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Reformawh

AND

Modern
Work
T




Thousand



3«r .



Cibrarjp of t:he Cheolocjical ^emmar;^

PRINCETON . NEW JERSEY

FROM THE LIBRARY OF
ROBERT ELLIOTT SPEER

BR 743 .L35 1892 v. 2
Lane, C. Arthur
Illustrated notes on Englist
church history



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Illustrated No




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ICAL St^iiV



ON



English Church History.

VOL. II.
ITS REFORMATIO]^ AND MODERN WORK.

BY THE

REV. C. ARTHUR LANE

(F.R. Hist. S. ; Lecturer of the Church Defence Institution).



FIFTIETH THOUSAND.



rBLISHBD UNDER TUB DIRECTION OF THE TRACT COMMITTEE.



LONDON:
SOCIETY FOK PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE,

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C. ; 43, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, B.C.
BRIGHTON: 135, NORTH STREET.

NEW yore: E. & J. B. YOUNG & CO.

1892.



COMPANION VOLUME,

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

300 Pages, Crown Octavo, Cloth Boards, Price One Shilling.



ILLUSTKATED NOTES ON
ENGLISH CHUKCH HISTOKY.

''FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE
DAWN OF THE REFORMATIO Nr

SEVENTIETH THOUSAND.



*^* The two volumes travei'se the whole range of Church History in
Britain. They contain over two hundred illustrations., including every
cathedral in England and Wales, and many notable abbeys and
churches.



Printed by Hutching^ and Orowsley. Limited, 128, Fulliam Road, s.w.





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PREFACE

TO ORIGINAL EDITION.



lu October, 1886, the writer submitted to the public a volume
of ' Illustrated Notes ' on the early history of British Christianity,
the preface to which contained a conditional promise of a sup-
plementary series. The circulation of nearly forty thousand copies of
that volume was taken as a proof that its plan and price met a felt
want, and the present volume is the fulfilment of the pledge.

It is hardly needful to repeat that these ' Notes ' do not claim to
be an exhaustive treatment of the subject. The main plan of both
volumes has been to give prominence to the concurrent history of
the Church and Realm ; to show that through all ages they have
been indissolubly wedded; and to present the Church's ancient,
medieval, aud modern history as parts of one continuous whole,
with the Episcopate for its basis. Upon this continuous thread of
general history a number of disconnected ecclesiastical events have
been strung, bearing mainly upon questions recently raised by
friends and foes alike. The history of the Anglican Church beyond
the seas is outside the plan of this book, and is therefore only
incidentally treated.

As the price implies, these 'Notes' are chiefly intended
for Church-folk of slender means ; and students must not
regard them as other than stepping stones to works of higher merit.
Apart from this question of cheapness it may well be doubted
whether there is any necessity for treating the history of the Church
of England anew ; especially as there is nothing stated herein which
has not been better said over and over again. Indeed it would seem
that most persons who deal with this subject find it impossible to
say anything fresh, or to put their thoughts in novel phrases.
Certainly the present writer pretends not to any originality, either
in thought or diction, and it is probable that familiar sentences may
be found here and there ; but there is no intentional plagiarism



vi PREFACE.

The usual ancient authorities, which are everybody's property, have
been freely used ; but wherever modern summaries have been quoted,
the source is duly acknowledged, and when known the price and
publisher's name are added, so that those who wish to study the
matter further may judge whether they can afiord the luxury.
Although no new light has been thrown upon a well-worn subject by
these pages, they may help to diffuse the old light. Nothing has
been stated which has not been generally accepted as true, or which
is not useful to know ; but the grouping of certain facts, as in the
chapter on the dissolution of monasteries, varies at times from the
customary methods ; yet never without good reason.

These are times when many people adopt partisan ideas,
and range themselves on one side or another respecting every
great question that arises, and look for literature to suit their views.
Even strictly impartial folk, if there are such, prefer to read what
either side may have to say before they draw their own conclusions ;
and they would probably consider a writer who tried to set both sides
before them with a perfect balance as an insincere person, or one
who had not come to a determined mind. Audi alteram partem is
the modern motto, which implies that every assertion must be held
unproven until the accused party has had the floor. This book is
not intended to satisfy such people ; but rather to show how the
facts of history confute the arguments of modern antagonists of the
English Church. It does not seek to attack anyone, but merely
attempts to restate certain truths which have been obscured by time
or assailed and misrepresented by interested adversaries. Possibly
no two minds would make the same selections or draw the same
conclusions from the vast range of history covered herein, and what-
ever may be said on controverted points there are sure to be some
who would prefer a different view. That these will question the
wisdom of the writer's selection of events and persons is fully
expected ; and lest any readers should feel aggrieved because the
errors of the Church of Rome are not expressly denounced, or that
insufficient credit has been given to the conscientious convictions
of Nonconformists, it may be well to state at the outset that these
pages do not profess to discuss opinions or theories on matters of
faith; but simply to state, and occasionally comment upon, such
ascertained facts of ecclesiastical history as may help the general
public to a better understanding of what is meant by the National



PRE FA CE. vii

Church. Any book which shows how she was defended in times past
will help to teach her sons and daughters how to defend her now.
Party names which have come to be used as terms of opprobrium,
are as far as possible avoided in the following pages ; and although
the writer does not pretend to look at matters from other than a
Churchman's standpoint he believes that he has not dealt unfairly
or inconsiderately by those who are opposed to the Church of England.
These are grouped in his mind under two heads, Eomanists and
Liberationists, the latter being chiefly Nonconformists. When refer-
ence is made to their religious systems, it is with a view of shewing
the external position occupied by the Church towards them in the
past, and there is no intention of implying unkind reflections upon
modern adherents of Papal or Puritan beliefs.

Extreme partisans within the Church will find nothing here to
their mind. As there is no lack of common ground on which our
differences may be adjusted there is no need to rush upon the keener
points of controversy. If the enemies of the Church of England are
to be successfully resisted, all her members must cease from internal
discords ; they must stand steadily and harmoniously together for
her defence :

" That her fair form may stand and shine,

Make bright our days and light our dreams,
Turning to scorn with lips Divine
The falsehood of extremes."
In preparing the following pages the writer has had the very great
advantage of advice from Professor Burrows of Oxford ; who
most kindly gave up much valuable time in reading and commenting
upon the proof sheets. He has occasionally differed with the writer
as to the manner in which several points are treated, but has not
interfered with the construction or arrangement of the work. The
responsibility for any imperfections that may be found rests solely
with the writer, but he gratefully acknowledges that they are fewer
than would have been the case without outside help. As both
volumes have been compiled in time that was justly at the disposal
of the Church Defence Institution, the writer's sincere thanks are
due to that Society for allowing him to be free from lecturing
engagements during their progress through the press.

September, 1888.



PRE FA CE.



PREFACE TO FORTIETH THOUSAND.



Most gratefully does the author acknowledge the very kind and
careful annotations that have been made upon previous editions of
this volume by many esteemed correspondents. It is gratifying to
know that the book has found its way to the remotest regions where
the Anglican Church has its outposts, and, like its predecessor,
appreciated. His thanks are also due to numerous reviewers,
especially those with party sympathies, for their criticisms on those
portions of the book which have not coincided with certain opinions
current among the schools of thought they represent. The state-
ments traversed have now been carefully revised, and in their present
form must, for good or ill, be taken as the deliberate convictions of
the writer; after due consideration of the objections put forward by
every critic. The issues dealt with in this volume are much too
wide and varied for the writer to avoid all hostile observations ; but
the majority of reviews have been so favourable — the moderate and
impartial organs unanimously so, while the extreme sections were
exceedingly contradictory — that there have been very few changes
made beyond the correction of typographical errors and the altera-
tion of statistical tables from the latest ofl&cial data.

EpipTiany, 1891.




CHUI^CH-«




CONTENTS.

The Parts and Cliapters are numbered successively to folloiv
those in the earlier volume oyi Pre-Reformation Times.



PART IV.

TTbe Cburcb of BuGlant) unDer tbe XTuDors.



CHAPTER XVI. (A.D. 1384—1509).
The Advent of the Tudor Dynasty.

PAGE

Introductory — The Wars with France — Social 'Conditions of
15th Century — Wycliffe and the Lollards — Anti-papal
Statutes— Council of Constance — Doctrinal Abuses — Alien
Priories — The Printing Press — Wars of York and Lancaster
— Increasing need for Church Reform. ... ... ... 1

CHAPTER XVII. (A.D. 1509—1547).

Henry VIII. and his Chancellors.

The Oxford Reformers — Wolsey's Scheme for Church Reform—
The King's Divorce — Convocation and the Seven Years'
Parliament— The Royal Supremacy — Foreign Influences —
Translation of the Scriptures — Doctrinal Reforms — The
Reactionary Party 21



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVIII. (A.D. 1536-1540).
Dissolution of the Monasteries.

PAGE

Pre-Norman and Post-Norman Eeligious Houses — The First Sup-
pression—The Pilgrimage of Grace— The Final Suppression
— The King's Vicar-General — Distribution of Monastic
Estates — Monastic Churches made Cathedral — Monastic
Churches made Collegiate — Monastic Churches now Parochial
— Educational and Charitable Foundations 42



CHAPTER XIX. (A.D. 1547-1558).

Edward VI. and Mary.

The Council of Regency— Suppression of the Chantries — The
Liturgy — The Edwardian Bishops — Foreign Religious Re-
formers — The Succession to the Throne — The Marian
Bishops — The Spanish Match — Reconciliation with Rome —
The Marian Persecutions — The Exiled Reformers 61



CHAPTER XX. (A.D. 1558-1603).
Under the Virgin Queen.

Restoration of the Royal Supremacy — The Restoration of the
Liturgy — Consecration of Archbishop Parker — The Articles
of Religion— The Council of Trent— The First English Roman
Catholics — The First Puritan Nonconformists — Mary Queen
of Scots — The Spanish Armada — National Glory — Summary
of Part IV.— Genealogical Table 82



CONTENTS. :

PART V.

Ube Cburcb ot Bnglanb un^er tbe Stuarts.



CHAPTER XXI. (a.d. 1603-1625).

The Growth of Puritanism.

PAGE

The Seventeenth Century— Scotch Presbyterianism— The Hampton
Court Conference— The Gunpowder Treason Plot— The
Authorised Version— The Puritans— Abbott and Laud-
Progress of Opposing Principles lOo



CHAPTER XXII. (A.D. 1625-1649).

King versus Parliament.

The Petition of Right— Arbitrary Civil Government— Laud's
Administration — The Scotch Liturgy — War with Scotland —
The Long Parliament— Outbreak of the Civil War— The Long
ParUament and the Clergy— The Long Parliament and the
Bishops— The Westminster Assembly— The 'Independent'
Army — Regicide ^^^



CHAPTER XXIII. (A.D. 1649-1660).
Under the Commonwealth.

Proceedings of the ' Rump '—Religious Anarchy— The Quakers-
Worcester Fight — Destruction of Churches — Cromwell's
Parliaments— Sufferings of the Clergy— Sufferings of the
Laity — Royalist Reaction



xii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIV. (a.d. 1660-1685).
Rbstobation of Church and Realm.

PAGE
The Return of the King — The Savoy Conference — The Revised
Liturgy — Repressive Legislation — The Great Plague— The
Fire of London — A Great Architect — The Church in Scotland
— National Dread of Romanism — Popish Plots — The Church
in Ireland 161

CHAPTER XXV. (a.d. 1685-1691).

The Seven Bishops.

James 11. and the Puritans — iVon-Resistance — The Declaration of
Indulgence — The Bishops in the Tower — Trial of the Bishops
— The Revolution — A Lost Cause — " The Non-jurors " — Vacil-
lating Clergy — Genealogical Table 179



PART VI.

XTbe Cburcb ot BuGlant) since tbe IRevolution.



CHAPTER XXVI. (A.D. 1688-1714).

Peace and Popularity.

The Protestant Sucession — The Toleration Act — Religious
Societies— The S.P.C.K.— Church Work Abroad— The S.P.G.
— The Scotch Church Supplanted — Queen Anne's Bounty —
Impeachment of Sacheverell — Popularity of the Church —
Hardships of Nonconformity — Pews in Churches ... ... T.T)

CHAPTER XXVIL (A.D. 1714-1830).

The Georgian Era.

The Silencing of Convocation — Calm in the Church — Growth of
Infidelity — The Wesleys — George Whitfield — Methodism —
The Evangelical Revival — Evangelical Societies— The
C M.S.— Parliamentarv Grants 211



CONTENTS. xiii

CHAPTEE XXVIII. (a.d. 1778-1888).
Religious Liberty.

PAGE

Removal of Nonconformist Disabilities — Encroachments upon
Church Privileges — Removal of Romanist Disabilities — The
New Papal Hierarchy — Removal of Jewish Disabilities — The
Irish Church — Removal of Atheist Disabilities — The Ecclesi-
astical Commission — Disestablishment— Lawsuits respecting
Doctrine and Ritual — The Revival of Convocation 231

CHAPTER XXIX. (a.d. 1801-1888).

Modern Church Work.

Missionary Enterprise— The Church Revival — Religious Edu-
cation of the Young — Church Restoration — Increase of the
Clergy — Church Building — Mission Work among the Poor —
Finance 249



CHAPTER XXX. (A.D. 1784-1888).

The Extension of the Episcopate.

The American Episcopate — The Colonial Episcopate — Home
Diocesan Changes — The Diocese of Manchester — The
Diocese of Truro — The Diocese of St. Albans — The Diocese
of Liverpool — The Diocese of Newcastle — The Diocese of
Southwell — The Diocese of Wakefield — Suffragan Bishops—
The Lambeth Conferences— Conclusion .. 2f)8



Chronological Table
General Index ...



287
296




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

1 . Consecration of Archbishop Parker - {Frontispiece)

2. The Battle of Agincourt . .... 3

3. An Armourer of the 15th Century . - . . 4

4. Portrait of John Wycliffe - - - 6

5. Lollard Prison, Lambeth Palace - - - . 7

6. The Bridge over the Swift at Lutterworth - - - 11

7. The Beauchamp Chantry, St. Mary's, Warwick - - 13

8. Interior of King's College, Cambridge - - - 15

9. Caxton's Printing Press - - - - - 17

10. Battlefield Church, near Shrewsbury - - - 19

11. Erasmus in his Study - - - - - 22

12. Portrait of Cardinal' Wolsey - - - - 25

13. Leicester Abbey Ruins - - - - - 26

14. North Transept of Peterboro' Cathedral - - - 28

15. Sir Thomas More's House, Chelsea (from old engraving) - 32

16. Portrait of Martin Luther - - - - - 35

17. Reading the Bible in the Crypt of Old St. Paul's - - 38

18. Portrait of King Henry VIII - - - - 41

19. A Benedictine Nun (after Dugdale) - - - 43

20. Ruins of Tintern Abbey - - - - - 45

21. A Carthusian Monk (after Dugdale) - - - 49

22. Portrait of Lord Thomas Cromwell - - - 51

23. Newstead Abbey (West Front) - - - - 53

24. Nave of Chester Cathedral, looking east - - - 55

25. Southwell Cathedral, with Ruins of Archiepiscopal Palace 57

26. Beverley Minster (Exterior) - - - - 58

27. Tewkesbury Abbey (Exterior) - - - - 59

28. Edward VI. in Council - - - - - 62

29. Great Hall of Christ's Hospital (Bluecoat School) London - 65

30. Portrait of Archbishop Cranmer - - - - 68

31. St. Mary's Church, Cambridge (Exterior) - - - 71

32. Examination of Princess Elizabeth by the Marian Bishops 75

33. Portrait of Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester - - - 78

34. Portraits of Latimer and Ridley - - - - 79



LIST OF ILL USTRA TIONS. xv

PAGE

35. The Martyrs' Memorial, Oxford - - - - 81

36. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth - - - - 86

37. Portrait of Archbishop Parker - - - - 88

38. The City of Trent (Panoramic View) - - - 92

39. The Church of Austin Friars, London, E.C. - - 95

40. The Temple Church, London, E.C. - - - - 97

41. Marv, Queen of Scots - - - - - 99

42. English and Spanish Ships (1588) - - - - 100

43. Stratford-on-Avon Church . - - - . 102

44. Portrait of John Knox - . . . . 107

45. Kelso Abbey, Scotland - - - - - 108

46. Hampion Court Palace in the time of James L - - 110

47. Gunpowder Conspirators' House, Lambeth - - 113

48. The Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster - - - 115

49. Puritan Costumes - - - - - - 118

50. Portrait of Archbishop Laud - - - - 121

51. Hampden House, Buckinghamshire - - - 126

52. The Star Chamber (Interior) - - - - 128

53. St. Giles' Church, Edinburgh (before restoration) - - 130

54. Bemerton Church, near Salisbury - - - - 136

55. Axe and Block -.._.. 140

56. A Puritan Soldier > - - - - - 142

57. Carisbrook Castle - - - - - - 143

58. Charles I. parting with his Children - - - 145

59. Puritans destroying the Cheapside Cross - - - 148

60. Hereford Cathedral (Exterior) - - - - 151

61. Pontefract Church, showing Ruined Chancel - - 152

62. Cromwell dissolving the ' Rump ' Parliament - - 155

63. Portrait of Jeremy Taylor - - - - - 157

64. John Evelyn - - - - - - 159

65. The Savoy Palace - - - - - - 164

66. Elstow Church, Bedfordshire - - - - 167

67. The Plague Pits, Finsbury (1665) - - - - 169

68. The Fire of London, as seen from South wark - - 171

69. The Monument, E.C. - - - - - 172

70. The Palace, Whitehall, temp. James I. - - - 177

71. Richard Baxter before Judge Jeffries - - - - 180

72. Oxford Cathedral, from Merton Meadows - - - 182

73. A Procession by Water to the Tower of London - - 185

74. The Traitors' Gate of the Tower - - - - 186

75. Portraits of the Seven Bishops (from an old engraving) - 188

76. Magdalen College, Oxford - - - - - 190

77. Monument of the Boyne Battle ... - 191

78. Bray Church - - . - - - 193

79. Offices of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 198

80. The Old East India House, 1803 - - - - 201

81. The Old Church, Perth 203



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

82. St, Paul's Cathedral 207

83. Pulpit and Pew in the olden time - - - - 211

84. Stoke Pogis Church, Buckinghamshire - - - 214

85. Portrait of Bishop Butler - - - - - 216

86. Olnej Church, Buckinghamshire - - . . 218

87. Ep worth Church, Lincolnshire - - - - 220

88. Portrait of John Wesley - - - - - 224

89. Statue of William Wilberforce, Westminster Abbey - 227

90. City of Rome, shewing Castle of St. Angelo - - 235

91. Armagh Cathedral (Interior of Choir) - - - 238

92. Houses of Parliament, from the Thames - - - 242

93. The New Law Courts, Fleet Street - - - 246

94. Bishop Patteson's House and Chapel - - - 249

95. Portrait of Reginald Heber, first Bishop of Calcutta - 251

96. Portrait of Rev. John Keble - - - - 253

97. An Unrestored Church (Haddon Hall) - - - 258

98. A recent Restoration (St. Mary, Aldermary, B.C.) - 259

99. Arms of King's College, London - ' - - - 261

100. A Modern Church (St. Jude's, Kensal Green) - - 262

101. A Mission Chapel - - - - - - 265

102. Bishop Seabury's House, Springfield, Conn., U.S.A. - 269

103. Bristol Cathedral (Exterior) - - - - 272

104. Manchester Cathedral (Exterior) - . . . 273

105. Truro Cathedral (from architect'sdrawintr) - - 274

106. Liverpool Pro-Cathedral - - - - - 276

107. Newcastle Cathedral (Exterior) - - - - 278

108. Wakefield Cathedral (Interior of Nave) - - - 280

109. Lambeth Palace, from the River - - - - 284



ILLUSTRATED NOTES ON ENGLISH
CHURCH HISTORY.



PART IV.

fbe dhnvth ot (Bnglaitir nnhtx



CHAPTER XVI. (a.d. 1384-1509.)
The Advent op the Tudors.

" As thou these ashes, little brook I wilt bear
Into the Avon, Avon to the tide
Of Severn, Severn to the narrow seas.
Into main ocean they, this deed accurst
An emblem yields to friends and enemies
How the bold teacher's doctrine, sanctified
By truth, shall spread throughout the world dispersed."
— Wordsworth.

1. Introductory.— The following pages are intended to be read
in connexion with the companion volume under the same general
title, which dealt with the chief facts of Church history in our
country up to the death of John Wycliffe. The five hundred years
treated of herein comprise the " Reformation and Modern Work " of
the very same ecclesiastical society whose sources, consolidation, and
growth are there dwelt upon. Under the term " Reformation "
the writer includes a vast number of adaptations and necessary
changes made in the English Church during some 300 years— from
the time of WyclifEe until the Revolution of 1688— some of greater,
others of less importance ; none of them complete in themselves, or
such as altered the ancient character and organisation of that
Church ; but which, when judged of by their results as a whole— as
a means of comparing the Church of modern with that of mediaeval
Britain— have made some people think that the present Church of
England is a difPerent Church to that of the olden time. We hope
to satisfy the reader that in none of those three hundred years, and
in no specific reign, was the old Church so altered in constitution or



2 ILLUSTRATED NOTES ON

teaching as to destroy its identity ; or warrant the theory that a new
Church was founded, at some comparatively recent date, by reason of
certain specific acts. Not only were the changes made of a very
gradual character — though more rapidly successive at some times
than at others — but the changes were brought about from within the
Church by her recognised representatives ; and amid all she was
enabled to preserve unimpaired a ' silver line of sweet continuity ' in
ministry and doctrines, which has kept her in communion and fellow-
ship with the Apostles and with Christ. The word '* Reformation "
is sometimes used to comprehend all the contemporary changes on
the Continent that resulted in the formation of numerous ' Pro-
testant ' communities ; most of which repudiate the merit of
historical continuance. The space at disposal and the extensive
nature of the subject demand the restriction of these ' Notes ' to
events belonging to our own nation only ; so that ' Foreign Affairs '
will not be referred to unless they have a direct bearing on English
Church history. The main object before us is to demonstrate the
national, or patriotic, character of the Church ; but we shall
frequently have to allude also to matters of faith and practice which
were bound up with the controversies between the parties and indi-
viduals to whom the changes and events are due. Our present
chapter deals with the 15th Century — an ' Era of Preparation ' it has
been called— during which the religious, social and political forces of
the nation were being fitted for the great and important changes that
followed. It was also, to a certain extent, an Era of Progress ;
during which the relations between different classes among the people
were re-adjusted for the benefit of the poorer sort. Such circum-
stances have an indirect bearing on the question before us, because
they affected the natural development of religious questions. The
Chroniclers of that Era were so busied with the temporal struggles in
which England was involved that they had no inclination to study
spiritual problems. What they do tell us amounts to this : — that
many abuses had crept into the Church's system ; into her doctrines,
discipline, and the lives of clergy ; and that a great cry went up



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