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HOME GEOGRAPHY
FOR
PRIMARY GRADES

BY
C. C. LONG, Ph.D.

AUTHOR OF NEW LANGUAGE LESSONS, LESSONS IN ENGLISH, ETC.,



TO THE TEACHER.

Geography may be divided into the geography of the home and the
geography of the world at large. A knowledge of the home must be
obtained by direct observation; of the rest of the world, through the
imagination assisted by information. Ideas acquired by direct
observation form a basis for imagining those things which are distant
and unknown.

The first work, then, in geographical instruction, is to study that
small part of the earth's surface lying just at our doors. All around
are illustrations of lake and river, upland and lowland, slope and
valley. These forms must be actually observed by the pupil, mental
pictures obtained, in order that he may be enabled to build up in his
mind other mental pictures of similar unseen forms. The hill that he
climbs each day may, by an appeal to his imagination, represent to him
the lofty Andes or the Alps. From the meadow, or the bit of level land
near the door, may be developed a notion of plain and prairie. The
little stream that flows past the schoolhouse door, or even one formed
by the sudden shower, may speak to him of the Mississippi, the Amazon,
or the Rhine. Similarly, the idea of sea or ocean may be deduced from
that of pond or lake. Thus, after the pupil has acquired elementary
ideas by actual perception, the imagination can use them in
constructing, on a larger scale, mental pictures of similar objects
outside the bounds of his own experience and observation.

To effect this, the teacher should visit with her class places where the
simpler geographical features in miniature may be observed. If the
school is in the city, pupils may be taken to the parks for this
purpose. If out-of-door study be impossible, they may be induced to
recall objects which they have seen on their way to school or on short
excursions in the neighborhood. In the case of children who have little
opportunity for observing nature, a drawing, a photograph, or a model
will be helpful in giving them a proper idea of the matter. It must not
be forgotten, however, that actual observation by the pupil is necessary
to seeing clearly and intelligently.

Vegetable and animal life are essential features of the geography of the
world, and considerable time should be given to the study of those
within the observation of the pupils. Information concerning plants may
be gained by outdoor study; also by planting seeds in boxes and having
pupils carefully watch their germination and growth.

Pupils should be encouraged to make collections of the minerals and
rocks of their region. These should be classified and arranged for use,
not for show.

The lessons about rain, snow, dew, etc., should be given at appropriate
times. A wet day will suggest a lesson on rain, a snowy day a lesson
about snow. No attempt should be made at "science" teaching, so-called.
All that should be sought is to get the pupil thoughtfully to observe,
and thus to awaken his interest in the world about him.

Lessons should be conversational in form, which is always a most
pleasing style for children, as it is the most natural. The work of the
teacher is to awaken and stimulate interest, not to impart information.
The attention of the child should be directed to what lies around him.
He must observe, and think, and express his thoughts. Nor should his
observations be confined to the school and school hours. He should be
encouraged to obtain his information by his own searching, without
guidance, and report the results.

The development of clear mental pictures is stimulated by expression.
"Expression is the test of the pupil's knowledge." Hence, the child
should be required to reproduce what he has learned. He may do this by
modeling, drawing, and oral and written description. These are placed in
the order which should be followed in the training of children.

The inclination of nearly every child left to his own mode of
development is to make, in some plastic material, what he has seen.
Trying to fashion the hills and valleys with which he is familiar
excites his interest, and leads to closer observation. This may be
followed by the reproduction in molder's sand, or in clay, of the forms
seen in pictures or learned from description. Definitions of the various
forms, hill, mountain, valley, island, etc., should be developed as they
are molded. The memorizing of definitions should seldom be required, and
should never be made a test of the pupil's knowledge.

Reproduction by the hand should be followed by drawing, whenever this
can be done. Drawing teaches the child how to see well. It often enables
him to reveal what could not well be expressed in words. He also becomes
ready and rapid in the use of the pencil when he has ideas to put on
paper. Only reasonable accuracy should be required. Practice in making
fine pictures should not be the end sought, but the development of
geographical ideas.

Finally, pupils should be led to give clear and connected statements of
what has been learned. For a language lesson, a written description may
be prepared, illustrated by a drawing.




CONTENTS.

I. - POSITION

II. - HOW THE SUN SHOWS DIRECTION

III. - HOW THE STARS SHOW DIRECTION

IV. - HOW THE COMPASS SHOWS DIRECTION

V. - QUESTIONS ON DIRECTION

VI. - WHAT THE WINDS BRING (POEM)

VII. - HOW TO TELL DISTANCE

VIII. - PICTURES AND PLANS

IX. - WRITTEN EXERCISE

X. - GOD MADE THEM ALL (POEM)

XI. - PLAINS

XII. - HILLS, MOUNTAINS, VALLEYS

XIII. - RAIN, WIND, AND SNOW

XIV. - HOW WATER IS CHANGED TO VAPOR

XV. - HOW VAPOR IS CHANGED TO WATER

XVI. - DEW, CLOUDS, AND RAIN

XVII. - THE FAIRY ARTIST (POEM)

XVIII. - HOW RIVERS ARE MADE

XIX. - MORE ABOUT RIVERS

XX. - THE BROOK (POEM)

XXI. - WORK OF FLOWING RIVERS

XXII. - WATERDROP'S STORY

XXIII. - THE RIVER (POEM)

XXIV. - A MAP

XXV. - FORMS OF LAND AND WATER

XXVI. - MORE ABOUT FORMS OF LAND AND WATER

XXVII. - A TRIP TO THE HIGHLANDS

XXVIII. - SPRING (POEM)

XXIX. - USEFUL VEGETABLES

XXX. - USEFUL GRAINS

XXXI. - FRUITS

XXXII. - USEFUL PLANTS

XXXIII. - FOREST TREES

XXXIV. - FLOWERS

XXXV. - WHAT IS NECESSARY TO MAKE PLANTS GROW

XXXVI. - SUMMER RAIN (POEM)

XXXVII. - THE PARTS OF ANIMALS

XXXVIII. - THE COVERING OF ANIMALS

XXXIX. - USES OF ANIMALS

XL. - THE SIGNS OF THE SEASONS (POEM)

XLI. - THINGS FOUND IN THE EARTH

XLII. - MORE ABOUT THINGS FOUND IN THE EARTH

XLIII. - HOW PEOPLE LIVE, AND WHAT THEY ARE DOING

XLIV. - MORE ABOUT WHAT PEOPLE ARE DOING

XLV. - A REVIEW LESSON



Home Geography.




LESSON I.

POSITION.

Lay your hands upon your desk, side by side.

Which side shall we call the right side? The left side?

Put your hands on the middle of your desk on the side farthest from you.
That part is the back of your desk.

Think which is the front of your desk. Put your hands on the front of
your desk.

Who sits on your right hand? On your left? At the desk in front of you?
At the desk behind you?

Turn round. Who is on your right now? On your left? Before you? Behind
you?

Turn again. Who is now on your right? On your left? Before you? Behind
you?

NOTE. - Lead children to see that the terms _right, left, front_, and
_back_ are of little use in telling the position of places, and that
some fixed standard of direction is necessary.




LESSON II.

HOW THE SUN SHOWS DIRECTION.

If I should ask, "Which is the way to your home?" who could tell me what
I mean?

You all know which way you must go to find your home, but if you should
wish to go to a place where you have never been, you would ask, perhaps,
"Which way is it?"

[Illustration: "THE WAY TO A PLACE IS CALLED DIRECTION."]

The way to a place is called _direction_. In order to find a place, we
must know in what direction from us it lies, and we have names for
directions, such as _north_, _south_, _east_, and _west_. We may know
these directions by seeing where the sun is.

Did you ever see the sun rise? Point to the place where you saw the sun
rise. The direction in which the sun seems to rise is called the _east_.

Did you ever see the sun set? Point to where you saw the sun set. The
direction in which the sun seems to set is called the _west_. The west
is just the opposite direction from east.

When do we see the sun rise? Where do we see the sun rise? What is the
name of this direction? When do we see the sun set? Where do we see it
set? What is the name of this direction? On which side of the schoolroom
does the sun rise? On which side does it set? Which is the east side of
your desk? Which the west side?

When coming to school this morning, in what direction did you see the
sun? If we walk so that the morning sun shines in our faces, in what
direction are we going? What direction is behind us?

Now that you know the east, you will be able to find other directions in
this way: Stretch out your arms so that your right hand points toward
the east, and your left hand toward the west. You are now facing the
_north_. The direction behind you is the _south_.

[Illustration: "YOU ARE NOW FACING THE NORTH."]

_Write the following on your slates:_

The sun seems to rise toward the east, and set toward the west. The west
is just the opposite direction from the east.

When my right hand is pointing to the east, and my left hand to the
west, my face is toward the north and my back is toward the south.


ORAL EXERCISES.

Which is the north side of the schoolroom? Which is the south side? Who
sits to the north of you? To the south?

In what direction do the pupils face? On which side of your schoolroom
is the teacher's table? Which sides have no windows? Which sides have no
doors?

If a room has a fireplace in the middle of the east side, which side of
the room faces the fire? Suppose the wind is blowing from the north, in
what direction will the smoke go?

In what direction from the schoolhouse is the playground?

What is the first street or road north of the school? The first street
or road east? South? West?

In what direction is your home from the school? The school from your
home? The nearest church from the school? The post office from your
home?




LESSON III.

HOW THE STARS SHOW DIRECTION.

You have learned how to tell north, south, east, and west by the sun;
but how can we tell these directions at night?

Ask some one to point out to you a group of seven bright stars in the
north part of the sky. Some people think that this group of stars looks
like a wagon and three horses; others say that it looks like a plow.

[Illustration: THE GREAT BEAR.]

The proper name of the group containing these seven stars is the Great
Bear. The group was given this name because men at first thought it
looked like a bear with a long tail.

These seven stars are called the Dipper. It is a part of a larger group
called the Great Bear. Find the two bright twinkling stars farthest from
its handle. A line drawn through them will point to another star, not
quite so bright, called the North Star. That star is always in the
north; so by it, on a clear night, you can tell the other directions at
once.

_Write on your slates_:

Sailors out on the sea at night often find direction by looking at the
North Star.




LESSON IV.

HOW THE COMPASS SHOWS DIRECTION.

But there are times when it is cloudy, and neither the sun nor the stars
can be seen. How can we tell direction then?

Have you ever seen a compass? It is a box in which is a little needle
swinging on the top of a pin. When this needle is at rest, one end of it
_points to the north_.

[Illustration: A COMPASS.]

As the needle shows where the north is; it is easy to find the south,
the east, or the west.

With the compass as a guide, the sailor, in the darkest night, can tell
in what direction he is going.

North, south, east, and west are called the _chief points_ of the
compass.

Other directions are northeast, halfway between north and east;
northwest, halfway between north and west; southeast, halfway between
south and east; and southwest, halfway between south and west.

[Illustration: POINTS OF THE COMPASS.]

_Write on your slates:_

The chief points of the compass are north, south, east, and west.

Other directions are northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.

Sailors find their way over the ocean by the help of the compass.




LESSON V.

QUESTIONS ON DIRECTION.

Your teacher will give you time to discover answers to these questions.
She could tell you, but it is better to find them out for yourself.

If I go out of doors, how can I find the north? How can I find it on a
starlight night? How can I find it on pleasant days? How on rainy days?
How does a sailor find the north?

If you were lost and knew your home was north, how would you find it? Do
you know how hunters and Indians who live a great deal in the woods find
out where the north is? When you are in the woods, notice the amount of
moss on the north side of trees as compared to that on the south side.

As winter approaches; many of our birds will want to go to a warmer
country; in what direction will they fly? Point to where ice and snow
have their home. What direction is that?

In what direction does your shadow fall at sunrise? At sunset? At noon?
When, during the day, is your shadow shortest?

[Illustration: "IN WHAT DIRECTION DOES YOUR SHADOW FALL?"]

In what direction does your shadow extend from yourself when it is
shortest?

What time of day is noon? How can we tell when it is noon? When is the
sun highest in the sky?

[Illustration: "WHAT MAY WE DISCOVER BY WATCHING THE SMOKE?"]

What may we discover by watching the direction of the smoke from the
chimneys? What does a vane on a steeple tell us? What is a north wind? A
south wind? An east wind? A west wind?

What kind of weather may be expected from a north wind? From a south
wind? From an east wind? From a west wind?




LESSON VI.

WHAT THE WINDS BRING.

Comes the north wind, snowflakes bringing:
Robes the fields in purest white,
Paints grand houses, trees, and mountains
On our window-panes at night.

Hills and vales the east wind visits,
Brings them chilly, driving rain;
Shivering cattle homeward hurry,
Onward through the darkening lane.

Heat the south wind kindly gives us;
Reddens apples, gilds the pear,
Gives the grape a richer purple,
Scatters plenty everywhere.

Flowers sweet the west wind offers,
Peeping forth from vines and trees;
Brings the butterflies so brilliant,
And the busy, humming bees.

Each wind brings his own best treasure
To our land from year to year;
Blessings many without measure
E'er attend the winds' career.

Lillian Cox.


"Whichever way the wind doth blow.
Some heart is glad to have it so;
And blow it east or blow it west,
The wind that blows, that wind is best."

_Write_ all that you can tell about the wind.

What was the direction of the wind during the last snow-storm? Why is
the north wind cold? Why is the south wind warm?




LESSON VII.

HOW TO TELL DISTANCE.

To tell where a place is, we must know its direction. But this is not
all; we must also know how far it is from us; that is; its _distance_.
To find this out we measure.

You have often heard of an _inch_, a _foot_, and a _yard_. This line is
one inch long | - - - - |. Your ruler is twelve inches long, that is a
foot. Three lengths of your ruler make a yard. A yard stick is three
feet long.

[Illustration: MEASURING SHORT DISTANCES.]

With these measures you can tell how long your slate or your desk is, or
how long and wide the schoolroom is.

The inch, foot, and yard are used for measuring short distances. But
when we wish to tell the distance between objects far apart, we use
another measure called a _mile_. A mile is much longer than a yard.

Think of some object that is a mile from our schoolhouse. How long would
it take you to walk that distance?

[Illustration: MEASURING LONG DISTANCES.]


ORAL EXERCISES.

How many inches long is your slate? How long is your desk? How many feet
long is your room? How wide is it? What is the distance around the room?
How many feet wide is each window? Each door? How many yards wide is the
nearest street or road?

About what is the height of the schoolroom? Of the schoolhouse? Of the
tallest tree near by? Of the nearest church spire?

About how long is the longest street in the town where you live? Do you
know how many blocks or squares make a mile? Name the nearest river or
creek. Give its direction from the school. In what direction does the
water run? Give the direction and distance of the nearest church. What
must you know to go to any place?

NOTE. - Have pupils estimate distances by the eye, then verify by actual
measurement. Continue the exercises until the work becomes quite
accurate. Correct ideas of distance are necessary in order to understand
how large the world is, and how far apart places are on its surface.




LESSON VIII.

PICTURES AND PLANS.

You all know what a picture is. But do you know what a plan is?

A little boy wanted to show his cousin, who lived some miles away; the
shape and size of his house, and how the rooms were arranged. How could
he do this?

On a large sheet of white paper, he placed lines of blocks in the form
of his house. Then, with a lead pencil, he drew a line on the paper
along the sides of the blocks. He next took up the blocks, and there, on
the paper, was a plan of his house.

[Illustration: "THE PICTURE SHOWS THE OBJECTS."]

Here is a picture of a schoolroom. We see desks, the teacher's table, a
chair, a clock, globe, and two maps, in the picture. The picture shows
these objects as they would appear if we stood at the door behind the
teacher's table and looked in.

This is a plan of the schoolroom, a picture of which is shown above.
You see, the plan and picture are quite different.

[Illustration: "THE PLAN SHOWS WHERE THE OBJECTS ARE."]

The picture shows the objects as we see them before us. The plan shows
where the objects are, and their direction from one another.

Now let us see if we can make a plan of the same schoolroom on the
blackboard.

The first thing is to measure the sides of the room. We will suppose the
two long sides are each forty feet long, and the two short sides each
thirty feet long. Now we will draw four straight lines on the board for
the four sides. Of course, the lines must be much shorter than the sides
themselves, else our plan will be too large.

Make one inch in the plan stand for one foot in the room. So the lines
for the long sides will each be forty inches long, and the lines for the
short sides thirty inches long.

The next thing is to make spaces in the sides for the door and the
windows, and oblongs for the desks. But we must remember that an inch in
our plan stands for a foot in the object itself, and therefore we must
allow as many inches for the width of doors and windows, and for the
length and width of the desks, as there are feet in the objects
themselves. Thus, if the door is three feet wide, we must make it three
inches wide in our plan.

And lastly, we will draw a circle for the globe, and an oblong and
square for the teacher's table and chair, that shall show just where and
just how long these objects are.

We have now a _plan_ of the schoolroom. Let us put N. to show the north
side of the room, S. to show the south side, E. to show the east side,
and W. to show the west side. We can now tell the direction of one thing
from another in our plan.




LESSON IX.

WRITTEN EXERCISE.

[Illustration: PICTURE OF SCHOOL GROUNDS.]

_Write_ the answers to the following questions, in full sentences:

What is the name of your school? On what street or road is it? Which
side of the street? Between what streets? In which direction does the
building face?

[Illustration: PLAN OF SCHOOL GROUNDS.]

How many rooms has the building? In what part of the building is your
room? How large is it? How many doors and windows? How many seats?

In what direction is the school from your home? How far is it? How long
does it take you to walk to school?

EXERCISES IN DRAWING PLANS.

Draw a plan of the schoolroom on your slates. It cannot be drawn on your
slates as large as it was drawn on the board. So let one inch stand for
ten feet, instead of for one foot; that is, use a _scale_ of one inch
for every ten feet. Your plan will not be as large as mine, but it will
show the position of everything as correctly.

Draw a plan of the top of the teacher's table, showing two books and an
inkstand upon it. First, measure the sides. Then decide to what scale
you will draw your plan.

Now draw a plan of the schoolhouse and grounds. You must measure not
only the house, but the width and length of the yard. The plan must show
the size, shape, and place of everything upon the grounds. (While
drawing a plan of this kind, it is better to let the pupils face the
north. The top of the plan should be the north side of the grounds.)

Draw a plan of your own room at home, showing the table, bed, chairs,
and other objects in it.


ORAL EXERCISE.

If the shape of a room is shown on the blackboard, what have we drawn?
Is a plan the same as a picture? What is the use of a plan? Mention some
things of which plans can be drawn.

NOTE. - It is wrong to teach that the _top_ of a map or plan is _always_
north; as often as not, the bottom is north, in plans especially.




LESSON X.

GOD MADE THEM ALL.

[Illustration: "THE PURPLE-HEADED MOUNTAIN, THE RIVER RUNNING BY."]

All things bright and beautiful,
All creatures great and small,
All things wise and wonderful,
The good God made them all.

Each little flower that opens,
Each little bird that sings,
He made their glowing colors,
He made their tiny wings.

The purple-headed mountain,
The river running by,
The morning and the sunset,
The twinkling stars on high;

The tall trees in the greenwood,
The pleasant summer sun,
The ripe fruits in the garden -
He made them every one.

He gave us eyes to see them,
And lips that we might tell
How great is God Almighty,
Who hath made all things well.




LESSON XI.

PLAINS.

The floor of our schoolroom is level. The playground is almost, if not
quite, level. As you look away from the school, is the land nearly
level? Did you ever see a broad extent of nearly level land?

Let us imagine that we are out on a piece of nearly level land, many,
many times larger than our playground. Such a broad, nearly level
stretch of land is called a _plain_.

[Illustration: "SUCH A BROAD LEVEL STRETCH OF LAND IS CALLED A PLAIN."]

If this plain were covered with rich green grass and beautiful flowers,
we should call it a _prairie_. In the summer it is a vast sea of waving
grass. On the prairie we might find herds of wild horses and cattle,
which feed upon the rich grass. If it were late in the summer, when the
grass is dry and crisp, it might catch fire, and we might then see a
grand sight - a prairie on fire.

We now come to another plain, miles and miles long, miles and miles
wide. No rain falls here, and therefore we see no grass, nor flowers,
nor cattle, nor horses, nothing but dry, burning sand, rocks, or gravel.
We are in a _desert_. But we are so thirsty and tired!

No water to drink, no shade from the burning sun! Suddenly, in the midst
of the desert, we come to a beautiful grassy spot. There is a cluster of
date-palm trees, and, better still, a well or a spring of fresh water.
This pleasant spot in the desert is called an _oasis_. Here we may
quench our thirst, and rest beneath the shade of the trees.

[Illustration: "THIS PLEASANT SPOT IN THE DESERT IS CALLED AN OASIS."]

An _oasis_ is a fertile spot in a desert. What does _fertile_ mean? When
do we say land is fertile? When barren? When desert?

Find a picture of a palm tree, and try to draw it.

If we were really in a desert, we might see a company of merchants
carrying goods to sell in the countries they visit. Such a company is
called a _caravan_. The goods are packed in bundles, which are carried
on camels' backs. The camel can live for a long time without drinking,


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