ILLINOIS HISTORICAL SURVE
WORLD'S FAIR CITY
" As a poet, I am a polytheist ; as a naturalist, a pantheist ; as a moral
man, a deist; and in order to express my mind I need all these forms.
UNITED PUBLISHING CO.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred
and ninety-two, by C. DBAN, in the office of the
Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
To present a book of this kind, with char-
acter sketches of living men who are promi-
nent factors in great public enterprises, might
have been criticized fifty years ago as being
somewhat in bad taste. But opinions like
fashions are continually changing. The pop-
ular demand of today is to know the methods
of successful men; and, in order to know them
character must be investigated.
"As soon as a stranger is introduced into
any company one of the first questions which
all wish to have answered is, How does that
man get his living?" And if he has suc-
ceeded in adding something to the general
wealth he becomes at once a sort of hero in
the estimation of the American citizen.
The Chicagoans noticed in these pages are
men of extraordinary ability, and occupy
the front rank in the world of Enterprise.
An effort has been made to give a true delin-
eation of their characters and of their business
modus operandi; but the most important
question is: How much are these energetic
sons doing for the world? Are they using
their force in absorbing that of others, or
in expending their great energies and talents
for the benefit of mankind?
When one reads such authors as Buckle and
Draper, one is impressed with the influence
of climate, soil and scenery; of oceans, lakes,
rivers, mountains and valleys, upon the civil-
ization, the industries, habits and customs of
Thomas Carlyle finds the history of a
nation or a period in the lives of its great men ;
the rulers, the warriors, the scholars and
reformers, make and direct national and
world-movements; but other writers find in
the existing conditions of a time, the power
that produces the leading minds and actors
and gives shaping to what they do.
When one studies the brief but remarkable
history of Chicago, one finds place and need
for all these theories to account for its won-
derful growth in population, business, wealth,
and the progressive and earnest spirit of its
people in the fields of learning and religion.
8 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
When nature formed the great valley be-
tween the Alleghany and the Rocky mount-
ains, with its long rivers and rich soils, that
fact determined the great agricultural region
of the continent. And when nature placed
such a body of water as Lake Michigan,
stretching three hundred miles north and
south in this valley, with the head of this lake
in the line of the national highway between
the two oceans and the great east and
west, nature determined the location of the
largest inland city on the continent. For
in the nature and needs of the business
of the country, the many lines of railway
would center at such a point of both land
and water communication; and hence one
may affirm that New York, and San Fran-
cisco with their ocean harbors, and Chicago
at the head of Lake Michigan, and on the
line of national travel and commerce, are
where they are, and in a large sense, what they
are, because of these natural conditions.
And it would, in part be true also, to say,
that the leading men of Chicago have made
the city what it is; but only in part; for
whilst they have been making the city,
the city has been making them, and neither
could have been where they are, and what
they are, but for their determining environ-
ments and for the conditions of the country
and the age. It is in the fortunate concur-
rence of all these conditions that one finds
an explanation of the marvelous growth of
Chicago, and of the great business ability and
success and the intellectual and moral strength
and earnestness of its cosmopolitan popu-
At a time when all the world is thinking of
Chicago, and expecting to come to Chicago
to the World's Columbian Exposition, it is
only natural that very many should desire to
know something more about the public spirited
men and women who have taken such active part
in its affairs. And hence the opportuneness of
such a work as ' The World's Fair City and
Her Enterprising Sons." And to the praise
of many of these it may be justly said,
that they are planning and working and giv-
ing to make, what must soon be the largest
city on the continent, not only a city of vast
and increasing business and wealth : but a cen-
ter and power of learning; of colleges, libraries,
TO THE WORLDS FAIR CITY.
music, art, literature ; to have here a university
equal to the best in the old world, and to
emphasize the intellectual and moral as well
as the material greatness of its soon-coming
H. W. THOMAS,
Chicago, June ist, 1892.
THE WORLD'S PAIR CITY.
Location; Division; Bridges and Tunnels; Boulevards
and Parks; Michigan Avenue; Drexel Boulevard;
The North Division; Lincoln Park; The West
Division; Washington Boulevard; Ashland Avenue;
Transit Accommodations; The Washington Park
Club; The Hotels; Places of Amusement; Com-
mercial and Industrial Activities; Board of Trade;
The Board of Trade Building; Chicago, the Finan-
cial Center of the West; The Lumber Trade; The
Union Stock Yards; The Exchange Building; The
Chicago Live Stock Exchange; The Manufacturers
of Chicago; The Wholesale Dry Goods Trade;
The Educational Advantages ; The Churches ; The
Cemeteries ; History of Chicago ; Chicago in 1837 ;
Chicago in 1870 ; The Great Fire ; The Columbian
FEED. W. PECK.
The Auditorium; The " Pan Americans; " The Foun-
dation of the Auditorium ; The National Republi-
can Convention of 1888 ; Interesting Facts; Audito-
rium Hotel ; The Observatory; The Stage; Expres-
sion of Paintings ; Dedication of the Auditorium ;
Appearance of the Stage and of the Audience ;
Exercises of the Evening ; Address by Hon.
DeWitt Cregier; Address by Ferd. W. Peck; Ad-
dress by President Harrison ; The Apollo Club ;
The Cantata by Miss Harriet Monroe, "Hail to
thee, Chicago;" Address by John S. Runnells;
Patti, Queen of the Lyric Stage ; Address by Gov-
ernor Filer ; Samuel W. Allerton ; Ferd.W. Peck;
Sketch of his Life. 37-70
12 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
HON. THOS. B. BRYAN.
Resolutions for the World's Fair ; Mr. Depew's Re-
marks before the Senate ; Mr. Bryan's Argument
before the Senate; Miss Frances E. Willard; The
Biography of Mr. Bryan, 75-99
GEORGE M. PULLMAN.
Mechanic, Financier and Organizer ; The Sleeping
Cars ; The Diamond Special ; The Sleeping Car
Enterprise ; General Grant's Ride to Galena ;
Workshops at Pullman ; The Corliss Engine ; Mr.
Duane Doty; Mr. Pullman's Town ; Biography of
George M. Pullman ; Prof. Richard Ely of Johns
Hopkins University. 110-127
MR. WILLIAM T. BAKER.
Mr. Baker's Characteristics; Secretary Stone's Re-
marks about Mr. Baker ; Mr. Baker's Life ; The
Chicago Board of Trade ; Commissioners from For-
eign Countries ; Operations of the Board of Trade;
Abuses of Privileges; Secretary Stone's Explana-
tions; Future Delivery; Secretary Stone Defends
it; Bucket Shop Trading; Puts and Calls; Van
Buren Denslow's Account of Corners; Excess of
Supply over Demand; Secretary Stone's Appeal;
Educating the Youth in Business Principles; Ori-
gin of Boards of Trade by Lorenzo Sabine; His-
tory of the Chicago Board of Trade; George F.
Stone; A World's Fair Document; The Open
Board of Trade. 130-159
THE CHICAGO ART INSTITUTE.
Incorporated May 24, 1879 ; Director French's Report
of 1889; The Demidoff Collection ; Quality oi In-
struction ; Teachers ; Prizes Conferred ; Chicago
Woman's Club ; Philip H. Calderon of the Royal
Academy of London; The Paris Exhibition of
1889 ; Goethe and Carlyle ; Permanent Collection
of the Art Institute ; Cast Collection ; Mrs. A. M.
Hall Ellis ; The Century Collection ; The Chicago
Society of Decorative Art ; The Art Students'
League ; The Chicago Society of Artists ; The Pal-
ette Club ; Wealth gives the Opportunity; Charles
L. Hutchinson ; The Secretan Collection ; The
Chicago University; Mr. Hutchinson's Wealth ;
William M. R. French ; The Art Institute Sold ;
A New Art Institute. 162-193
CHARLES F. GUNTHER.
Collection of Relics ; Original Letters ; The Mementos
of Washington ; Old Bibles ; Shakspeare Re-
membered ; Other Manuscripts ; Relics from
France; Egyptian Mummy; Libby Prison; War
Museum ; Relics of Lincoln ; All Kinds of Shot
and Shell ; Confederate Money; An Old Flag ;
A Story of Libby Prison ; An Affecting Incident ;
The Grounds Surrounding the Prison ; Life of
Charles F. Gunther ; Portrait of Columbus. 194-219
NATHANIEL K. PAIRBANK.
A Man who has Enough of Worldly Goods ; How
He Amassed his Fortune ; Courted Ease of the
Princely Style ; Central Music Hall ; The News-
boys' Home ; St. Luke's Hospital ; Comments upon
the Abuse of Hospitals; The Prussian System;
The Chicago Club. 220-288
An Extraordinary Success ; Pluck, Plodding and Inces-
sant Work; The Fire of 1871; The Palmer House;
Lord and Lady Dufferin ; The Great Kitchen ;
14 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
The Drawing Room ; The Egyptian Parlor ; The
Bar and Billiard Room ; A Conservatory; Fire-
Proof Hotel ; Palmer House Insurance ; Potter
Palmer's Life. 241-254
LYMAN J. GAGE.
Banker and Financier ; Not one of the Millionaires ;
The Panic after the Fire ; The First National
Bank of Chicago; National Banks ; Office of the
Bank ; Economics ; Open Court Discussion ;
Making Bread Dear; Wheelbarrow's Complaint;
Sympathizer's Reply; Wheelbarrow's Defense ;
Sympathizer's Answer ; Banking and the Social
System ; The Organization of Labor and Trusts ;
Life of Lyman J. Gage; Testimonial Book. 258-289
HERMAN H. KOHtSATT.
Fate ; His Biography; Daily Bread Question ; The
Colored Men's Library; Statue of U. S. Grant ;
Governor Hoard's Speech ; Hon. R. H. McClellan ;
Responded ; Silver Punch Bowl Presented to Mr.
Kohlsaat ; Speech by David Sheean ; Chauncey
M. Depew, Orator of the Day; His Address ; The
Monument ; Mr. Kohlsaat's Characteristics ;
Fishin ' Jimmy;" Some Men Born to Own. 290-327
PHII.IP D. ARMOUR.
His Extensive Business ; Is Mr. Armour a Benevolent
Man ? Michael Cudahy ; Armour's Characteristics;
The Armour Mission ; The Manual Training
School; The Dispensary; Children's Sunday Serv-
ice; Mr. Armour takes no part in the Service ; A
Newspaper Scribe Visits the Sunday School ; His
Experience ; The Armour Mission Visitor; Rev.
John D. McCord ; Busy Bee Covenant and Pledge ;
The Armour Flats ; Mr. Armour's Life ; His Pork
Deal in Wall Street ; He moved to Chicago in 1875 ;
His Operations on the Board of Trade ; Very Few
of our Race Finished Men. 328-355
Posted in the History of Land Values in Chicago; Rec-
ords Destroyed in the Fire of 1871 ; Real Estate
of Chicago ; Posting Titles ; First Occupation of the
Land ; Fort Dearborn ; William Jones ; A Circum-
stance of 1838; Loaned $4,000 on Real Estate
and made a Fortune ; Chief Justice Smith ; Inter-
esting BiU of History ; The March of Civilization ;
$250 a Square Foot for Land in this City; Henry
George's Views ; Farmers will not have to bear
the Burden of Taxation ; The Ground where the
Grand Pacific stands ; Investigation of the Sin-
gle Tax Club ; School Lands ; Fernando Jones'
Amos W. Wright in Harper's Weekly writes ; A Napo-
leon in Commerce ; Building a Nine Story Block ;
When he was at School; His Residence; The
Walls Adorned with Gems of Art; A Description of
some of the Paintings ; Sketch of His Life ; The
McKinley Bill ; Mr. Field's Benevolence; Univer-
sity of Chicago ; His Employes. 383-399
HONS. CHAS. B. AND JOHN V. FARWBM,.
Their Daring Spirit ; State of Texas ; Capitol Building;
The Parents of Messrs. Farwell ; Hon. John V.
Farwell Regarding the Closing of the World's
Fair on Sunday ; His Biographer writes: A Salary
of $12 per month ; Starting a New Business Cen-
ter ; During the Civil War ; Mr. Farwell's Speech ;
A Colored Prayer Meeting; Board of Indian
1 6 THE WORLD* S FAIR CITY.
Commissioners; Presidential Elector; Young Men's
Christian Association; Chas. B.Farwell; The Arena
of Politics; Member of the U. S. Senate; Brussels
Point Lace; Miss Rose Farwell; The Decay of
COI,. GEORGE R. DAVIS.
Organizing the Forces ; His Early Education ; Elected
to Congress ; The Director-General ; His Speech , .
on the Exposition. 427-431
THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.
The Origin and Progress of the World's Fair ; Hon.
W. T. Palmer's Address ; To See that the Republic
received no harm ; It is said that Trial Broadens
a Man ; A Sentimental Aspect : Board of Lady
Managers : Remarks of William T. Baker ; Na-
tional Commission to Europe; The Second Com-
mission : Pope Leo. XIII. letter ; Paris Edition,
New York Herald; The Churchman; Cordial Re-
ception of Mr. Bryan ; Departments of the Expo-
sition ; Agricultural; Horticultural ; Live Stock ;
Fisheries ; Mines and Mining ; Machinery; Trans-
portation ; Manufactures ; Electrical ; Fine Arts ;
Liberal Arts; Ethnology; Forestry; The Woman's
Building; Publicity and Promotion ; Buildings well
Protected ; The Battle Ship ; Congress of Relig-
ions ; The Congress of all Nations ; Visitors Pro-
THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
"'See two things in the United States if nothing else
Niagara and Chicago,' said Richard Cobden, the famous
English statesmen, to Goldwin Smith, who was about to visit
Niagara is a specimen of nature's won-
derful works, but Chicago, the World's Fair
City, is one of the wonders of civilization.
It is the metropolis of the great West, and
the largest city, in area, of the world. Lo-
cated midway between two oceans on the
southwest shore of Lake Michigan, the head
of navigation, and backed by a vast and fruit-
ful country, which is reached by a system of
railroads that has no equal in any other -por-
tion of the globe, makes it the stopping place
for passengers from all parts of the world,
and the greatest market on the continent for
grain, lumber and live-stock. Eight hundred
and fifty trains arrive and depart here daily.
1 8 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
The city extends north and south along
Lake Michigan twenty-four and a half miles,
and from east to west its greatest width is
fourteen and a half miles, embracing an area
of about one hundred and seventy-five square
miles. It is divided by the river and its
branches into three distinct parts, known as
the North, South and West Divisions.
These are connected at nearly every street
by swing bridges so that boats may pass
and by three tunnels built under the river-
bed for the passage of vehicles and pedestri-
ans. The principal thoroughfares, which are
estimated to be one thousand three hundred
and eighty-six miles long, are regularly and
beautifully laid out. Streets and avenues are
from eighty to one hundred feet wide. Wooden
pavements are generally in use on account of
their elastic and noiseless qualities.
Chicago is noted for her beautiful boule-
vards and her magnificent and extensive
parks, which cover two thousand and thirty-
eight acres of land. It is rightly named the
Garden City. No expense has been spared
that could contribute to the beauty or comfort
displayed in these delightful public retreats.
THK WOMAN S TEMPLE.
THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY. ig
Nature and art seemed to have combined
forces, in order to have a perfect effect.
Michigan avenue, stretching for a mile along
the lake shore, affords a drive which, in
splendor and extent, is without an equal in
America. Every day, from morning until
night, handsome equipages pass up and down
this elegant thoroughfare; ladies and gentle-
men on horseback and in carriages of every
conceivable style are enjoying, in the ex-
hilarating lake air, an everlasting holiday.
Mounted police are in constant attendance to
to prevent the passage of heavily loaded
teams, or other obstructions.
Drexel boulevard, which is laid out after
the model of the famous avenue L'lmper-
atrice in Paris, is a magnificent drive. It is
two hundred feet wide, extending from Thirty-
ninth street to Fiftieth street south. Parallel
with it, five blocks west, Grand boulevard
affords a charming return trip to the throngs
The parks represent an immense amount
of labor, money and artistic skill. Washing-
ton Park contains one of the largest unbroken
lawns in the world, besides a fine conserva-
2Q THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
tory, somewhat resembling the celebrated
Kew Gardens near London.
In the North Division, Dearborn avenue,
LaSalle avenue, Rush and Pine streets, ex-
tending north and south, are the principal
thoroughfares for driving. There are many
fine residences and attractive churches on
these streets, all of which (except one) have
been erected since the great fire of 1871.
Lincoln Park, on this side, is one of the most
popular resorts of the city. Located near
the lake, where there is always a refreshing
breeze, the great variety of flower beds, artifi-
cial lakes, and different species of animals in
the zoological collection, make it exceedingly
attractive and interesting to the great throng
of visitors. Clark street is the main business
thoroughfare of this portion of Chicago.
The West Division contains several spacious
parks, Garfield, Douglas and Humboldt, are
the principal ones; but there are smaller parks
situated where they are easily accessible to
any one wishing for a free, open space to
breathe the fresh air. Washington boulevard
is one of the leading residence avenues, where
beautiful homes, fine churches and artistic
THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY. 2 1
surroundings prevail. It is a popular drive
which extends from the business part of the
city, passing 1 through the tunnel to Garfield
Park at the extreme western limits. Ashland
avenue, running north and south, is also a
delightful drive. Many wealthy citizens have
elegant homes here. Madison street, which
runs parallel with Washington boulevard, one
block south, is the principal business street of
the West Division. It is also a direct road
to Garfield Park, besides leading to Garfield
The city, on all sides, is well provided with
transit accommodations; six hundred and
thirty-seven miles of street-car lines lead in
all directions from the business center. The
greater part of these are run by means of cables
kept in motion by stationary steam-engines.
This mode of locomotion is very interesting
to the stranger who first beholds cars moving
so rapidly without any apparent living or
mechanical effort. It is related that a negro
once called his sable companion's attention to
the phenomenon, saying: " Lordy mercy! jist
see heah, Jinny ! see heah how de blessed
22 THE WORLD'S FAIR VJTY.
Mas'r Lincom dat freed de niggahs have gone
and freed de mules demselves!"
Chicago, with all its other advantages for
recreation and amusement, has one of the
finest racing tracks in America. The Wash-
ington Park Club, which was organized in
1883 for the purpose of providing a club-
house and pleasure-grounds for its members,
where they might meet for social amusements,
and view the exciting scenes of a horse-race,
has now an elegant club-house, surrounded
by a beautiful park consisting of eighty
acres. Its membership is composed of a
class of gentlemen who are not "professional
sports," but interested in the raising, training
and speed of fine horses. Its first president
was Lieutenant- General Phil. H. Sheridan,
and its board of directors comprise many of
the most earnest and wealthy business men
of the city.
The club-house is a very attractive
structure in its architectural design. The in-
terior arrangement, with its rich and elegant
furniture, surpasses anything of the kind in
America. The cost of the building is esti-
mated at $56,000, and the furniture $20,000.
THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
The grand-stand affords ample seating ca-
pacity for ten thousand persons. Each one,
when seated, has a clear view of the passing
horses. The track is wider than the popular
Saratoga course, and has, besides, a practice
track. The steeplechase is so arranged that
the water-jumps are performed over natural
lake-necks. The stables comprise five hun-
dred stalls, which are perfect in drainage and
ventilation. They are very attractive to
horse owners who desire wholesome and
convenient places for their favorite animals.
The hotels in this city are not only
very extensive, but, in design, architecture
and management, are not surpassed by the
oldest and most cultured cities in the world.
Members of the royal families from across
the water have frequently expressed surprise
that a city so green in age could have such
magnificent edifices. Travelers, who are on
missions of business or pleasure, can be ac-
commodated in an expensive or economical
style; nearly all hotels being carried on in
both American and European plans.
Places of amusement are scattered all over
the city. Besides the world-renowned Audi-
24 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
torium, there are numerous theaters that are
splendidly equipped and elegantly finished.
Talent histrionic, musical, or oratorical
has here ample opportunity for effective dis-
play; and no city patronizes artists more liber-
ally or with greater satisfaction to the perform-
ers, than the metropolis of the great West
Many European celebrities and Oscar Wilde
upstarts have replenished their coffers and
brightened up their conceit by the patronage
of Chicagoans. However, these amusements
are only a part of the city's great enterprises.
Her commercial and industrial activities are
unprecedented. Every essential element for
success is manifested; courage, pluck, nerve
sometimes called cheek and dashing enter-
prise, pervade the very atmosphere; the new-
comer, if of the right temperament, easily con-
tracts the "pushing spirit," and enters buoy-
antly into the life that knows not ennui.
The immense extent of fertile land, which
is highly cultivated by a vast number of in-
dustrial population, with its numerous rail-
ways all pointing toward Chicago, has made
it the leading grain market of the world;
THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY 25
and its facilities for handling, storing and deal-
ing in produce is, without doubt, unparalleled.
The system of the Board of Trade, which was
the first commercial institution in this country
to establish and put in practice a method of
grading cereal products, is very successful;
similar methods have been followed all over
the country. In 18/2 it was formally adopted
by the Legislature of Illinois. Now, officials,
acting under State authority, known as the
the Board of Railroad and Warehouse Com-
missioners, see that all rules are observed.
The established rates of commission for re-
ceiving and selling grain facilitate business
transactions, while the settlement of dis-
putes, which is governed by fixed laws, are
regulated by justice and equity. In 1885 a
newbuilding, completed at a cost of $ i ,700,000,
was opened for the use of its members, the
facilities for handling grain enlarged, and the
elevator capacity increased to twenty-eight
million one hundred thousand bushels.
The Board of Trade Building, located at the
foot of LaSalle street, is an architectural mon-
strosity, with a great tower, tapering up to a
pinnacle two hundred and sixty-five feet above
26 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.
the sidewalk. The balcony, which is sixty-
five feet below the pinnacle, is surmounted by
a circle of thirty electric lamps, having two-
thousand candle power each. The interior
is very elaborately finished. Strangers visit-
ing the city always inquire for the Board of
Trade, and they are more than surprised when
they witness the veritable pandemonium
Chicago is recognized as the financial center
of the West. Other Western cities depend
on it for Eastern exchange, and for assistance