaminated that noble water supply. Inciden-
tally, however, as a result of the work, a capacious
ship channel has been formed, connecting the basin
of the Great Lakes with the Mississippi River.

While no commercial advantage has been taken
of this new trade route as yet, river improvements
now under way will remove the final obstacle
to direct navigation between the lakes and the
great river. This drainage canal is one of those
rare achievements in which figures tell a dramatic
story. The total cost of the enterprise from the
beginning to the end approximates $40,000,000.
The canal was begun September 3, 1892, and in
January of 1900 the water of Lake Michigan was
turned into it to find a new way to the ocean.
The length of the main channel is 28.5 miles, the
depth of water 22 feet, the width from 162 feet to
290 feet, and the total amount of excavation 42,-
397)904 cubic yards. The present capacity is
300,000 cubic feet per minute, and this flow will
be materially increased by the river improvements.

By day the adjacent country appears a level or
mildly undulating region, rich in agricultural prod-
ucts, and relieved by bits of stream and woodland
and by small villages, with here and there a con-
siderable city, such as Joliet, and Streator and
Galesburg, and important rivers, such as the Illinois,
which is crossed near Chillicothe. It is greater
than the whole of England and Wales, this State

of Illinois, but a very few hours* ride is sufficient
to bring one to its western boundary, the Missis-
sippi River. This is crossed at Fort Madison on an
eight-span drawbridge 1,925 feet long, and the
way r continues across the narrow southeastern
corner of Iowa into Missouri. While gliding
through the State last named the traveler awakes
to the sight of a rolling country of distant
horizons, swelling here and there to considerable
hills, checkered with tilled fields and frequent farm-
houses, divided by numerous water-courses and
dense groves of deciduous trees. Not one whose
scenic features you would travel far to see, but
gratifying to the eye ; full of gentle contrasts and
pleasing variety.

La Plata is the highest point between Chicago
and Kansas City. Just east of Carrollton the wide
valley of the tawny Missouri is entered, which
river the Santa Fe follows to Kansas City. At
the lofty Sibley bridge (two-fifths of a mile long
and 135 feet high) across the Missouri River the
swift sand-laden volume of t'fl'3 famed stream flows
far below the level of the eye, and there is wide
outlook upon either hand. On the farther side
the way skirts bold bluffs for a considerable dis-
tance by the side of the broad aad picturesque
river that is reminiscent of the days of steamboat
commerce. Then comes Kansas City.

There was a time when Kansas City was famed

almost entirely for its live stock industry, its great

packing houses, and its grain market. These en-


terprises have been growing year by year, but they
no longer dominate the commercial life of this
metropolis of the Missouri Valley., A great rail-
way, manufacturing and distributing center, Kansas
City holds an important place in the business activ-
ities of the whole Southwest. Its rapid growth
is uninterrupted, the present population, counting
that portion over in Kansas, being 248,381. Its
people are energetic and practical in their civic
loyalty. The Kansas border lies just beyond, the
entrance to that State leading by the serpentine
course of the river of the same name through a
wooded landscape to the open prairie.

Kansas City is not the only gateway by which
the Santa Fe enters Kansas, although it is by this
route that the transcontinental trains travel. St.
Joseph, in Missouri, and Atchison and Leavenworth,
in Kansas, are Missouri River cities, all reached by
connecting lines of the same system, and all famous
in the early history of the region. St. Joseph was
an important point of exchange between the river
traffic and that of the overland route to Denver
and the Rocky Mountains. Atchison was the
initial point of the Santa Fe Railway system itself,
as originally planned, and gave its name to the
great railway.' Leavenworth was one of the early
military posts of the great West, and is still known
as the seat of Fort Leavenworth. All of these are
flourishing cities, with important local industries.

The billowy surface of Kansas was once the bed
of an inland sea that deposited enormous quantities

of salt, gypsum and marbles, and its rock strata
abound in most remarkable fossils of colossal animal
life elephants, mastodons, camels, rhinoceroses,
gigantic horses, sharks, crocodiles, and more ancient
aquatic monsters of extraordinary proportions, fright-
ful appearance, and appalling name, whose skele-
tons are preserved in the National Museum. Its
eastern boundary was along the shore of the most
stubborn wilderness of our possession. The French
fur-traders were the first to establish footing of
civilization in Kansas, the greater portion of which
came to us as part of the Louisiana purchase.
More than seventy years ago Fort Leavenworth
was created to give military protection to the haz-
ardous trade with Santa Fe, and the great overland
exodus of Argonauts to California at the time of
the gold discovery was by way of that border sta-
tion. The first general settlement of its eastern
part was in the heat of the factional excitement
that led to the Civil War. It was the scene of
bloody encounters between free-soil and pro-slavery
colonists, and of historic exploits by John Brown
and the guerrilla Quantrell. In the space of one
generation it has been transformed as by a miracle.

A Santa Fe Dining Room.

University of Kansas.

The very Lawrence, whose name for years called
to mind the horrors of the Quantrell raid and the
massacre of its defenseless citizens, is now the most
flourishing of peaceful towns, the seat of the Uni-
versity of Kansas and of the famous Haskell Insti-
tute, a noteworthily successful school for Indians.
The vast plains whereon the Indian, antelope
and buffalo roamed supreme are now counted as
the second most important agricultural area of the
Union, and its uncultivated tracts sustain millions
of cattle, mules and horses. Vigorous young cities
are seen at frequent intervals. Topeka, with its
broad avenues and innumerable shade trees, is one
of the prettiest capitals of the West ; here are the
general offices and principal shops of the Santa Fe,
and several imposing State edifices. Between Law-
rence and Topeka the train passes historic Lecomp-
ton, the early territorial capital of Kansas once
a strenuous pro-slavery stronghold, to-day a quiet
country village. The neighborhood of Newton
and Burrton is the home of Mennonites, a Russian
sect that fled to America from the domain of the
Czar to find relief from oppression. Newton was
in pioneer days a big shipping point on the cattle
drive from Texas.


The Capitol, Topeka.

University of Kansas.

At Hutchinson (noted for its salt industry) one
enters western Kansas, and from this point for a
long distance the road follows the windings of the
Arkansas River, with only occasional digressions.
Dodge City, of cowboy fame, and Garden City,
the scene of Government experiments in agricul-
ture, are the chief centers of this district. East of
Great Bend are the ruins of old Fort Zarah. Paw-
nee Rock, further west, derives its name from a
high rock north of the little station, where many
fierce Indian battles were fought, and where Gen.
Hancock, Gen. Robert E. Lee and Kit Carson
made noteworthy visits.

Opposite Larned, on an island in the river, a
fierce battle occurred in 1870 between hostile
Cheyennes and Arapahoes.

The Santa Fe trail, mentioned in New Mexico
chapter, began at Westport (now Kansas City),
following the Kaw River to Lawrence, thence
over the hills to Burlingame and Council Grove
the Arkansas Valley being reached at Fort Zarah
(now Great Bend). The trail crept up this valley
to Cent's Fort (now Las Animas), and climbed
the mountains through Raton Pass. There was a
short cut from Fort Dodge to Las Vegas, along
the Cimarron River. It is but thirty years since
Comanches and Pawnees made almost every toil-

some mile of the slow passage through Kansas
dangerous for the wagon trains that wound slowly
across the plains, laden with the traffic for the
southwest. Except the trains were heavily guarded
by military escorts, they were subject to frequent
attacks by day and night. The stories of those
days make picturesque reading now for the traveler
who passes by rail swiftly and luxuriously along
this very pathway.

Colorado first presents itself as a plateau, ele-
vated 4,000 feet above the sea, railway and river
continuing as close neighbors through the gently
ascending plains.

The Arkansas Valley, all the way from east of
Garden City to La Junta and beyond, is in sum-
mer comparable to a two-hundred-mile-long green
ribbon stretched loosely across the wide gray prai-
rie. Its alfalfa fields, melon patches, beet sugar
acres and thrifty towns are proof that irrigation
pays, there being a never-failing supply of water
for these fertile lands. Garden City, Holly, Lamar,
Las Animas, La Junta and Rocky Ford are the
centers of this irrigated district, a bit of pastoral
prosperity in pleasing contrast with the grim and
forbidding mountains soon to be ventured.

Six factories have been built for the production
of sugar from beets one each at Rocky Ford,
Lamar, Holly, Swink, Garden City and Sugar City.
They were erected at a cost of several million dol-
lars and their daily capacity is about 5,000 tons of

beets. This convenient market is stimulating the

raising of sugar beets throughout the whole valley,
so that the cultivation of the succulent vegetable
has become one of the most important of local

Four miles west of Holly, and consequently just
over the Colorado line, is the little colony estab-
lished by the Salvation Army in 1898, under the
name of Fort Amity. As a measure of practical
benefit to certain elements in the crowded quar-
ters of the great cities, the Salvation Army
obtained 1,800 acres of land here and settled upon
it 250 colonists. The progress of the colony dur-
ing its early history seems to promise success for
the undertaking.

Passing Las Animas the tourist is again reminded
of the good old days when Kit Carson made
Bent's his headquarters, when the Arapahoes, Kio-
was and Cheyennes wintered at Big Timbers, and
when Fort William (later known as Fort Lyon)
afforded security for the frontiersmen in times of
unusual danger.

Every mile of progress westward carries the
traveler into a higher altitude as he approaches the
junction of the great plains and the foothills of the
Rockies. Soon the landscape begins to give hint
of the heroic. Pike's Peak is clearly distinguish-
able though a hundred miles distant, and the two
beautiful Spanish Peaks hover upon the horizon
and reappear long after the first-named has faded
from view. Slowly the Raton Range gathers sig-

nificance directly ahead, until it becomes a tower-
ing wall, at whose foot lies the city of Trinidad,

Trinidad is the center of large coal, coke, iron
and wool industries. Here, going west, is the first
appearance of adobe architecture and Mexican set-
tlements. Here also begins the final ascent to the
first of many lofty mountain gateways, the Raton

Away back in 1540, when that Spanish soldier
of fortune, Coronado, traveled through the
Southwest, there was in his small band a brave
captain^ known as Cardenas. The Santa Fe rail-
way hotel at Trinidad, managed by Fred Harvey,
is named after him.

The commodious dining-room of the Cardenas
accommodates nearly a hundred guests, and there
are thirty-seven sleeping apartments. The edifice
is two stones high, substantially built of brick and
stone in the impressive old Mission style of archi-
tecture, similar to the Castaneda, Alvarado and
Escalante elsewhere described. The hotel is beau-
tifully furnished throughout, and in the language
of the advertisement writer, has "all the modern

The grade up Raton Pass is remarkably steep,
and two powerful mountain engines are required
to haul the train at a pace hardly faster than a
walk. The vicissitudes of the pass are such that

Httel C*r4**e> mt

the road winds tortuously in curves so sharp the
wheels shriek at the strain. From the rear vesti-
bule may be had an endlessly varied and long
continued series cf mountain views, for the ascent
is no mere matter of a moment. There are level
side canyons prettily shaded with aspen, long
straight slopes covered with pine, tumbled waves
of rock overgrown with chaparral, huge bare cliffs
with perpendicular gray or brown faces, conical
coke ovens, with their ghostly smoke wreaths,
and breaks through which one may look far out
across the lower levels to other ranges.

A short distance this side the summit stands
what is left of the old toll-house, an abandoned
and dismantled adobe dwelling, where for many
years the veteran Dick Wooten collected toll from
those who used the wagon road through the pass.
Both ruin and trail are of interest as belonging to
the ante-railroad period of thrilling adventure, for
by that road and past the site of the dilapidated
dwelling journeyed every overland stage, every
caravan, every prairie schooner, every emigrant,
and every soldier cavalcade bound to the south-
western country in early days.

Beyond this is a wide-sweeping curve from
whose farther side, looking backward down the
pass, an inspiring picture is unfolded to view for a
passing instant a farewell glimpse of the poetic
Spanish Peaks at the end of a long vista past a
ragged foreground of gigantic measure. Then the
hills crowd and shut off the outside world; there

is a deep sandstone cut, its faces seamed with lay-
ers of coal, a boundary post marked upon one side
Colorado and upon the other New Mexico, and
instantly' following that a plunge into a half-mile
tunnel of midnight blackness, at an elevation of
something more than 7,500 feet.

A second tunnel was completed in April, 1908,
thus making a double-track over Raton Pass from
Trinidad to Raton. The new tunnel is a little
lower than the old one (built 30 years ago); it is

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Online LibraryC. A. (Charles A.) HigginsTo California over the Sante Fé Trail → online text (page 1 of 11)