C. Dean.

The World's fair city and her enterprising sons online

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Methods of irrigation and farm management will be
illustrated by models, etc.

The exhibit of farm implements and machinery
will be the most complete ever seen at any exposition.

The educational features of the Department's
work, illustrating important processes, will cover a
wide scope. A typical agricultural experiment sta-
tion provided by the agricultural experiment stations
of the United States will be located in the Agricul-
tural Building.

The purpose of the department is to convey to the
visitor and student a picture of the abundance, variety,
development and 'possibility of the agricultural re-
sources of the world.

One of the most magnificent structures raised
for the Exposition is the Agricultural Building.
The style of architecture is classic renaissance.
This building is put up very near the shore of


Lake Michigan, and is surrounded by the lagoons that
lead into the park from the lake. The building is
500x800 feet, its longest dimensions being east and
west. The north line of the building is almost on
a line with the pier extending into the lake, on which
heroic columns, emblematic of the forty-four States,
are raised. A lagoon stretches out along this entire
front of the building. The east front looks out into a
harbor which affords refuge for numerous pleasure
craft. The entire west exposure of the building faces
a branch of the lagoon that extends along the north
side. With those picturesque surroundings as an
inspiration, the architects have brought out de-
signs that have been pronounced all but faultless.
For a single story building the design is bold
and heroic. The main entrance leads through
an opening 64 feet wide into a vestibule, from
which entrance is had to the rotunda, 100 feet in
diameter. This is surmounted by a mammoth glass
dome, 130 feet high. All through the main vestibule
statuary has been designed, illustrative of the Agri-
cultural industry. Similar designs are grouped about
all of the grand entrances in the most elaborate man-
ner. The corner pavilions are surmounted by domes
96 feet high, and above these tower groups of statu-
ary. The design for these domes is that of three
women of herculean proportions supporting a mam-
moth globe.

The Dairy Building, by reason of the exceptionally
novel and interesting exhibits it will contain, is quite
sure to be regarded with great favor by World's Fair
visitors in general, while by agriculturists it will be
considered one of the most useful and attractive feat-
ures of the whole Exposition. It is designed to con-
tain an exhibit of dairy products and also a Dairy
School, in connection with which will be conducted a


series of tests for determining the relative merits of
different breeds of dairy cattle as milk and butter
producers. W. J. BUCHANAN, Chief.


All nations of the world are cordially invited by
the management of the World's Columbian Exposi-
tion, to make an Horticultural display that will be
extensive, unique, representative, worthy and in-

The facilities offered exhibitors will surpass those
of any previous exposition, and consist of a mag-
nificent Horticultural Building with extensive grounds
adjacent and the greater part of a beautiful elevated
island, from which excellent views of all the great
buildings can be had.

Horticultural Hall is the largest and grandest ever
erected for a horticultural exhibition. It contains
about 89,000 square feet more of floor space than the
combined floor areas of the buildings used for a simi-
lar purpose at the Centennial, New Orleans and Paris.
It is 1,000 feet long by an extreme width of 287 feet.
The dome is 187 feet in diameter and has an altitude
of 1 13 feet on the inside, thus giving room for the
largest palms, bamboos, tree-ferns, giant cacti, etc.
The basso and alto-rilievo ornamentation, in a frieze
extending along the front and sides of the building, is
especially attractive and, in connection with statuary
and fountains, will have an unusually pleasing effect,
aside from the plant decoration which will harmonize
with the general plan of the building.

The plan is a central glass dome, connected by front
and rear curtains with two end pavilions, forming two
interior courts, each 88 by 270 feet. In these courts
will be placed bearing orange trees and other semi-
tropical fruits from California and Florida, to illustrate


the manner of growing and cultivating the orchards
and groves in those states. The front curtains have
glass roofs and are each 270 by 69 feet. They will be
used for tender plants. The rear curtains are each
346 by 46 feet, and, while designed to give an abund-
ance of light, are not entirely covered with glass.
They will be adapted to fruit and other exhibits that will
require a comparatively cool temperature. The first
stories of the pavilions are each 117 by 250 feet, and
are intended for the extension of the fruit display and
for installing the viticultural exhibit in one, and horti-
cultural appliances, seeds, etc., in the other. The
principal part of the second story in each will be used
for elegant and commodious restaurants; the remain-
der, in the form of galleries, for garden seats, vases,
preserved fruits, etc. Forming a circle inside the
dome there is a broad promenade gallery from which
visitors can look down upon the plant and floral deco-
rations. This gallery is sufficiently extensive to in-
stall many miscellaneous exhibits.

The classification embraces everything of interest to
horticulturists, and should they desire to be progress-
ive they cannot afford to miss the instructive object
lesson which will be presented. Assurances of cor-
dial support from all parts of the world indicate a rev-
elation in advanced horticulture that will be a surprise
to the profession.

Great Britain and the Continent of Europe will dis-
play the finest specimens of rare plants from numerous
conservatories; Australia and New Zealand will con-
tribute ferns, palms and bamboos; the Latin- American
countries, tropical fruits and many curious plants, and
even far away Japan will send specimens of trees, sev-
eral hundred years old, to illustrate their skill in
dwarfing trees. Trees over one hundred years old,
and not more than two feet high, will greet the gaze
of the wondering visitor.


Many States and territories have arranged to make
a complete herbarium of their flora and wax models of
all their fruits; and from the whole it is intended to
make a grand collection for the United States. This
has never been attempted before, and it is expected
will attract the attention of botanists in every part of
the world.

The Florticultural display will be on a scale of mag-
nitude equal to all other sections of the World's Fair, of
such flowers as tulips, lilies, pansies, roses, asters and
sweet peas, etc. They will be in array by hundreds of
thousands, to say nothing about many novelties which
have not yet been unearthed.

J. W. SAMUELS, Chief.


The rules and premium list apportioning $150,000
in premiums among the various species, breeds and
varieties of live stock have been published and 10,000
copies distributed in this and foreign countries.

A large number of live stock associations in this
country have announced their purpose of offering
supplemental premiums for their respective breeds,
ranging from $200 up to $10,000 each. A magnificent
home representation is assured, while reports from
foreign countries render certain the statement that the
Live Stock exhibit will bring together the most remark-
able collection of pure bred animals ever witnessed in
the history of epxositions. The exhibit will also com-
prise specimens of wild animals, song birds and birds
of plumage from this country and abroad.

Provision has been made for office-headquarters for
the different live stock and agricultural organizations
of the United States

The most ample preparations are being made to
care for the great Live Stock interests at the Exposition.


A commodious amphitheatre for exhibition purposes,
will be erected, as well as the necessary stables, barns,
hospitals, etc.

The rules and regulations governing the eligibility
of lyive Stock for entry are being distributed, and
while care will be taken to secure specimens of the
best established breeds, the rules are sufficiently lib-
eral to permit the entry of animals from every part of
the world, which have such characteristics as to make
them objects of interest to visitors at an International

The Live Stock exhibit will open in June, 1893,
with a Kennel Show, lasting six days followed in
August, September and October by the exhibition of
horses, cattle, skeep, swine, poultry, pigeons, etc.
The liberal money premiums amounting to $150,000
besides the medals and diplomas to be awarded by the
National Commission, which the Exposition Manage-
ment offer have already stimulated a widespread
interest in this exhibition.


The picturesque group of buildings devoted to this
Department 12 located just north of the Government
Building, facing the lagoon, which runs along its
south front. The buildings are composed of one large
rectangular structure, having two curved arcades
stretching like arms east and west, and at the end of
each of these is located a polygonal building. The
commercial fisheries and fish culture will be displayed
in the rectangular building, while angling will be in
the westermost pavilion and the aquaria in the eastern

It is expected that this group of buildings, while
being among the most picturesque within the confines
of the Exposition grounds, will also contain some very


interesting exhibits. In them will be shown living
fishes and other animals inhabiting both fresh and salt
water, as well as various kinds of aquatic and marine
plants. Many of these plants are commercially im-
portant, besides having a value for keeping fish alive
in the aquaria.

In the angling building will be shown all the
methods of angling used throughout the world, while
in the rectangular structure will be exhibited the
methods of fishing, fishery appliances, products of the
fisheries, etc. , as used and produced by the world gen-
erally. It will be possible to make some very interest-
ing comparisons in this department, since there will
be representations of the primitive forms used by
natives of North and South America and the West
Indies at the time when the continent was discovered
by Columbus.

Those engaged in fish culture in this and other
countries and those concerned in carrying on the com-
mercial fisheries throughout the world have become
much interested in this particular phase of the Expo-
sition. In nearly all sections of this country where
fisheries are prosecuted committees have been ap-
pointed to take such measures as are necessary for the
promotion of fishery exhibits; many of the State Fish
Commissions are actively at work preparing displays
illustrative of their functions and the result of their
efforts, while in some of the foreign countries special
appropriations have been asked to enable the proper
officials to prepare and bring to Chicago exhibits of
fisheries and fish culture. Many private firms have
already asked for space, and it may be reasonably
expected that the building? will be filled to overflow-
ing with attractive and instructive displays.

The aquaria will be found in the eastern building,
and there is little doubt but that this will be one of


the chief points of interest of the whole Exposition.
The marine fishes will be captured off Jhe coast
and forwarded alive by rail, in tanks filled with
sea water, to Chicago. They will secure the scaly
captives in seines, select such desirable ones as
are caught in the pound nets of the fishermen, and
take them in tanks ashore, where they will be shipped
to the Exposition. The tanks utilized for transporta-
tion will be of sufficient size not to crowd the occu-
pants and provided with a device for circulating and
aerating the water. J. W. COLLINS, Chief.


By the employment of the expression, ' 'products of
the soil, mine and sea," in the enacting clause of the
Act of Congress, providing for the World's Columbian
Exposition, mining was raised to an industrial rank
that previous expositions had denied it.

Under the scope and plan of the Columbian Exposi-
tion, and under the classification provided for guidance
in installation, many of the branches of the mining
industry, heretofore incorporated in other departments,
will be placed in their legitimate and natural positions
in the Mining Building.

The raw material, the natural product, to be exhib-
ited in the Mining Department, will constitute the
basis of every other exhibit made, except that of Agri-
culture and Horticulture. The groundwork of all the
arts and sciences and the mechanical industries will
be contemplated within the walls of the structure
dedicated to Mines, Mining and Metallurgy. All of
the precious minerals, all of the economic minerals,
all of the precious stones, all of the coals, all of the
building stones and marbles, all of the clays and sands,
all of the salts and pigments, as well as the machinery,
implements and appliances employed in their conver-
sion to the uses of man, will be fully represented.


The subject of coal will be treated on very broad
lines. It would be impossible to accept for exhibition
purposes all the really meritorious specimens of coal
that can be secured, for the purpose of demonstrating
the resources of the country in this great fuel. The
treatment must be comprehensive and sweeping, and
the display based upon the distribution of the great
coal fields that stand out prominently in the geology
of the country. The coal industry is of gigantic pro-
portions, involving the investment of many millions
of dollars and the employment of hundreds of thou-
sands of people. The display of coal at the Exposition
will be qualitative rather than quantitative. The
different varieties of coal produced by the different
localities will be shown, together with the chemical
analysis of each and the results of tests determining
economic value and adaptablity to various uses. The
coal resources of countries, States and sections will be
shown by geological maps and drawings, exhibiting
the stratification, cross-section, etc., which will render
apparent the extent and accessibility of the vast num-
ber of coal beds and veins which underlie the earth's

As regards iron, efforts will be made to have an
adequate exhibit of that great branch of industry.
Without considering the contributions that will be
made to this division by foreign governments, this
country, which is now the first nation in the world in
iron production, will provide a display of the greatest
interest and benefit to the manufacturing world. The
development of the iron resources of the Southern
United States within the past few years, no less than
the attention which has been devoted to this particular
industry in the West in the same period, surrounds
this product with national interest. It is intended to
arrange this exhibit with the fullest appreciation of



the magnitude and importance of the iron industry,
with ample data as to the location and extent of the
greater deposits, the analyses of the ores, with all the
machinery and devices employed in mining, hoisting,
conveying, storing, etc. Statistics, not only based
upon the operations of the past, but in a degree indi-
cating the extent to which they may be carried on in
the future, will constitute a valuable feature of this

Every provision has been made for the installation
of the ores of both the precious and base metals and
cabinets of mineral specimens contributed by private
individuals, associations and technical and mining
schools. These will be arranged with conspicuous
care as to detail. States, nations, individuals, collec-
tors and colleges will vie with one another in endeavors
to establish the^ superiority of their respective collec-
tions, or to demonstrate the value of certain mineral
countries, sections, or lands. Every ingenious device
and design will be utilized by the several States, ter-
ritories and countries to illustrate the magnitude of
their deposits.

The division of mining machinery will demonstrate
the usefulness and economy of every character of me-
chanical equipment.

The extensive apparatus and tools employed in the
great petroleum and natural gas industries will be am-
ply exhibited, with oils and bi-products. No group
will be of greater interest or of more practical value
than that which illustrates the extent and method of
the gigantic operations in this division of the mineral

Sands for the manufacture of glass, many-colored
clays, and kaolin of all grades for the potter, brick-
maker, porcelain worker, etc., polishing substances,
whetstones, hones, and emeries, will constitute a group


of unusual interest to both the student and manufact-
urer. Asphaltic and cement mixtures and artificial
stones, which have made the pavements of Paris and of
the Capital of our own country superb in their cleanli-
ness and the admiration of the world, will be illus-
trated in all their multifarious uses.

The salt mines of the Old World, and the brines and
other salt workings of our own country will contribute
their quota of this snowy, crystalline product. Adding
to the color effect and interest of the exhibit will be
variegated heaps of nitrates, sulphates, borates, pig-
ments of all kinds, ochres and vermillions, phosphates,
coprolites and every variety of mineral fertilizers. In
another group the useful graphite, with the methods
by which it is transformed for use in the shape of
leads, crayons, lubricants, etc., will be exposed.

Ingots, bars, and castings of white aluminum, with
aluminum alloys, will be found in juxtaposition with
pigs and bars of reddish copper. Tin ores and block
tin, sheet and bar zinc, ingots of nickel, specimens of
bismuth, antimony, arsenic and other metals with
their ores and alloys will be arranged in a manner con-
fusing in diversity, yet artistically and scientifically

For the purpose of practical study, the division of
History and Literature of Mining and Metallurgy will
be unsurpassed. To this end, college faculties and
professional men are already pledged.

An elaborate and accurate reproduction of ancient
and unique mining and metallurgical methods, appli-
ances, tools and processes as illustrating the evolutions
in the industry, will attract the attention of all classes,
and teach fruitful lessons in the advance of science, in-
vention and general civilization.

The Mines and Mining Building is located on the
south bank of the Great Lagoon that encircles the
Wooded Island.


The structure is, in many respects, one of the hand-
somest and most ornamental of the departmental
buildings. Its architecture and its inspiration is in
the early Italian renaissance, but the subject has been
liberally treated. In plan the building is simple. It
is, in area, 350x700 feet, and its elevation from the
floor to the cornice line is 65 feet. There are four
great entrances to the building, imposing in dimension
and elaborate in design. The North and South en-
trances are 88 feet wide, with openings 32 feet wide,
and 56 feet high. On either side, immense pilasters
reaching upward 62 feet to the top of the banner staff,
give the structure a massive and solid appearance.

The power provided for the Mining Building will be
concentrated at convenient points in the building for
its distribution on the ground floor, where demonstra-
tion will be undertaken. The building will be brill-
iantly illuminated by electricity, the arc lamps being
of great power and ranged in semi-circular groups, '
while thousands of incandescent lamps will add to the
brilliancy of the effect at night.

The building devoted to mines, mining and metal-
lurgy, when finally opened to the public arranged in
minute detail and sweeping possibility, will unques-
tionably prove not only the point at which the prac-
tical and scientific miner, geologist, inventor and
manufacturer will assemble, but it will be also a resort
of abiding interest and general instruction for all
classes of people. F. J. V. SKIFF, Chief.


Foremost among the triumphs to be recorded at the
World's Columbian Exposition will be the displace-
ment of manual labor by machinery. The century
whose closing decade will be immortalized by a greater
union of all nations, on a peaceful plane, than the



world has ever seen, will be remembered in history as
the age of machinery. And peerless in the ranks ot
nations which have given to mankind the fruits of in-
vention in mechanical form, will stand the United
States of America. Necessity, the parent of man's
inventive faculty, has nowhere been encountered in
such formidable shape as in this country, which may
appropriately be called the cradle of invention.
Within two generations this vast continent has been
developed by a race of energetic people, whose invent-
ive faculties have been quickened alike by the obsta-
cles encountered and by the experience of the benefits
of civilization left behind in the old worlds. Crude
experiment has begotten inventive genius, and the
pioneers who fought nature in its sternest shape have
returned to become the preceptors of those whose re-
searches have led to theoretical rather than practical

The Machinery Exhibit at the World's Columbian
Exposition will of necessity, be one of the most im-
portant of the entire exhibition. The United States
of America will put forth her best efforts, while
Europe will spare no pains to prove that her artificers
have not lost their skill, and that in the great com-
petition for wealth the Old World is still abreast of
the New.

The enormous extent of the space under roof in the
buildings devoted to the display of machinery, in
round figures nearly eighteen acres, is a proof of the
appreciation of the importance of this branch of the
Exposition entertained by the Management. That
this vast enclosure will be filled, there is no reason to
doubt; on the contrary, the problem which threatens
to confront the executive, is not how to fill the space,
but rather how to find adequate space for the exhibits.
Situated at the main entrance to the Exposition


grounds, at a point where all visitors by rail will
necessarily pass its doors on entering the Exposition,
the Machinery Building, or as it is officially termed,
the Palace of Mechanic Arts, will possess an excep-
tional advantage in point of location.

The exterior design of the building has been pro-
nounced one ot the grandest in the whole array ot
architectural wonders to be seen at the Exposition.
Indeed, so well has this been recognized, that the first
pictorial view scattered broadcast for the purpose of
making known to the world plans upon which the.
City of Chicago was preparing to entertain the world,
was one of this building.

The main building of Machinery Hall is 850 feet
long and 500 feet broad. The interior will present the
general appearance of three railroad train-houses
placed side by side. These train-houses are spanned
by arched iron trusses, with spans of about 125 feet
each, and these trusses are about fifty feet on centers.
Each of these arched naves is lighted and aired from
above by large monitor roofs; in the center, three
domed roofs, each covering an open space 125 feet
square, take the place of monitors. Outside of this
immense three-naved room on the north, east and
south runs a 5O-foot-wide two-story building. This
opens directly into the main hall; both on the first
floor, and on the second floor on the north and east
fronts, forming a great gallery.

There are two main entrances to Machinery Hall,
one on the north, facing Administration Building, and
one on the east, facing Agricultural Hall. In each of
the four corners of the building is a domed pavilion
containing a grand staircase, and there are other stair-

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Online LibraryC. DeanThe World's fair city and her enterprising sons → online text (page 25 of 27)