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C. A. (Charles A.) Higgins.

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counted on to furnish sport are tuna, mackerel,
yellow-tail, barracuda and bonita. Then, among
deep-water fish, are the rock cod and the redfish.

Catalina Island, thirty miles from the main-
land, is a noted place for the catching of big fish
with rod and reel, especially the gamy tuna, to
which sport reference has been made on a preced-
ing page. There are also found the monster
" jewfish," weighing sometimes over 400 pounds.
The catches frequently made by fishermen in the
Bay of Avalon, within a few hours, are so remark-
able as to challenge the credulity of Eastern peo-
ple, so that the sportsman usually carries home
with him a few photographs, as an ocular demon-
stration of his prowess. In the spring months
trout fishing is a favorite sport all along the streams
of the Sierra Madre range, within a few hours'
journey of Los Angeles, amid wild and romantic
scenery.

The grizzly was once exceedingly common. One
of the great sports of the old mission days was to
hunt the grizzly on horseback with the riata for
sole weapon, and it is of record that in a single
166




neighborhood thirty or forty of these formid-
able brutes were sometimes captured in a
night by roping, precisely as a modern cowboy
ropes a steer ; the secret of the sportsmen's
immunity lying in the fact that the bear was
almost simultaneously lassoed from different
sides and in that manner rigidly pinioned.
But Ursus horribilis has long since retreated
to deep solitudes, where his occasional pursuers,
far from approaching him with a rawhide
noose, go armed with heavy repeating rifles,
and even thus equipped are not eager to
encounter him at very close range.

Cricket is naturally a favorite diversion
among the many young Englishmen who have
located upon ranches ; and yachting, polo and tennis
do not want for devotees. Golf finds many devotees
in this favored land, and is at its best during the
winter. Excellent links will be found in Los
Angeles, Pasadena, Riverside, Coronado, San Diego,
Santa Monica, Santa Catalina, and elsewhere.

A LAND OF FLOWERS.

Nothing is more delightful and astonishing to
visitors in California than the wonderful wealth of
flowers, and winter and early spring are the best
time to witness this beautiful exposition of nat-
ural beauty. Indeed, these are the only seasons
in which the wild flowers may be seen in variety.
Soon after the first rain the dull brown of the hills
and plains is supplanted by a mantle of vivid green,




and this, later in the season, is transformed into t
carpet of variegated hues. The most rare and ten-
der plants, which in the East are found only in
hot-houses, here grow rampant in the gardens.
The size to which some of these plants attain is
astonishing. The geranium and heliotrope cover
the side of a house, and two-story buildings are
smothered in blossoms from a single rose-bush.
The mammoth California violet has acquired a
world-wide reputation. In the front yard of the
humblest cottage may be seen the brilliant poin-
settias, luxuriant passion vines, heliotrope, bego-
nias, and calla-lilies, together with waving bananas,
magnificent palms and graceful bamboos. The
calla-lily and tube-rose are planted by the acre, for
the market.

Among the most interesting sights of Southern
California are the flower carnivals, held at regular
intervals in Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and other
cities, where may be seen all kinds of vehicles,
from a bicycle to a four-in-hand, smothered in
fragrant blossoms. On New Year's Day, each
year, Pasadena has maintained its Tournament of
Roses, and established a reputation for the most
elaborate festival of this character.

Flowering trees are also here in abundance,
notable among which are varieties of the eucalyptus,
bearing bunches of beautiful white blossoms. At
the State Experiment Station, near Santa Monica,
are over one hundred varieties of this tree. The
crepe myrtle, jacaranda, magnolia, acacia and
168




Los Angeles
Country Club.



grevillia are also represented in great numbers. It
is not a constant struggle to make flowers and
plants grow in California throughout the year.
Plenty of water and a little cultivation, and a kindly
nature does the rest. The most noted of the wild
flowers which make the country a blaze of glory dur-
ing the later winter months and in the early spring
is the California poppy, which has been burdened
with the unromantic name of escholtzia. This has
been made the State flower. The hills back of
Pasadena are a blaze of gold with this beautiful wild
flower, in the early spring, and on a clear day the
flame tint may be clearly discerned from the ocean,
thirty miles distant. Another beautiful wild flower,
abundant in the foothills of Southern California, is
the scarlet larkspur, a flower peculiar to this State.
There is a commercial side to flower culture in
Southern California. Besides supplying the local
market, florists have occasionally made shipments
of cut flowers to the East, with varying success.
At Redondo, Oceanside and Santa Monica may be
seen several acres of magnificent carnations. The
growing of seeds for Eastern dealers is a profitable
business. One enterprising woman at San Buena
Ventura has made a great success in growing seeds
and developing new varieties. There have been
attempts at the manufacture of perfumery from
flowers.





V.



CENTRAL CALIFORNIA.

/CENTRAL CALIFORNIA comprises that part
^^ of the State between Tehachapi Mountains
and San Francisco. Its chief feature is the great
San Joaquin Valley, bordered on sunset and sunrise
sides by the Sierra Nevada and coast ranges.

Going from Barstow (junction point for Southern
California) over the line of the Santa Fe to San
Francisco, the desert continues as far as Mojave.
The railroad has robbed these wastes of their worst
terrors. Occasional friendly oases mark the homes
of adventurous settlers, and on either hand scarred
mountain-faces proclaim the conquering miner,
who, seeking gold, is undismayed by Nature's for-
bidding front. Off to the north is the Randsburg
mining district, reached from Kramer Station. But
the prevailing note is that of silence and desolation.

Beyond Mojave the line bears northward. The
summit of Tehachapi Range is achieved by a series
of remarkable loops and tunnels. Tehachapi Pass,
with its limpid streams, shady forests and cool air,




is in pleasing contrast to the hot Mojave sands.
The altitude is nearly 4,000 feet, with steep grades
that are only surmounted by a strong and steady
pull. Rapidly descending, the imperial San Joa-
quin Valley, 32,000 square miles in extent, is
entered at Bakersfield. In this magnificent basin,
containing ten million acres of arable land, products
of the temperate, semi-tropical and tropical zones
flourish side by side. Along its eastern slope are
numerous mines and dense forests, while at its
southern extremity an extensive petroleum field
pours rich floods from a thousand throats.

The greatness of the San Joaquin is too super-
lative for more than a brief outline here. Those
interested in the subject are referred to a book
published by the Santa Fe, entitled "The San
Joaquin Valley in California."

The pleasure-seeker may be wooed from his
Pullman by stories of the wondrous big trees that
are reached by stage rides from either Merced or
Visalia stations; or he may be attracted by the
scenic beauties of lovely Yosemite (now expedi-
tiously reached via Merced and the Yosemite
Valley Railroad), and the wild canyons of Kings
and Kern rivers these latter known to few
travelers, but pronounced indescribably grand.





A San Joaquin Valley
Vineyard




Mount Whitney, the king of the California Sierras,
rises higher than any peak in the United States,
exclusive of the Alaskan giants.

The business man will be allured by the many
opportunities here offered for successful farming,
manufacturing and trading. This vast expanse
constitutes one-fifth of California's total area, con-
tains twelve counties, is 260 miles long by 60 to 90
miles wide, and is nearly as large as Indiana.

Steamers ply between San Francisco and Stock-
ton; the San Joaquin River is navigable at all times
for a considerable distance, especially in the rainy
season. It is fed by many tributary streams, such
as Kern, Kings, Merced, Tuolumne, and Stanislaus
rivers, which head in mountain snows and furnish
by irrigation's aid abundant water for crops.
The east side of the valley is a network of main
and lateral canals. Abundant crops are thus
assured, for the soil only needs wetting at the right
times to yield luxuriantly.

Half the grain grown in California is harvested
along the San Joaquin. Wheat farms of 10,000 to
50,000 acres are not uncommon. On these big
areas wholesale methods are imperative. Large
gang plows, operated by traction engines, are
employed. Harvesting is accomplished only by the
aid of machines drawn by as many as thirty horses,
that cut and thrash the grain, delivering it in sacks
ready for shipment.








Alfalfa, the favorite forage plant of California,
grows greenly on thousands of acres, and great
cattle ranches contribute their quota of industrial
wealth. The tendency now is to divide these big
holdings and invite settlement by small farmers, fruit-
raisers, and cattlemen. The Laguna deTache grant>
west of Fresno, is an example of such colonization.

Raisin and wine industries center at Fresno,
where there are raisin-seeding and packing plants,
wineries and distilleries. Fresno County alone has
40,000 acres of vineyards.

Bakersfield, Corcoran, Tulare, Visalia, Hanford,
Fresno, Merced and Stockton are the principal
cities thriving communities, with modern busi-
ness blocks, tree-bowered homes and public build-
ings worthy of cities twice their size.

Clustering around these busy centers of industry
are found immense orchards of prunes, peaches,
apricots, figs, and other fruits, also profitable dairies.

On the rich river bottom lands, near Stockton,
winter vegetables are grown for the Eastern markets.

A million and a quarter persons could easily be
accommodated on the farming lands of the San
Joaquin Valley, allowing a family of five to each
forty-acre tract. Without wishing to usurp the
prerogatives of the real estate boomer, one may
truthfully affirm that the San Joaquin Valley is an
ideal place for the man who wishes to begin in a





moderate way and surely acquire a competence.
Small tracts can be bought at reasonable rates, on
time, with excellent water rights. One need not
wait years for his orchard to come into bearing.
Here the Iowa or Illinois or Nebraska farmer has no
new business to learn. He can at once start in
raising hogs and cattle, wheat, hay and garden
truck, and make the farm pay from the start
gradually working into fruit, as a side issue or the
main support, at his convenience.

SAN FRANCISCO.

The bay of San Francisco is almost completely
encircled by land. The Golden Gate is the tide-
way, a narrow passage between the extremities of
two peninsulas, upon the point of the southern-
most of which the eity stands.

Here, too, the Franciscan mission-builders were
first upon the field, and the present name is a cur-
tailment of Mission de los Dolores de Nuestro Padre
San Francisco de Asis, an appellation commemora-
tive of the sorrows of the originator of the order.
The Mission Dolores, founded in 1776, is still pre-
served with its little campo santo of the dead, a
poor, unsightly, strangled thing, structurally un-
imposing and wholly wanting in the poetic
atmosphere of semi-solitude that envelopes the
missions of Southern California. So nearly, in
forty years, has all trace of the preceding three-
quarters of a century been obliterated. Changed



74




from a Spanish to a Mexican
province early in the century,
then promptly stripped of the
treasures that had been accu-
mulated by monkish administra
tion, and subsequently ceded
to the United States, California
had on the whole a dreamy, quiet life until that
famous nugget was found in 1848. Then
followed the era of the Argonauts, seekers of
the golden fleece, who flocked by the thousand
from Eastern towns and cities by way of the plains,
the Isthmus and the Cape to dig in the gravel-
beds; lawless adventurers in their train. San
Francisco practically dates from that period.
Its story is a wild one, a working-out of order
and stable commercial prosperity through chapters
that treat of feverish gold-crazy mobs, of rapine
grappled by the vigilance committee, of insurrection
crushed by military force. And in this prosperity,
oddly enough, the production of gold has been
superseded in importance by other resources ; for
although California annually yields more precious
metal than any other State, the yearly value of its
marketed cattle,wool, cereals, roots, fruits, sugar and
wines is twice as great, and forms the real com-
mercial basis of the great city of the Pacific coast.
As if it were fearful of being hid, it is set upon




The Santa Fe
Ferry.




not one but a score of hills, overlooking land and
sea. As you near it, by way of Ferry Point, you
will be dull, indeed, if your pulses are not stirred in
anticipation of viewing one of the really great
cities of the world.

The traveler steps from the train at Ferry Point
or Oakland and soon is out on the bosom of the
bay San Francisco Bay ; one of the finest harbors
in all the world.

Few bays are more picturesque ; none better
suited to the purposes of commerce. Crossing
on the fine Santa Fe ferry-boat (on which de-
licious meals are served) and leaving th~ dock
at Ferry Point, San Francisco Bay proper extends
far beyond the limits of vision southward. To
the north are other portions of the same bay,
though carrying distinctive names. At the head of
San Pablo Bay is Mare Island, with Uncle Sam's
big navy yard. Mount Diablo seems to rise close
upon the Suisun shore, while from Ferry Point,
and during the run to San Francisco, can be
seen upon the right the sharp peak of Mount
Tamalpais, which looks beyond across the wide
Pacific.

When the first burst of delight at the wondrous
panorama has settled into a calmer satisfaction, the
traveler will begin to pick out and enquire con-
cerning the various points of interest. Off to the
right, which is here the west, is a lofty red island,
and beyond, on the shore, a grim cluster of red and




Music Stand,

Gate Park.



gray buildings. The cluster of foreboding bufldk

ings is the State Prison on Point San Quentin.

Angel Island, on the south of Raccoon Straits,
is, like all the islands of the bay, government prop-
erty. Just around the first headland is Hospital
Cove, and there is located the United States Quar-
antine Station. The island itself is one-and-a-half
miles long, its crest rises 760 feet from the bay.
and its area is about 600 acres.

Looking back toward the bay shore on the left,
the island between Ferry Point and the main-
land carries the pastoral title of Sheep Island
The Government puts it to no use. On the shore
beyond, the various building clusters generally mean
powder works, where dynamite and other high
explosives are manufactured for use in mines.

The eye, now sweeping to the southward, soon
catches evidences of urban life. This is Berkeley,
and against the shoulder of the hills, which mark
its boundary, may be seen the buildings of the great
State University. The present buildings are looked
upon as makeshifts and are soon to give place to
far more adequate and imposing structures to be
erected on the magnificent plans of M. Bernard,
of Paris. The buildings of the State Institute for
the Deaf, Dumb and Blind one of the finest
schools of its kind in any country are just south
of the University.

Across San Antonio estuary, which the work of
the Federal Government has converted into Oak-
land Harbor, the city of Alameda peeps from its
177




clustered oaks. A little closer on the view looms
the island which the Spaniards called Yerba Bucna,
but to which the more prosaic Anglo-Saxons have
given the name Goat. On this the Government
has a torpedo-supply station for the war-ships, a
depot for the buoys and supplies of the lighthouse
tenders, and a new Naval Training School, where
American lads are to be taught how to defend the
country's honor upon the sea.

But there is a whiff of a fresh salt breeze as the
boat passes beyond the southerly point of Angel
Island, and all travelers will turn to the right again
to get the first view of the Golden Gate.

Here, indeed, is fascinating beauty. The broad
bay narrows to the width of a mile the Golden
Gate proper and through this narrow passage ebb
and flow the mighty tides. Some resistless forces
of old earth's agony seem to have rent the big hills
to make this way for commerce. On the north
the bluffs rise sheer and frowning. From their
tops may be seen the guns of heavy battery, of
12-incn nties 473 feet above the sea level the
highest heavy gun battery in the world. General
Nelson A. Miles calls it the Gibraltar of America.

Inside the Gate are attractions for the nearer
view. In mid-channel the fortified island of Alca-
traz rears itself 140 feet above low water. Here is
the military prison and an artillery post, with a
torpedo station and a light that can be seen for
nineteen miles out at sea.
178




But now the eye begins to be engaged with the

view of the city of San Francisco itself a city which
before the great fire contained 400,000 inhabitants
a shifting concourse of strange peoples and stranger
trades odors unknown and unfamiliar tongues, a
medley of the stories of the world.

It was then a city of fair aspect in one direction
undulating from the water's edge, in another rising
abruptly to the precipitous heights of Telegraph
Hill its topography such as to display, from each
of half a hundred vantage points, many new phases.

A world-city of great commercial activity such
was San Francisco in the early morning of Wednes-
day, April 1 8, 1906. A moment later came the
earthquake and after that the fire.

What of the future ?

At about 5:15 the big clock on the Ferry
House tower stopped at 5:16 came the first great
shock of that elemental calamity that was to write
the date of April 18, 1906, into the stirring history
of San Francisco as the most fateful day that ever
broke above her many hills. It had been a beauti-
ful night. In April, of all times in the year, the
finest nights that the coast climate knows redeem
the reputation of San Francisco's weather. More-
over it had been a gala night in the gay society life
of the most cosmopolitan of American cities, the
most Bohemian of gay, laughter-loving, music-
loving, pleasure-loving populations, gathered from
far-off European capitals, and from the best of
American blood as well. One of the greatest
179






grand opera organizations in the world was in the
city, and the post-Lenten fever of society's revels
was at its height. The climax of the grand opera
season had been reached the night before in a
magnificent performance which had called for the
supreme efforts of the strongest cast of world-
famous singers ever seen in San Francisco, and
never had enthusiasm run higher in San Francisco's
musical world. The performance was only con-
cluded at midnight, and then for hours the cafes
had been gay with the laughter and comment of
the opera-goers. Even when the great shock
struck and the first tall towers tottered to their fall
some of the revelers were in the streets, only a
few, but it is from these that the most coherent
story of the beginning of San Francisco's great
tragedy has been gleaned. It is the story of a
series of more or less prolonged shuddering jerks
and writhings of the earth, here and there the
crash of falling walls, then a great silence for
several minutes. Then, of a sudden, from up
Market street came the growing clamor of the
gong on the on-dashing cart of the fire chief. The
destruction of San Francisco, only badly shaken by
the great earthquake, was at hand from fire. In
the twisted and tangled masses of rookery buildings
shaken into collapse by the temblor broken gas
pipes had started blazing. Worst of all, beneath
the surface of the streets the mains that brought
the water supply had been twisted
and broken. The doom of San
Francisco had been pronounced.



Hotel St. Franci*.



Fire had gotten under way. There was no water.
From that moment until, three days later, the
many fires, of which this first blaze was only a
forerunner, had burned themselves out, over four
square miles of the city's heart were eaten out
utterly, and nearly four hundred millions of dollars
worth of property was reduced to embers and hot
junk. Of the four hundred thousand prosperous,
happy, pleasure-loving population nearly three hun-
dred thousand were sleeping on the public ground
of the city's parks, ruined and homeless refugees.

Had not the human interest submerged all sense
of the scene as a spectacle, nothing so awful and
stupendous ever before has been witnessed as this
panorama of destruction from the hills across the
bay. But with every hour adding thousands to
the number of suffering, homeless human beings
the moments were all too crowded with horror and
sympathy for any sense of the spectacle itself.

While yet the fires were crackling and walls were
still falling; while the whole wide world seemed on
tiptoe to offer sympathy and material aid, these
children of the argonauts were planning the building
of the new San Francisco, which in a few years
will be the greater San Francisco.

San Francisco is already rising from its ruins ; nay
it has almost risen. Its rebuilding is a new wonder
of the world. Why not? What Chicago and
Boston, Charleston, Galveston and Baltimore have
done, San Francisco is doing far more quickly and
completely for in many ways conditions favor the
ill




Fairmont Hotel



rapid rebuilding of great business buildings now as
they never did before. Its many fine new structures
are both fire-proof and quake-proof and present
the last word in the architect's art and skill.

But for the great fire which followed the temblor,
San Francisco's hum of industry would not have
ceased, and the wound caused by the earthquake
would long since have healed and cicatriced. Out
of its sad experience came one practical lesson that
is fraught with most satisfying encouragement for
the future that modern steel structures, properly
anchored, have nothing to fear from earthquake,
and survive the ravages of great fires adjoining.

Of the show places visited by so many thousands
in the past only a few remain.

The Cliff House, spared by the 1906 disaster, was
recently destroyed by fire. It will be rebuilt, either
on the old site or on Seal Rocks, with a connect-
ing arched bridge from the mainland. The near-by
Sutro Baths and Garden sustained no damage. A
little out from the shore below the old Cliff House
the big seals still sun themselves on the Seal Rocks
or swim about among the flashing breakers.

The old Presidio also was spared from destruc-
tion, and became a haven of refuge for the stricken
and bereft inhabitants of the city.

Golden Gate Park, which became a vast camp
where thousands of people were gathered in tents,
is now comparatively free from the camps of the
refugees, who are refugees no longer, but self-
respecting, self-supporting citizens, and its reha-
ifa



bilitation as one of the world's finest parks is under
way. This park is impossible of duplication and
beyond compare. This is due first to climatic
conditions, second to its topography. Beautiful
shrubbery, abundant bloom, varied landscapes and
artistic statuary are here. Wide stretches of grassy
plain are succeeded by beautiful eminences, at the
feet of which are on one hand placid lakes, on the
other the glittering waves of the Pacific. From the
Cliff House, on its sunset edge, may be seen bare
rocks where a colony of seals warm themselves in
the kindly sunshine after a frolic in the salt sea.

The United States Mint, though scorched by the
flames, fortunately survived, and the thirty millions
of dollars within its vaults were preserved.

The residence district is practically intact, very
little damage having been done there.

Chinatown that quaint bit of Mongolian life,
squalid by day and overcast by an Oriental, mystical
glamor at night, foreign to the soil on which it
stood, a grotesque jumble and panopticon of peep
shows, is being rebuilt more rapidly than any other
portion of the city, and the same quaint character-


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