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C. A. (Charles A.) Kunou.

Manual of cardboard construction for third, fourth, and fifth grades online

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This book is DUE on the last date stamped below



APR ^ 1923
MAY 2 9 1323



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OEC 2 1 1949



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OEC 113



1973
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Form L-9



Los Angeles City Public Schools



MANUAL OF

/

Cardboard Construction

FOR

THIRD, FOURTH AND FIFTH GRADES

(Third Reoised Edition)



/5a :: j^



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»,' By ^ri. ■ I'



The author is not conscious of indebtedness to any books or
authors in arranging the course in this manual, except in that
a man may be impressed, in a general way, by what he reads.
The illustrations and drawings are just as good as he can
make them. The work is not a modification of other systems
used elsewhere.

It is hereby dedicated to the children and teachers of the
third and fourth grades of Los Angeles City Public Schools.

CHARLES A. KUNOU.

Los Angeles, CaL, March, 1902.

Regarding the folded inserts in the back of this book,
and regarding the work in decoration and the drawings illustra-
ting the same, the author has been assisted by Mr. Chas. M.
^Miller, formerly teacher of Manual training at the State Nor-
mal School, Los Angeles, Cal., and hereby acknowledges and
ascribes credit to Mr. Miller for his work in this direction.

Xovember, 1906.



OC'



JntroDuction.



This manual, prepared by ]\Ir. Charles A. Kunou, is the out-
growth of practical experience in the school room, and is de-
signed to assist teachers of the third and fourth grades, who
have not had special preparation. The aim is to make the work
as simple as possible, and to establish a correlation with other
subjects, particularly arithmetic and geometry; and to this end
the exercises are intended to assist the mental, as well as the
moral growth. The progression is methodical, the exercises are
simple, and the materials are not expensive. The work is in-
tended to produce useful articles, wh'ch are the creative work of
the child, instead of merely flat pieces of paper, with names at-
tached. The using of paste is avoided as much as possible, and
a system of "flaps" in combining surfaces is employed.

Cardboard construction has a definite educational value, be-
cause it stimulates the mental activities of the children. It calls
into play mind energies which ordinary school systems do not
develop in these grades. It inculcates habits of originality, ac-
curacy, observation and neatness.

Tiiese courses prepare and lead to the more extensive work
in the higher grades, in that they gradually train in definiteness
of form and dimensions. They are planned to cover a period
of two years, with two classes in a room, giving forty minutes
each week for ten months in the year.

Printed by order of Board of Education.

JAMES A. FOSHAY,
Superintendent.

Mr. Fosliay resigned in 1906 and was succeeded by Dr. E.
C. Moore, of the University of California.



(General Directions*



The following courses have been planned for the Third and
Fourth grades. They are consecutive courses to be applied
in the B3, A3, B4 and A4 classes, respectively. Although ap-
parently separate, their inner organic connection constitutes
them one continuous course.

The sequence ought not to be broken, because the work is
built up on its inner elements, i. e., a mere external view of the
course does not wholly convey a complete idea of what it con-
tains. In other words, the models are built on exercises graded
and arranged according to the nature and difficulty of per-
formance. A distinction is made between a model and the exer-
cises contained or united in the model. A model is one thing;
an exercise is another, and a different thing. A mocl ' is? the
unit of expression of the set of exercises united in it. An exer-
cise is a mental and physical effort, as applied in the manipula-
tion of tools and materials. Hence, the course is a systematic
unite for the simultaneous mental and manual training of the
children.

Paper (cardboard, cover paper, bristolboard, tagboard,
etc.) is a convenient medium of expression, because:

1st. It encourages and trains in neatness and cleanliness.

2nd. It requires and admits the use of few tools in its ex-
tensive application.

3rd. It engenders artistic sense and taste by reason of its
easy application in the production of real and ornamental arti-
cles.

4th. It is useful.

4



153 Cout0e»

The predominant geometric elements or motives are the
square and the rectangle. These are studied and elaborated by
indirect repetition, i. e., repetition on advanced and varied prob-
lems ; going step by step from the easy to the difficult, from the
simple to the complex, from the known to the unknown. This
repetition is not apparent to, nor felt by the pupils, except as
they recognize the beneficent influences of the work and each
repetition involves new cognitions, new truths and new applica-
tions of the original elements. In this course all measurements
are limited to the discrimination of inches and half inches.

The tools and materials used in B3 Course are lead pencil,
ruler, right angled triangle, scissors, darning needle, linen floss
or Columbia zephyr and paper.

For decorative purposes Dennison's Gummed paper strip-
ped in narrow strips is used.

Eyelets and eyelet punch are used to a limited extent.

33 Cout0e*

This course is based and enlarged upon the geometric mo-
tives, the circle and triangles, and as in the proceeding course
these constructions are repeated, and applied under new and
varied circumstances, each step increasing in difficulty of per-
formance and complexity of nature.

In the A3 Course the same tools and materials are used as
in the B3 Course, adding pencil-compasses and paper fasteners.
Measurements are inches, half inches and quarter inches.

Eyelets and eyelet punch are used to a limited extent.

1B4 Cour$e»

In this course the square and rectangle (oblong) are ap-
plied in advanced work, and tools and materials are the same as
in the preceding course.

34 Course*

This course combines in its exercises many of the elements
of the preceding courses and involves construction of polygons
such as hexagons and octagons. In this course the same tools
and materials are used as in the preceding courses, adding
paste.

5



Knives may be used in the latter part of the Fourth Grade,
and on supplementary work. No covered work or so-called book
binding should be attempted as required class work. Some lit-
tle surface pasting- is done in attach'ng fancy paper to the out-
side of some finished models.

All measurements are limited to inches, half inches and
quarter inches.

In all work, teachers should observe and gather materials
and suggestions for improvements of the course. Such sug-
gestions should be in the line of simplification, concentration
and decoration.

What is expected of pupils at the end of each Term.

It is expected that pupils in the B3 class at the end of the
term should be able to discriminate, space and draw readily
with ruler, inches and halves thereof; to draw, cut and define
the motives of squares and oblongs.

Pupils in the A3 Class at the end of the term should be able
to draw, cut and define readily the motives of circles and tri-
angles, in addition to their training in the B3 Class.

Pupils in the B and A4 Classes are trained to use the small-
er fractions of quarter of inches, and to draw, develop, cut and
combine the various objects based upon problems presented in
the courses.



Suggestions; in Q^etJjoD of Ceact)ing.

General Method.

AlAvays draw the outline coiumou to the entire figure before
spacing and drawing details of the inside. Whatever shape or
form a figure may have, there is always some geometric motive
and some regular outline defining and embodying it, so that
where the inner details of a figure depend on the motives or
outlines of a circle, a .square or a rectangle these latter must be
drawn first, proceeding from without, inward.

Reduced to a principle, the method may be stated thus:—
Consider the outline, divide into definite spaces to obtain pro-
portions and symmetry.

This method may be called synthetico-analytical method.

l^ohJ to Ceact)

1st. Construct and develop accurately and gradually as
the instruction is given the whole model on the blackboard,
dictating at the beginning every step in the geometric process.
Do not expect the pupils to think out mathematical construc-
tions. Few men can construct a polygon unless shown how.

2nd. Use model, explaining the relation of it to the draw-
ing, and its parts.

3rd. As the work progresses, dictation of specific steps is
reduced to general statements, Pupils can copy from chart or
blackboard drawing.

There is "dictation and dictation.'' A military command
is one form of dictation. The command is given for a limited
and specific movement.

The soldier responds and stands transfixed when the limit
implied in the command is reached. This analogy illustrates
the pernicious mode of dictation which should not be used in
the teaching.

Reverse the process. Suppose the commander to inquire
of the soldier when, how, wliy and why not. and to what ex-
tent he should execute the command. The soldier now becomes
a reasoner, a thinker, inquirer and executor.

Thus it should be in teaching children. Dictate "how"—
in the beginning, then reverse and ask. The author knows that

7



the greatest of all teachers taught by parables aud then asked.

In teaching in this work let the dictation come "toward
you," toward the teacher, and children will soon repel unnec-
cessary assistance.

4th. Always let pupils draw the first line at the top edge
of their paper, then, in order to ensure ease a^d accuracy in the
use of the triangles in the production of side lines, and in
order to avoid the confusion and motion caused by pupils
rising in. their desks in the attempt to look over the triangle
and see whether it is on the line or not ; turn the paper so that
the top line becomes the base upon which the figure is built up.
Thus the triangle is used standing on the line, so to speak.

5th. In beginning the B3 Course, give a lesson or two in-
volving the use of the triangle and ruler only. For example :
On a piece of practice paper draw lines 1" apart and I/2" apart.
Space 1" and 1/2" and draw lines 1", 11/2", 2", 21/2", 3",
SYz", etc., so that the pupils understand how to discrimi-
nate between one inch and one half inch, and how to draw
parallel lines. When pupils are thus able to draw lines at given
distances, parallel and at right angles, the drawing is performed
directly on the cardboard.

In beginning the A3 Course practice with compasses on
"practice paper" before applying directly on cardboard.
"^ 6th. Amount of work to be done each lesson. In manual
work all children usually apply themselves faithfully. Do not
always "try to finish" the model every lesson or in each lesson.
Cut the lesson on the time. Then the amount to be done may
be stated to be the amount the children "do do." This will
carry the work naturally to its completion in the time allotted.
Where pupils have finished the prescribed work, encourage
original work.

7th. In all manual school work, the success is assured, or
it is made impossible, by the foundations laid through the first
lessons. Hold back instead of urg'ng on. Resist the "what
is next," the "I want to make the next model." Do not re-
quire (juantity, but demand quality, and obtain it bj- arousing
the pupils from within; by evoking the will. This will, to do,
to make, is the dawn of intelligence, the first steps of education.

8th. Regarding the system of lines used in this manual.'



In Avritten language, words are made up of letters. So in Linear
drawing- the different lines are the letters, the alphabet, by
which the drawings are read. In teaching in the third and
fourth grades, it is too early to attempt the application of dif-
ferent lines, by the children. The teacher should draw the figure
on "the blackboard in ordinary "full" lines, and frequently ap-
ply "dimension" lines. Lines to be scored should be filled in
with colored crayon, red or blue. In this way the blackboard
drawing will present sharp contrasts in the lines. Children
should draw only ordinary lines, heavy and light. Remember
that other advanced forms of manual work and mechanical
drawing follow the work of the grades for which this course is
designed.
~:::^ 9th. Time of lessons. In the city schools of Los Angeles,
Cal., each school room has two classes, A and B. These classes
are and may be taken at one time and given a lesson a week of
forty-five minutes : or same teacher may teach A and B classes
separately, in which case each class receives 221/^ minutes.

Any teacher of ordinary ability and experience should take
the whole room at one time.

The room work, the movement of the paraphernalia, etc..
are then reduced to one-half, thus gaining time and conserving
energy.

The pupils should be shown how to use the scissors properly
and all should sit upright, using only the hands. Counteract
the habit of twisting the mouth, inclining the head, projecting
the tongue, etc.

parting*

In using paste or glue, pupils should supply themselves
with small pieces of clean white cloth or soft paper, to smooth
down flaps, wipe the fingers, etc.

JfolUing*

Pupils should be taught to fold the paper in accordance
with an approved method. Use ruler upon the line, and fold
upward and toward "you," with ruler as guide and rest. Re-
move ruler, fold over and smooth down with fingers, then raise
the paper to the angle required.

9



^J



On tagboard or folderboard or other heavy papers, place
rule on side opposite to lines and fold so that scored lines come
on outside of models./

-^ Scoring,

Scoring is the process of making an impression on the fig-
ure lines on the heavier papers, such as bristolboard, tagboard,
or pulpboard. It should be done with some instrument not quite
so shni'p as a knife; for the paper must not be cut.

The back edge of the scissors is, in these courses, the most
conven'ent for pupils. Otherwise a bookbinder's paperfolder is
the best tool for hand scoring. Score only such paper whose
thickness or folding quality requires scoring. Score on the
lines and fold the figure in on the same side, except when using
heavy bristol or pulp boards, tag or folder boards, and where
edge binding is required.

Cerminologp*

In all work use geometric terminology, that is: apply the
terms perpendicular, horizontal, vertical, oblique, circumfer-
ence, radius, diameter, apex, base, etc. Use the (seconds)" in
dimensions on drawings. Do not use the abbreviation "in." for
inches. However, do not expect or attempt too much in this
direction at the outset. As the pupils' work progresses, and
the terms are frequently applied, they become distinct and fully
understood by the pup'ls.

£C)ciginal anD Supplementary? Woxk.

Reading is taught for the purpose of developing children,
and so is aritlnnotic, writing and music. Children are not em-
])loyed, it is presumed, in these sub.jects "to see what can be
done in these lines." Thus also, cardboard construction should
be used as a means of formal education. In giving supple-
mentary work, models whose elements are co-related to other
school work, say geometry, should be encouraged. The simple
solids, the cube, cone, and pyramid are here conveniently ap-
plied — not as ordinary solid forms, but as applied in life ob-
jects, such as frames, baskets, etc. In all manual work in the
public schools, the utilitarian side is, therefore, subordinated to
the intellectual.

Systom or oruniiizcd cridits nnist exist in the schools. Indi-

10



vidualism is not subverted by systematic efforts on the part of
all in the class. The faculties of individuals are developed by
doins" a definite thing at and in a definite time, and as re-
quired. Much of so-called original work combines efforts which
are directed always in the channels offering least resistance, and
when completed result either in weariness or false self-satisfac-
tion. Original Avork should be encouraged only where pupils
have finished the prescribed work, so that it expresses their
highest efforts, making the oi'iginal work a privilege. In such
cases the work should be formed into problems to be solved.
That is, the pupil suggests to the teacher "what" he desires to
make. Then a drawing is made, and the model worked out as
other exercises in the course, nj

jFastening anD puncljing*

In fastening with punch let the punch and eyelets be given
to one child in each row respectively.

These children finish their fastening and pass the punches
and eyelets to other children. Thus this may be done at any
time and be found to be a means of discipline. Those pupils
who will not wait orderly and patiently may loose their chance
to finish their models.

l^otD to Cut ^antipapet*

Sandpaper must not be cut with scissors in the ordinary
way. The small silicon particles will dull the edges of the
scissors. Draw the figure required on the back of the sand-
paper, that is, on the smooth side. Then, using ruler — on
straight lines— slide the scissors along it with the back side of
the points in the lines to be cut. out. It is not necessary to cut
clear through so as to come in contact with the sand. Thus cut,
the sandpajjor ])arts or brenks easily.

^pstem of ILine0 O0cD in cpanuaL

Line 1. Ordinary or full line, outline, to be cut.

Line 2. Dotted I'ne, construction line, help line; to ob-
tain figure, not to be scored.

Line 3. Dashed line, to be scored, not cut.

Line 4. Dimension line, to indicate size of figures and parts
thereof.

Pupils draw no dotted lines.

11



Pupils should draw their figures in ordinary lines only.



4



The drawing's in this manual were made so that the figures
for dimensions were to be read from the bottom and from the
right hand side. The arrangement of the cuts compelled a
change of position in many instances.



MATERIALS AND TOOLS USED IN THESE COURSES.

Dennison's Paper Fasteners, No. 22, round head.

Eyelets and punch.

Darning needles 3. ' '

Linen floss, or Zephyr Columbia.

Excelsior Pencil Compasses, No. 8999, Keuffel & Esser Co.

Scissors 5".

Triangles 30° 60«— wood.

Ruler, brass-bound, Vs" scale.

Sandpaper, No. 1, for supplementary work only.

Paste, Library Paste, in 2 oz. bottles.



.12



5S3 Course



153 Course*
sitio. u Equate*

Construction :

With ruler draw AB, 3" long.

Turn paper so that top line becomes base.

With triangle draw lines at right angles with A and B.

Measure BC and AD, 3".

With ruler draw DC parallel to AB.

Test the angles with triangle.

Cut with scissors.

Drill carefully the element or concepts of the square.

Material :

Tagboard or bristolboard.




14



153 Course*
1^0. 2. Visiting CatD* laectaugle*

Construction :

Witli ruler draw line AB, 31/2".

With triangle draw lines AD and BC at right angles to A

and B.
Measure AD and BC, 11/2".
With ruler draw BC parallel to AB.
Test angles with triangle.
Cut card with scissors.
Drill concepts of oblong (rectangle) contrasting with

square.

Material :

Bristolboard.



v^



^^2-



15



153 Course,
lao, 3, 20inDmiIh

Construction :

With I'uler and triangle draw square 4" sides.

Draw diagonals. Teach meaning of diagonals.

Measure V2" from center on each diagonal.

Cut out square with scissors.

Cut on each diagonal to the 1/2 ' ' mark, as in drawing.

Roll right hand corner over and upward, as in sketch.

Insert a pin through the ends of wings and center of square,
and fasten to end of lead pencil and let pupils spin their mills.
Materials :

Coverpaper and pin.

The windmill is one of the first devices to utilize the wind
as a motive power. The earliest attempts were made in the
eighth century.

Tell stories of windmills and tell of the wind as a motive
power.




16




17



B3 Course.

Construction :

Dra-w a rectangle 5"x3i/2"-

DraAV a line across in the middle.

Cut out figure with scissors.

Fold on middle line.

On white "soft paper" draw rectangle for leaves 4^/2 "x-

31/2".
Cut around and fold in middle.
Sew the leaves on to the covers, using floss, taking two or

three stitches as may be necessary.
]\Iake larger if desired.
Material :

Coverpaper for covers, common soft paper for leaves.




18




19



153 Course*
il3o* 5. m^itim CarD*

(Rhombus.)
Construction :

Draw base line of desired length.

Using the hypotenuse of a 60^^ triangle (or any angle) draw
sides of rhombus equal to base line, measuring with ruler.
Draw top line parallel to base line, using ruler.
Cut out figure with scissors.

Let pupils write their names in the middle of the cards.
Teach elements of quadrilalteral parallelograms— that is,
Rhombus has four equal sides, and two opposite angles
equal.
Contrast with square.
Material :

Bristolboard.

Teach description of form by fastening four stripes of
paper together with pins in the angles thus forming a square.
Push on the diagonal angles and the square changes into a
Rhombus.




20



153 Course*
JI3o» 6, l^isiting CarD.

(Rhomboid.)
Construction :

Draw base line of desired lengtli.

Using the hypotenuse of a 60-^ triangle, draw sides of rhom-
boid of desired length, measuring with ruler.
Draw top line with ruler and parallel to base line.
Let pupils write their names in the middle of the cards.
Teach elements of quadrilateral parallelograms, as in pre-

ceding lesson. Contrast with rectangle and rhombus.
Teach derivation as in preceding model.
Material :

Bristolboard.



3




->



21



153 Course,
ji3o, ?♦ e^allpocket



Construction :

DraAv a horizontal line 8" long.

Draw a vertical line (at right angles) 8" long and in the
middle of the horizontftl line.

Connect the ends of these lines, completing a square, stand-
ing on its diagonal.

With triangles draw lines x, x, 4" long at right angles to
the horizontal diagonal.

Draw the base line parallel to the horizontal diagonal and
through the extremity of the vertical.

Draw flap l-nes Vo" below base line.

Make ends of flai)s oblique as shown in drawing.

Cut around figure on full lines.

Score and fold on dashed lines.

Lace front with floss as shown in sketch.

Piit in zephj^r to hang model on, as indicated in drawing.
Material :

Tagboard or folderboard.





23



1B3 Course,
s^o. 8. CatDca$e»

Construction :

Draw a rectangle 1V2"^^V2"-

Draw lines across 1", IV2" and 21/2" as in drawing.

In the 1" space draw the tongue Vs" wide, by measuring

1%" from each side of rectangle.
Mark off i/^" on the corners of the 1" line, and draw

oblique lines as shown in drawing.
Cut out figure with scissors.
Locate slot S for the tongue after model is finished by

marking with points of pencil on each side of tongue.

Fold model out again, and score between these points

until the paper is cut through.
Fold model.

Score and fold on dash lines.
In cutting the slot, bore hole in the ends of the lines with

a needle or other pointed instrument, before inserting

the scissors.
Material :

Tagboard or coverpaper.




24



133 Course.
J13o. 9, dBntjelope,

Construction :

Draw a rectangle 4"x3".

Find middle points x and witli niler, draw lines along and

across the rectangle.
With ruler extend lines A. A. A, A, I/2" outside rectangle.
Measure 2" on lines X, X, X, X, and connect with points

A, A, A, A; and at the ends of rectangle, as shown in

drawing.
Cut around figure on the full lines.
Score on dashed lines and- fold in on the lines.
No pasting.

Make in larger size and of different construction if desired.
Material :

Cover paper.




913 Course



as Cout0e»
r5o« L TBookmack.

Construction :

Us'ng compasses draw circle with IV2" radius.

Draw diameter.

Measure V2" on each side of center.

With triangle draw lines AB, and CD, at right angles with

the diameter.
With scissors cut around circumference.
Cut along lines BA, and DC, to diameter.
Drill carefully concepts or elements of circle.
Material :

Bristolboard.




28



33 Cout0e,
i^o» 2. Ctiangulat l^eptag*

Construction :

With ruler draw line AB, 3" long.

Using A and B as centers and AB as radius with compasses

draw arcs to intersect above AB at C.
With ruler draw lines AC and BC.
Cut triangle with scissors.
Measure 1 ' ' down from apex of triangle.
Punch hole with punch, and press in eyelets.
Attach thread or floss.
Material :

Tagboard.



^.B-.'^




29



jBo* 3« Cl)reaD=ta)inDer,

Construction :

With compasses draw circle 1^2 " radius.


1

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