C. Alphonso (Charles Alphonso) Smith.

An Old English grammar and exercise book with inflections, syntax, selections for reading, and glossary online

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3. he hsBf^ gedrifen 3. he hsefde gedrifen



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94 Etymology and Syntax,



Present Perfect.


Past Perfect.


•. 1. we




Plur, 1. w6




2. ge


habba"5 gedrif en


2. ge


hsBf don gedrif en


3. hie




3. hie





The past participle is not usually inflected to agree
with the direct object : NorSymbre pnd East^gle heefdon
2!lfrede cyninge aSas geseald {not gesealde, § 82), The
Northumbrians and East Anglians had given king
Alfred oaths; 9iid'h8Bfdon miclne dSl Sara horsa freten
(not fretenne), and (they') had devoured a large part
of the horses.

Note. — Many sentences might be quoted in which the participle
does agree with the direct object, but there seems to be no clear line
of demarcation between them and the sentences just cited. Originally,
the participle expressed a resultant state, and belonged in sense more
to the object than to habban ; but in Early West Saxon habban
had alr^dy, in the majority of cases, become a pure auxiliary when
used with the past participle. This is conclusively proved by the use
of habban with intransitive verbs. In such a clause, therefore, as o8
8set hie hine ofeleegeime heefdon, there is no occasion to translate
until they had him slain (= resultant state)] the agreement here is
more probably due to the proximity of ofelsegenne to hine. So
also ac hi hsefdon pJSi hiera stemn ges^tenne, but they had already
served out (sat out) their military term,

139. If the verb is intransitive, and denotes a change
of condition^ a departure or arrival^ b6on (wesan) usu-
ally replaces habban. The past participle, in such
cas€|^, partakes of the nature of an adjective, and gen-
erally agrees with the subject: Mine welan J>e ic io
heefde eyndon ealle gewitene 9nd gedrorene, My posses-
sions which I once had are all departed and fallen away;
wSron pS. m^n uppe on Ipnde of agftne, the men had gone
up ashore; Qnd pSi o)>re wSron hungre acwolen, and the



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Verb-Phrases. 95

oiherB had perished of hunger; piid Sac bS micla h^re
waDs J>a J>«r t6 cumen, and also the large army had then
arrived there.

140. A progressive present and preterit (not always,
however, with distinctively progressive meanings) are
formed by combining a present participle with the
present and preterit of bSon (wesan). The participle
remains uninflected : 9nd hie alle on done cyning wSrun
feohtende, and they all were fighting against the king;
Symle h6 bid 15ciende, n6 Blsepd hfi nSfre, He is always
looking^ nor does He ever sleep.

Note. — In most sentences of this sort, the subject is masculine
(singular or plural) ; hence no inference can be made as to agreement,
since -e is the participial ending for both numbers of the nominative
masculine (§ 82). By analogy, therefore, the other genders usually
conform in iaflection to the masculine : wSgron )>& eaUe )>& dSoflu
clypigende anre stefne, then were all the devils crying with one voice,

Verb-Phrases in the Passive Voice,

141. Passive constructions are formed by combining
bSon (wesan) or weorOan with a past participle. The
participle agrees regularly with the subject : hie wSron
benumene SgOer ge )>8bs cSapes ge )>8bs comes, they were
deprived both of the cattle and the corn; hi b6o8 ablfnde
mid 8sm )>io8trum heora scylda, they are blinded with the
darkness of their sins ; and b6 weelhrSowa Domici&nus on
8flm ylcan gSare wearS ftcweald, and the murderous Domi-
tian was killed in the same year; pnd 2S)>elwulf aldormpn
wearS ofslasgen, and j^helwulf^ alderman,, was slain.

Note 1. — To express agency, Mn.E. employs hy^ rarely of; M.E.
o/, rarely by ; O.E. fr9m (fram), rarely of: SS 8e Gk>des bebodu

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96



Etymology and Syntax,



ne gecnSwO, ne bi8 hS oncnawen lr9m Gk>de, He who does not
recognize God's commands, will not he recognized by God; Betwuz
)>Sm wearO ofslagen Eadwine . . . tram Brytta cyninge, Mean-
while, Edwin was slain by the king of the Britons.

Note 2. — O.E. had no progressive forms for the passive, and
coald not, therefore, distinguish between He is being wounded and
He is wounded. It was not until more than a hundred years after
Shakespeare^s death that being assumed this function. WeorOan,
which originally denoted a passage from one state to another, was
ultimately driven out by bfion (wesan), and survives now only in
Woe worth (= be toy



142.



Vocabulary.



8ft Beormaa, Permians.

Oft D^Bcan, the Danish (^men).

Vanes.
Oft FiniiaB, Fins.
SsBt gewald, control [wealdan].
86o sS, sea.



bSo Bcir, shire, district.
b6o w8DlBt5w, battle-field.
ftgan w8DlBtowe gewald, to

maintain possession of the

baUle-field.
b6 wealdend, ruler ^^wielder.



.geflleman, gefUemde, gefUemed, to put to flight.

gestaOelian, gestaOelode, gestaOelod, to establish, restore.

gewisBian, gewiBBOde, gewlBBod, to guide, direct.

wician, wicode, gewlcod, to dwell [wic = village].



143.



Exercises.



I. 1. Qnd ^aer wses micel wael geslaegen on gehwsepre
hQnd, 9nd ^felwiQf ealdorniQn wearp ofslaegeii; Qnd pa
D^niscan ahton waelstowe gewald. 2. Qnd fses ymb anne
mOnaf gefeaht JElfred cyning wif ealne f one li^re, ond hine
gefliemde. 3. H6 saede )>6ali faet pset land sle swipe lang
norp pQnan. 4. pa Beormas hsef don swipe wel gebud (§ 126,
Note 2) hiera land. 5. Ohth^re ssede pset s6t) sclr hatte
(§ 117, Note 2) Halgoland, pe he on (§ 94, (5)) bade. 6. pa
Finnas wicedon be psere sae. 7. Dryhten, aelmihtiga (§ 78,
Note) God, Wyrhta and Wealdend ealra gesceafta, ic bidde



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Verb-Phrases. 97

^6 for Sinre miclan mildheortnesse tJset t$u m6 gewissie to
Sinum willan ; and gestatJela mm m5d to ^Inum willan and
t5 minre sawle Searfe. 8. pa sceolde he tJser bidan ryht-
norf anwindes, for tJsem f set land b6ag fser sutJryhte, opf e seo
see in on Sset land, he nysse hwae^er. 9. For t$y, m6 SynctS
b^tre, gif 6ow swa SynctJ, t$set w6 6ac t$as b6c on t5aet get$6ode
w^nden t$e we ealle gecnawan msegen.

II. 1. When the king heard that, he went (= then went
he) westward with his army to Ashdown. 2. Lovest thou
me more than these ? 3. The men said that the shire which
they lived in was called Halgoland. 4. All things were
made (wyrcan) by God. 5. They were fighting for two days
with (= against) the Danes. 6. King Alfred fought with
the Danes, and gained the victory ; but the Danes retained
possession of the battle-field. 7. These men dwelt in Eng-
land before they came hither. 8. I have not seen the book
of (ymbe) which you speak (sprecan).



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PART III.



SELECTIONS FOR READING.

INTRODUCTORY.
I. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

This famous work, a series of progressive annals by
unknown hands, embraces a period extending from Caesar's
invasion of England to 1154. It is not known when or
where these annals began to be recorded in English.

"The annals from the year 866 — that of Ethelred's
ascent of the throne — to the year 887 seem to be the
work of one mind. Not a single year is passed over, and
to several is granted considerable space, especially to the
years 871, 878, and 885. The whole has gained a certain
roundness and fulness, because the events — nearly all of
them episodes in the ever-recurring conflict with the Danes
— are taken in their connection, and the thread dropped
in one year is resumed in the next. Not only is the
style in itself concise; it has a sort of nervous severity
and pithy rigor. The construction is often antiquated, and
suggests at times the freedom of poetry ; though this purely
historical prose is far removed from poetry in profusion of
language." (Ten Brink, Early Eng. Lit,, I.)

n. The Translations of Alfred.

Alfred's reign (871-901) may be divided into four periods.
Thefirsty the period of Danish invasion, extends from 871 to



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The Battle of Aahdown. 99

881 ; the second, the period of comparative quiet, from 881
to 893; the third, the period of renewed strife (beginning
with the incursions of Hasting), from 893 to 897; the
fourth, the period of peace, from 897 to 901. His liter-
ary work probably falls in the second period.*

The works translated by Alfred from Latin into the
vernacular were (1) Consolation of Philosophy (De Conso-
latione Philosophiae) by Boethius (475-525), (2) Compen-
dious History of the World (Historiarum Libri VII) by
Orosius (c. 418), (3) EcdesiasticcU History of the English
(Historia Ecclesiastica Anglorum) by Bede (672-735), and
(4) Pastoral Care {De Gura Pastorali) by Pope Gregory
the Great (540-604).

The chronological sequence of these works is wholly unknown.
That given is supported by Turner, Arend, Morley, Grein, and
Pauli. Wulker argues for an exact reversal of this order. Accord-
ing to Ten Brink, the order was more probably (1) Orosius,
(2) Bede, (3) Boethius, and (4) Pastoral Care, The most recent
contribution to the subject is from Wulfing, who contends for
(1) Bede, (2) Orosius, (3) Pastoral Care, and (4) BoUhius,



I. THE BATTLE OF ASHDOWN.

[From the Chronicley Parker MS. The event and date are significant.
The Danes had for the first time invaded Wessex. Alfred's older brother,
Ethelred, was king ; but to Alfred belongs the glory of the victory at Ash-
down (Berkshire). Asser {Life of Alfred) tells us that for a long time
Ethelred remained praying in his tent, while Alfred and his followers went
forth •* like a wild boar against the hounds."]

1 871. H6r cuom^ s6 h^re to Egadingum on Westseaxe,

2 9nd faes ymb iii niht ridon ii eorlas up. pa gemgfcte hie

* There is something inexpressibly touching in this clause from the
great king's pen : gif w6 ^a stilnesse habba'S. He is speaking of how
much he hopes to do, by his translations, for the enlightenment of his
people.



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100 Selections for Beading,

1 -^pelwulf aldorman^ on Ignglafelda, Qiid him fser wif ge-

2 feaht, Qnd sige nam. pses ymb iiii niht -^fered cyning
8 Qnd -Alfred his brofur^ fser micle fierd to ESadingum
4 gelseddon, Qnd wif fone h^re gef uhton ; Qnd fser waes
6 micel wael geslsegen on gehwaepre h9nd, Qnd ^felwulf

6 aldormQn wearp of slaegen ; Qnd fa D^niscan ahton wael-

7 stowe gewald.

8 Qnd pses ymb iiii niht gefeaht -^fered cyning 9nd

9 -Alfred his bropur wij> alne * f one h^re on ^scesdtine.

10 Qnd hie wserun* on twsem gefylcum: on ofrum waes

11 Bachs^cg Qnd Halfd^ne pa hsepnan cyningas, Qnd on

12 oprum wseron J>a eorlas. Qnd pa gefeaht s6 cyning
18 ^pered wip para cyninga getruman, Qnd pser wearp se

14 cyning Bags^cg ofslaegen; Qnd Alfred his bropur wip

15 para eorla getruman, Qnd pser wearp Sidroc eorl ofslaegen

16 s6 alda,*' Qnd Sidroc eorl s6 gioncga/ Qnd Osbeam eorl,

17 Qnd Frsena eorl, Qnd Hareld eorl; Qnd pa h^rgas^ b6gen

18 gefllemde, Qnd fela pusenda of slaegenra, Qnd onfeohtende

19 waeron op niht.

20 Qnd paes ymb xiiii niht gefeaht -^pered cyning Qnd

21 Alfred his bropur wip pone h^re aet Basengiim, Qnd paer

22 pa DQniscan sige namon.

28 Qnd paes ymb ii monap gefeaht -^pered cyning Qnd
24 Alfred his bropur wip pone h^re aet M^retune, Qnd hie
26 waerun on tuaem* gefylcium, Qnd hie btitu gefliemdon, Qnd

26 iQnge on dseg sige ahton ; Qnd paer wearp micel waelsliht

27 on gehwaepere hQnd ; Qnd pa D^niscan ahton waelstowe

8. gefeaht. Notice that the singular is used. This is the more
common construction in O.E. when a compound subject, composed
of singular members, follows its predicate. Cf. For thine is the
kingdom, and the power, and the glory. See also p. 107, note on

W8BB.

18. Qnd fela }>u8enda ofsladgenra, and there were many thou-
sands of slain (§ 91).



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The Battle of Ashdown. 101

1 gewald ; Qnd fser wearf Heahmund bisceop ofslsegen,

2 9nd fela godra mQnna. Qnd sefter pissum gefeohte cuom^
8 micel sumorlida.

4 Qnd faes ofer Eastron gefor ^fered cyning; Qnd he
6 ricsode v gear; Qnd his lie lip set Winbnrnan.

6 pa feng Alfred -^pelwulfing his brofur t5 Wesseaxna

7 rice. Qnd pses ymb anne monap gefeaht jElfred eyning

8 wip alne* pone h^re lytle werede^" set Wiltune, Qnd hine

9 iQnge on daeg gefliemde, Qnd pa D^niscan ahton wselstOwe

10 gewald.

11 Qnd pses geares wurdon viiii folcgefeoht gefohten wip

12 pone hQre on py cynerice be supan T^mese, butan pam pe
18 him Alfred pses cyninges bropur Qnd anlipig aldorniQn^ Qnd

14 cyninges pegnas oft rMe onridon pe niQn na ne rimde ;

15 Qnd pses glares wserun* of slsegene viiii eorlas Qnd an cyning.

16 Qnd py geare namon Westseaxe frip wip pone h^re.

Consult Glossary and Paradigms under Forms given below.

No note is made of such variants as y (y) or i (I) for le (ie). See
Glossary, under ie (ie) ; occurrences, also, of and for Qnd, land for
iQnd, are found on almost every page of Early West Saxon. Such
words should be sought for under the more common forms, Qnd, iQnd.

1 = cw5m. * = ealne. ^ _ h^ras.

2 = ealdonuQU. * = wseron. ^ — twsem.
*=br5i>or. «=ealda. i^—^erode.

■^ =geonga.

II. A PEAYER OF KING ALFRED.

[With this characteristic prayer, Alfred concludes his translation of
Boethios's Consolation of Philosophy. Unfortunately, the only extant
MS. (Bodleian 180) is Late West Saxon. I follow, therefore, Prof. A. S.
Cook's normalization on an Early West Saxon basis. See Cook's First
Book in Old English, p. 163.]

12. butan )>am J>e, etc., besides which, Alfred . . . made raids
against them (him), which were not counted. See § 70, Note.



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102 Selections for Heading.

1 Dryhten, selmilitiga God, Wyrhta and Wealdend ealra

2 gesceafta, ic bidde t56 for ^inre miclan mildheortnesse,
8 and for tJaere halgan rode tacne, and for Sanctse Marian
4 maegShade, and for Sancti Michaeles gehiersumnesse, and
6 for ealra ^Inra halgena lufan and hiera earnungum, tJset

6 ^u m6 gewissie b^t ^onne ic aworhte to ^6 ; and gewissa

7 m6 to tJInum willan, and to niinre sawle tJearfe, b^t tJonne

8 ic self cunne ; and gesta^ela min mod to ^inum willan and

9 to minre sawle «earfe ; and gestranga m6 wi« Uses dfiofles

10 costnungum ; and afierr f ram m6 t$a f tilan galnesse and

11 selce unrihtwlsnesse ; and gescield m6 wi6 minum witJer-

12 winnum, gesewenlicum and ungesewenlicum ; and tsec mg
18 ^inne willan t5 wyrceanne ; t5set ic maege t56 inweardlice
14 lufian toforan eallum tJingum, mid clsenum getJance and
16 mid clsenum lichaman. For tJon t5e ^u eart min Scieppend,

16 and mm Aliesend, min Fultum, mm Frofor, min Tr6ow-

17 nes, and min Tohopa. Sie t56 lof and wuldor nu and

18 a a a, to worulde batan segbwilcum ^nde. Amen.



III. THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND
WULFSTAN.

[Lauderdale and Cottonian MSS. These voyages are an original inser-
tion by Alfred into his translation of Orosius's Compendious History of
the World.

"They consist," says Ten Brink, "of a complete description of all the
countries in which the Teutonic tongue prevailed at Alfred's time, and a
full narrative of the travels of two voyagers, which the king wrote down
from their own lips. One of these, a Norwegian named Ohthere, had quite

3-4. Marian . . . Michaeles. O.E. is inconsistent in the treat-
ment of foreign names. They are sometimes naturalized, and some-
times retain in part their original inflections. Marian, an original
accusative, is here used as a genitive ; while Michaeles has the O.E.
genitive ending.

17. Sle 86 lof. See § 105, 1.



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The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan. 103

circumnavigated the coast of Scandinavia in his travels, and had even
penetrated to the White Sea ; the other, named Wulfstan, had sailed from
Schleswig to Frische Haff. The geographical and ethnographical details
of both accounts are exceedingly interesting, and their style is attractive,
clear, and concrete."

Ohthere made two voyages. Sailing first northward along the western
coast of Norway, he rounded the North Cape, passed into the White Sea,
and entered the Dwina River (3n micQl 6a) . On his second voyage he
sailed southward along the western coast of Norway, entered the Skager
Back (widsS), passed through the Cattegat, and anchored at the Danish
port of Haddeby (8Dt HS}>uxn), modern Schleswig.

Wulfstan sailed only in the Baltic Sea. His voyage of seven days from
Schleswig brought him to Drausen (Truso) on the shore of the Drau-
sensea.]

Ohthere's First Voyage.

1 Ohthere saede his hlaforde, ^Ifrede cyninge, fset he

2 eaira Nort5ni9nna norf mest bade. He cwse^ fset h6 bude
8 on fsem lande norf weardum wif fa Westsse. H6 ssede
4 f 6ah fset f set land sie swife lang norf f 9nan ; ac hit is
6 eal wSste, buton on fgawum stowum styccemaelum wlcia^

6 Finnas, on huntotie on wintra, Qnd on sumera on fiscape

7 be faere see. H6 ssede f set he set sumum cirre wolde

8 fandian ha l^nge pset land norfryhte Isege, ofpe hwsetJer

9 senig m^n be norSan fsem w^stenne bade, pa fOr he

10 norf ryhte be f sem lande : let him ealne weg f set wSste

11 land on tJset steorbord, Qnd fa wids» on tJaet bsecbord f rie

12 dagas. pa wses he swa feor norp swa fa hwselhuntan
18 firrest faraf . pa for he fa glet norfryhte swa feor swa

14 he ri(ieahte on fsem ofrum frim dagum gesiglan. pa beag

15 f set land faer eastryhte, offe seo sse in on tJaet l^nd, he

16 nysse hwse^er, baton he wisse tJset he ^ser bad westan-

17 windes Qnd hwon norfan, Qnd siglde ^a east be lande

18 swa swa he meahte on feower dagum gesiglan. pa

19 sceolde he tJser bidan ryhtnorfanwindes, for tJsem faet

20 land beag f ser saf ryhte, offe seo sse in on t5set land, he

21 nysse hwsefer. pa siglde he f^nan satJryhte be lande



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104 Selections for Reading,

1 swa swa he m^hte^ on fif dagum gesiglan. Da Iseg fser

2 an niicel 6a up in on )>8et land, pa cirdon hie tip in on
8 t5a 6a, for fsem hie ne dorston forJ> bi J>8ere ea siglan for
4 unf rif e ; for paem ^set land wses eall geban on oJ>re healf e
6 f sere 6as. Ne mette h6 ser.^ nan gebtin land, siffan he

6 f r^m his agnum ham for ; ac him wses ealne weg w6ste

7 land on fast steorbord, btitan fiscerum Qnd fugelerum Qnd

8 huntum, Qnd paet wseron eall Finnas ; (jnd him wses a

9 widsse on tJaet bsBcbord. pa Beormas haefdon swife wel

10 gebtid hira land : ac hie ne dorston paer on cuman. Ac

11 fara Terfinna land wses eal weste, btiton t$aer huntan

12 gewicodon, opJ>e fisceras, off e fugeleras.

18 Fela spella him ssedon fa Beormas segper ge of hiera

14 agnum lande ge of f aem landum pe ymb hie titan waeron ;

15 ac h6 nyste hwaet f ses sofes waes, for psem h6 hit self ne

16 geseah. pa Finnas, him ptihte, Qnd pa Beormas spraecon

17 neah an gefeode. Swifost he for ^ider, to Sacan fses

18 landes sceawunge, for fsem horshwaslum, for t5sem hie

19 habba^ swipe sepele ban on hiora^topum — pa t6^ hie broh-

20 ton sume paem cyninge — c^nd hiora hyd bit5 swiSe god to

21 sciprapum. Se hwael bi^ micle Isessa ponne otJre hwalas :

22 ne bi^ h6 l^ngra tJonne syfan^ ^Ina lang; ac on his agnum
28 lande is s6 b^tsta hwselhuntatj : pa b6o^ eahta and f 6o-

24 wertiges ^Ina lange, and pa maestan f If tiges ^Ina lange ;

25 para he ssede paet h6 syxa sum of sloge syxtig on twam

26 dagum.

6. Ir9m his ^gnuxn ham. An adverbial dative singular with-
out an inflectional ending is found with ham, daeg, morgen, and
Sfen.

8. 9nd }>8et wseron. See § 40, Note 3.

15. h-waet }>aes 8d}>es -waes. Sweet errs in explaining B5}>es as
attracted into the genitive by \>bbs. It is not a predicate adjective,
but a partitive genitive after hwaet.
26. syxa sum. See § 91, Note 2.



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The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan. 105

1 H6 waes swy^e sp6dig man on fsem seiituni pe heora^

2 sp6da on b6ot5, J>8et is, on wildnim. He haefde pa gyt, t5a

8 he pone cyningc^ sohte, tamra deora unbebohtra syx bund.
4 pa deor bl bataS ^ branas ' ; para wseron syx stselbranas ;
6 tJa b6ot5 swyt5e dyre mid Finnum, for tJsem by fotJ pa

6 wildan branas mid. H6 waes mid psem fyrstum mannum

7 on psem lande : naef de be peab ma "Sonne twfintig bry^era,
8-and twentig scSapa, and twentig swyna; and paet lytle

9 paet be ^rede, be ^rede mid borsan.* Ac byra ar is msest

10 on psem gaf ole pe t5a Finnas bim gyldatJ. paet gafol biS

11 on deora fellum, and on fugela fetJerum, and bwales bane,

12 and on paem sciprapum pe beoS of bwaeles byde geworbt
18 and of seoles. ^gbwilc gylt be bys gebyrdum. Se byrd-
14 esta sceall gyldan fiftyne mearSes fell, and fif branes,
16 and an beren f el, and tyn ambra f e^ra, and berenne kyr-

16 tel o^tJe yterenne, and twegen sciprapas ; segper sy syxtig

17 ^Ina lang, oper sy of bwaeles byde geworbt, oper of sioles.^

18 He ssede Saet Nor'Smanna land w^re swype lang and

19 swytJe smael. Eal pset bis man a'Ser otJSe ^ttan o'S'Se ^rian

20 maeg, pset lt6 wit$ "Sa sae ; and paet is peab on sumum

21 stowum s wy'Se cltidig ; and licga^ wilde moras wiS eastan

22 and wit5 iipp on emnlange paem bynum lande. On paem
28 morum eardiatJ Finnas. And paet byne land is easte-
24 weard bradost, and symle swa nortJor swa smaelre. Easte-
26 w^rd^ bit maeg bion® syxtig mlla brad, oppe bwene braedre ;

26 and middeweard pritig o^tJe bradre ; and nor'Seweard be

27 cw8et5, paer bit smalost waere, paet bit mibte beon preora

28 mila brad to paem more ; and se mor sySpan,^ on sumum

2. onbSoS. See §94, (5).

19. Eal }>aet his man. Pronominal genitives are not always pos-
sessive in O.E. ; his is here the partitive genitive of hit, the succeeding
relative pronoun being omitted : All that (portion) of it that may,
either-of-the-two, either be grazed or plowed, etc. (§.70, Note).



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106 Selections for Reading,

1 stowum, swa brad swa man mseg on twSm wucmn ofer-

2 f 6ran ; and on sumum stowum swa brad swa man mseg
8 on syx dagum of erf eran.

4 Donne is toemnes psem lande suSeweardum, on 6t$re

5 healf e faes mores, Sweoland, op f aet land norSeweard ;

6 and toemnes psem lande nortJeweardnm, Cwena land, pa

7 Cw^nas h^rgiatJ hwilum on t5a Nor^m^n ofer ^one mor,

8 hwilum fa NoriSm^n on liy. And faer sint swiSe mide

9 m^ras f ersce geond pa moras ; and bera^ pa Cw6nas hyra

10 scypu ofer land on t5a m^ras, and panon h^rgiaS on ^a

11 Nor^m^n ; hy habbatJ swytJe lytle scypa and swy^

12 leohte.

1 = meahte, mihte. * = horsum. "^ = -weard.

* = hiera. * = cyning. ^ _ bfion.

8 = seofon. ® = s6oles. * = si^an.

Ohthere's Second Voyage.

18 Ohth^re ssede pset sio^ scir hatte Halgoland, pe be on

14 btide. Hs cwae^ pset nan man ne btide be nor'San him.

15 ponne is an port on siit5eweardum psem lande, pone man

16 hset Sciringeshgal. pyder he cwsetJ paet man ne mihte

17 geseglian on anum montJe, gyf , man on niht wicode, and

18 aelce daege haef de ambyrne wind ; and ealle t5a hwlle he

19 sceal seglian be lande. And on paet st^orbord him bitJ

20 serest Iraland, and ponne t5a Igland pe synd betnx Ira-

21 lande and pissum lande. ponne is pis land, ot$ hg cymtJ

22 to Scirincgesheale, and ealne weg on paet bsBcbord Nort$-

11-12. Bcypa . . . leohte. These words exhibit inflections more
frequent in Late than in Early West Saxon. The normal forms would
be sc3rpu, leoht ; but in Late West Saxon the -u of short-stemmed
neuters is generally replaced by -a ; and the nominative accusative
plural neuter of adjectives takes, by analogy, the masculine endings :
h'wate, g5de, h^ge, instead of h-watu, god, hSlgu.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



The' Voyages of Ohthere and Wulf start. 107

1 weg. Wi^ suSan J>one Sciringesh6al fyltJ swyt$e mycel

2 sae tip in on ^aet land ; sSo is bradre ponne senig man ofer
8 s6on maege. And is Gotland on otJre healfe ongfian, and
4 siS^an Sill^nde. S6o sse lit5 maenig* hund mila tip in on
6 faet land.

6 And of Sciringesheale h6 cwaetJ tJaet he seglode on fif

7 dagan ^ to J>8em porte pe niQn haet aet HseJ>um ; s6 st^nt

8 betuh Winedum, and Seaxum, and Angle, and hyr^ in

9 on D^ne. Da he piderweard seglode fram Sciringes-

10 li6ale, pa waes him on past baecbord D^namearc and on

11 f aet steorbord widsse fry dagas ; and fa, twegen dagas aer

12 he to Haepum come, him waes on faet steorbord Gotland,
18 and Sill^nde, and iglanda fela. On faem landum eardo-

14 don Jpngle, aer hi hider on land coman.* And hym waes

15 t5a twegen dagas on t5aet baecbord fa igland fe in on

16 D^nemearce hyratJ.

1 = s6o. 2 3. niQiiig. « = dagum. * = c5men.

Wulfstan's Voyage.

17 Wnlfstan saede f aet he gefore of Hae^um, f aet he waere

18 on Trtiso on syfan dagum and nihtum, f aet f aet scip waes

19 ealne weg yrnende under segle. Weono^land him waes


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Online LibraryC. Alphonso (Charles Alphonso) SmithAn Old English grammar and exercise book with inflections, syntax, selections for reading, and glossary → online text (page 7 of 10)