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it possible to hold conversation with persons
many miles distant, is exhibited, in a degree,
in the palace car, that has made it possible for
travelers to cross this great continent of Amer-
ica without hardship or deprivation of any sort.
In Chambers Journal, dated March, 26,
[879, a correspondent, who has evidently trav-
eled in this country, writes : ' ' We know of
nothing in Europe in the way of railway trav-
eling that affords so much of convenience,
comfort, ease and elegance as the Pullman
hotel express train on the Union and Central
Pacific railroads, between Omaha and San
Francisco. In it the science of locomotion has
been reduced to a system, as orderly, conven-
ient and economical as are the management
and accommodations of any home. It has
taken away the fatigue, ennui and actual loss
of health while journeying, and has given in-
stead the home surroundings of the parlor and
cuisine. * * * On the Pullman cars the



112 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

room is ample, conveniences for eating, sleep-
ing and leisure are of the best; the cost less
than the charges at hotels at the public resorts ;
and the scenes hourly changing from hill to
dale, from river to lake, from prairie to moun-
tain, from the affluence of the tropics to the
snows of the Sierra Nevada."

This enthusiast, who has enjoyed the sump-
tuous apartments of the Pullman dining car
twenty years ago, described to his countrymen,
through the Journal, the process by which
passengers are served meals, as follows: "En-
tering the commissary car, you take your seat,
and at your side you find a clock bell [electric
bells are now used] ; you ring it, and a sable
waiter, neatly clad in white jacket, bearing the
monogram of the Pullman Company appears,
and presents you a bill of fare. The waiter
spreads your table with a neat linen cloth, and,
touching a spring, opens the mirror between
windows at your side, disclosing to view the
silver service belonging to each quartette of
diners. Then a savory steak of beef or ante-
lope, mountain trout or broiled chicken are
placed before you smoking hot. Wine, tea,
coffee or fresh milk are at your command. "



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 1 13

He describes the other cars with the same
exactness, and due appreciation, as follows:
"Next comes the drawing-room and sleeping
cars, which roll both smoothly and safely.
Sofas and easy chairs line the side; double
windows exclude heat, cold and dust; stout
ventilators pump in, without unpleasant draft,
a constant stream of fresh air. At night,
sofas and chairs turn into bedsteads; a hair
mattress drops from some impossible hiding
place, clean sheets, blankets and pillow cases
slide out of table and folio, and, by magic
springs, sliding screens and curtains make up
a couch for rest as comfortable as your own
bed chamber.

"Next comes the elegant saloon car, the
general rendezvous for the passengers of the
entire train ; where, especially at evening, they
may gather as one family for enjoyment. In
the center of the car is a parlor organ of the
best construction; when required, this car
also, like the drawing room coaches, affords
sleeping accommodations with double berths.

"There is complete protection for passing
between cars on the whole line, and the whole
running gear and adjustment of springs is so

8



114 THE WORLD* S FAIR CITY.

noiseless and perfect that reading, writing and
talking are uninterrupted during motion.

' ' The. cars are heated by hot salt water in
pipes under each seat, generated from Baker's
patent heaters, which diffuse an equable at-
mosphere of heat through the coaches." [In
some states there is a law prohibiting stoves
being used in railroad cars; in such states
steam is generated from the engine by pipes
extending into the coaches; but the Baker
heater is still used where permissible.]

The Pullman Palace Car Company is now
one of the largest and most successful corpo-
rations in the world. If the able correspond-
ent who wrote the above article twenty years
ago could see the Pullman palace car of today,
he would acknowledge that the many improve-
ments embodied in its construction have ex-
ceeded his most sanguine expectations; for its
equipment, consisting of a magnificent display
of fine woods, plushes and silks, in artistic
combinations and designs, is as near perfection
as human ingenuity and skill can make it.

A visit to the Pullman car works was rewarded
by the privilege of inspecting the new cars
manufactured for the Diamond Special of the



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 1 1 5

Illinois Central railroad, for night service be-
tween Chicago and St. Louis. It is a vestibule
train, lighted by gas throughout, and equipped
with a compartment buffet sleeping car, a
drawing-room sleeping car, reclining chair
cars, and a combination coach and smoking
car. The smoking room of the buffet car is
finished in African vermilion wood of exquisite
grain, relieved by embossed gold-leather pan-
els and frieze, with carpeted floor and finely
decorated ceiling to match. A five-jet gas
chandelier of deflecting mirrors bring out the
silk draperies and the vermilion and gold finish
with fine effect. The buffet is finished in light
mahogany, and the staterooms are specimens
for the study of artistic effects. Stateroom A
is square in form, and contains a double lower
and upper berth. It has all the conveniencies
of a dressing room, and is finished in bright
pea green stippled with gold, broken by em-
bossed and decorated plush panels of tint to
match. The upholstery, carpets, and the dec-
orated ceiling, in the center of which is a gas
chandelier of deflecting mirrors, are all in har-
mony with the green and gold tints.

Stateroom B is finished in white mahogany,



1 1 6 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

with plush upholstering and embossed plush
panels; the tints of both wood and fabrics
blend into a delicate shade of canary. Another
room is upholstered in Spanish red plush; the
woodwork is mahogany, with embossed and
decorated terra cotta plush panels.

Stateroom C contains a single lower and
upper berth, with a complete toilet room sep-
arated from it by heavy draperies. It is dec-
orated in steel gray plush upholstery and
figured panels. The woodwork is white, stip-
pled with gold and gold mouldings. It is
called the ' ' Ivory room. " The beveled mir-
ror has a white and gold frame of rich classic
design.

The drawing-room sleeper is equally elegant
in design and finish, also the chair cars and
combination baggage and smoking car. It is;
impossible to give a graphic description of
the effect of the marvelous artistic workman-,
ship as exhibited in these modern cars. They
are like palaces on wheels. This train, ' ' The
Diamond Special, " is rightly named, for it is
evident that the owners of diamonds may have
a monopoly here, and not be annoyed by the
contact of uncongenial travelers.



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 1 1 7

Mr. Pullman became interested in the sleep-
ing car enterprise in 1859. At that time
sleeping car berths were furnished with only
common blankets and hair pillows; the floors
were bare, and the conveniences were few; a
condition that would not attract the numerous
travelers who patronize the palace car of
today. He conceived the idea of adopting the
sleeping car to purposes of a drawing room,
and of furnishing to those taking long journeys,
the comforts and necessaries required, without
leaving the coach.

With this end in view Mr. Pullman set to
work to materialize the ' ' air castle, " and he
obtained permission of the Alton Railway
Company to use a repair shed, located near
their Chicago station, hired skilled workmen,
and then commenced the work. It was one
year before his model car, which cost $18,000,
was constructed. On account of its width,
the new car could not be run upon any rail-
road without slight changes in the bridges and
station platforms, but, although the press
lauded its usefulness, convenience and beauty,
no opportunity was given for a trial of it,
until the death of Abraham Lincoln, which



Il8 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

occurred in 1865. The railway company then
realized the necessity of such accommodations
and secured the car to make part of the train
that brought the remains of the martyred
president to Springfield, Illinois.

Soon afterward General Grant was about to
visit his old home in Galena, and, the people
desiring that he should travel in a right royal
manner, another railroad was opened for the
palace car to bear the hero on his journey in
comfort and ease. From this time the palace
cars became so popular, all railways were
opened to them. In 1891, the total mileage
of railways covered by contracts for the opera-
tion of the Pullman Palace Car Company,
amounted to 124,557 miles.. The number of
cars owned, or controlled, by the company is
2,239, of which 1,965 are standard, and 274
tourist or second class cars. The average cost
of each car is about #16, 125.

The company furnish to the railroad the
cars fully equipped, with superintendent and
employes to take charge of them; and the rail-
road companies keep the running gear in order
and collect their usual rates of fare from the
passengers. The Pullman Company get their



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 1 19

compensation by selling berths and all extra
accommodations.

These cars represent the most advanced
phases of invention and mechanical skill of the
age. Although Mr. Pullman is not an in-
ventor himself, he has, by his money power,
attracted the small inventors and made them
serve his purpose well; such is the power of
the capitalist.

"They whom I favor thrive in -wealth amain,
While virtue, valor, wisdom, sit in want."

The building of these cars is carried on in
the extensive workshops at Pullman, which
has been annexed to Chicago, and is in the
thirty-fourth ward. This unique town is the
fulfillment of the counterpart of the idea of
Mr. Pullman when he designed the palace
car, and is as complete in all its appoint-
ments.

Mr. Pullman's annual report of 1891 records
11,783 inhabitants, and the total number of
persons in the employ of the company in its
manufacturing departments, 13,885. In these
workshops, which are the attracting power of
the place, are made a thousand or more me-
chanical devices that make up the Pullman



1 20 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

car; in fact, every part except the material for
upholstering is manufactured here.

The motive power of these works is fur-
nished by the famous Corliss engine that ran the
machinery at the Philadelphia Centennial Ex-
position of 1 876. It weighs seven hundred tons,
and is rated at twenty-four hundred horse power.
This majestic piece of mechanism is beautiful
to behold. It is perfect in finish; and when
one gazes upon its revolutions and its artistic
beauty, it seems to be eloquently reciting its
history to the beholder, in a manner more in-
spiring than tongue or pen. It speaks of Hu-
manity upon whom the light of intelligence has
dawned, causing the inventor, mechanic and
miner to unite their forces for the world's work.

Mr. Duane Doty, civil engineer at Pullman,
who is a well known educator, editor and
writer, explains more fully its history in one of
his numerous papers prepared for the purpose
of giving information to all interested in the
Pullman experiment. He writes:

This remarkable mechanism is a simple condensing
engine with the Corliss valve gear and cut off adapted
to a vertical engine. It was built at Providence, Rhode
Island, by Mr. George H. Corliss. It was finished in
1876, and required seven months in building. It fur-



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 121

nished power for running the machinery at the Cen-
tennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, General
U. S. Grant starting the engine there. At the close of
the exposition it was taken back to Providence. It
was purchased by Mr. George M. Pullman in 1880, and
it required a train of thirty-five cars to bring it here.
It was set up in its present place during the autumn
of 1880 and the winter of 1880 and 1881, and was
started here for the first time April 5, 1881, at i P. M.,
in the presence of a concourse of visitors, Miss Flor-
ence Pullman turning the valves which admitted the
steam to the cylinders. None who were present can
forget the clapping of hands and the enthusiasm mani-
fested as the great fly wheel began to move, ' ' starting' '
the Pullman car works.

In 1883 the engine required one new cylinder head
and one new piston head, which were made by Mr.
Corliss. In 1886 a new pinion shaft, which was built
in Pullman. In 1886 one new beam end pin was re-
quired, and it was made here. In 1889 one new piston
head, one new beam end pin, and one new set of brass
bearings were all made in Pullman. One outside cyl-
inder required was made by the Reynolds Corliss Co.,
of Milwaukee. The engine now seems in as good con-
dition as when first started here. This beautiful en-
gine is greatly admired by visitors from every country
of the globe.

Mr. Pullman's town is situated near Lake
Calumet, fourteen miles from the center of
the city. Its extreme length is about fourteen
miles in a north and south direction, and its
average width is about one mile. The pur-
pose of Mr. Pullman was to provide a center



122 . THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

of industry and homes for employes of the
company with the most wholesome conditions
and surroundings that science and art could
devise. Mr. S. S. Benson, an enterprising
young architect, made the plans and directed
the building of the entire town. Work was
begun upon the site in May, 1880, and, before
it was inhabited, gas, water and sewage
pipes were laid, a method never before known
in the history of a city or town. The sew-
age consists of a system of pipes, entirely
separate from the drains for surface waters,
which takes the sewage from houses and
shops to a reservoir holding 300,000 gallons.
The sewage is pumped from this reservoir
as soon as received to a farm of 140 acres,
three miles from the town. Potatoes, onions,
cabbage and celery are the principal crops
raised on the farm.

The streets, which are macadamized and
well drained, and with cobble-stone gutters,
well provided with catch-basins, are sixty-six
feet wide. Shade trees adorn both sides, and
neat grass-plats are between the sidewalks and
the roads. The distance between house lines
is generally one hundred feet, but the main



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 123

boulevard, on One Hundred and Eleventh
street, is one hundred feet wide, and the
houses correspondingly distant.

The bricks for the buildings were manufact-
ured of clay from the bottom of Lake Calumet.
The houses are built in groups, or double
houses, with the exception of a few large
buildings of flats. The roofs are greatly
diversified, representing the different styles of
architecture. Officers of the company and
mechanics live in adjoining dwellings. With
the exception of the church and parsonage,
which are built of green serpentine stone, and
a few frame tenements, the buildings are of
red brick, two stories high, and contain about
five rooms each.

One peculiarity of Pullman is that business
places are not scattered promiscuously over the
town, but are concentrated in two large build-
ings the Arcade and the Market House. The
Arcade contains the theater, library, bank and
offices. The theater, which is tastefully fur-
nished, seats 1,000 persons. The drop cur-
tain is the finest painting of the sort in the
West. The boxes are of Moorish design. An
entertainment is given about once a week.



124 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

The library contains 7,000 volumes, besides
papers and periodicals. It is said to be a per-
sonal gift from Mr. Pullman, but no one is
allowed to take books out unless he can pay
three dollars annually for the privilege. The
rooms are furnished with plush-covered chairs
and Wilton carpet, and the walls are hand-
somely covered.

The Market House is occupied by dealers
in meat, vegetables, fruit, fish and poultry.
The second story of this building is used for a
public hall. There is also a large hotel where
guests are provided for, and where employes
may find a comfortable home. It is surrounded
on three sides by beautiful public squares
covered with flowers and shrubbery. The
furniture is costly, and it is well managed by
one of the officers of the Pullman Company.

The schools, which consist of a primary and
grammar school, are under the management
of the Chicago Board of Education. Oppor-
tunities for social pleasures are wide; fifty
thousand people are within four miles of the
Pullman Arcade, and a hundred local trains a
day make Chicago accessible every half hour
of the day and evening.



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 125

The workshops have a general manager,
and the town a general superintendent. The
entire cost of the town, including the manu-
facturing establishments, is estimated at about
$[ 0,000,000. No private individual owns any
part or single structure in the entire town.
The church is rented the same as private resi-
dences, but at a very low rate, according to
its cost, which was $60, ooo. There is also a
Catholic church, and a Swedish Lutheran
church, which were built by the members.

Another building which deserves mention is
the Water Tower, a structure 195 feet high.
In the top is a large boiler-iron tank which
holds half a million gallons. This is kept filled
for use in case of fire only. The reservoir in
which all the sewage of the town is received
is underneath this tower. The water used in
the dwellings is brought from the city by the
company. The depot corresponds with all
other structures of the place. From this
point may be seen circular flower beds, an arti-
ficial lake, winding roads, and the neat walls
of stone built around the great workshops.

As a whole, Pullman has the appearance of
a corporation settlement. There is a lack of



126 THE WORLDS FAIR CITY.

the warmth which one may recognize in the
town where every one has the privilege of
owning his own home, and modeling or remod-
eling it to suit his individual taste. The
experiment may please George M. Pullman,
but another such town will never be made
unless his double may at some future time
make an appearance.

Mr. Duane Doty, of Pullman, is always
ready to give information to any one of
every industry or fact concerning this business
structure. He has written largely for the
benefit of the numerous investigators from all
countries who visit the town. Mention a sub-
ject upon any detail of these interests, and he
will present you with a record of, not only the
facts, but, its history, etc.

George M. Pullman was born in Brockton,
Chautauqua County, New York, in 1831. Like
the majority of boys in those days, as well as
those of the present time, at the age of four-
teen he was anxious to ' 'do something for him-
self." So he engaged himself to the "village
store-keeper, " as clerk, at forty dollars a year,
where he remained until 1848, when he went
to Albion, N. Y., to learn cabinet-making. It



GEORGE M. PULLMAN, 127

seems that this work did not absorb his whole
attention, or prove attractive enough for him
to stick to it, for he afterwards engaged in the
business of removing buildings from the banks
of the Erie Canal at the time it was being en-
larged. Finally he drifted, or that power that
shapes our course directed him, to the city of
Chicago, the city of push and/W/, where he
engaged in the raising of entire blocks of brick
and stone; all this time thinking, planning,
and endeavoring to develop his theories, which
have become practical realities.

Like nearly all promoters of great indus-
tries, Mr. Pullman had to make strong efforts
in order to accomplish his purpose. But he
would not have succeeded without the aid of
capitalists, who bought stock, helping along
his scheme. His power lies in a certain line
of leadership, akin to paternalism, which would
not be recognized in the halls of legislation,
nor in the deliberations of Chicago's enterpris-
ing sons; but in that unique town of Pull-
man, where everybody is a tenant depend-
ing upon the Pullman Company for employ-
ment, he is a leader. Some years ago, Prof.
Richard Ely, of Johns Hopkins University,



128 THE WORLD'S FAIR CITY.

visited the town, for the purpose of ascertain-
ing the spirit of its social fabric ; but, on account
of the excitement caused by a revelation of
local crookedness, Prof. Ely was mistaken for
a detective. This fact, unknown to him,
caused a lack of freedom on the part of opera-
tives in conversing with him, which the Pro-
fessor of Economics interpreted as the result
of Mr. Pullman's autocracy, and published it
in Harpers Monthly. If the writer had
visited the owner of the town himself, his
suspicions would have been cleared up, for
the sleeping-car millionaire never troubles
himself about the psychological development
of his tenants, and would never discover such
a fact unless it was made manifest by some
material destruction.

George M. Pullman succeeded in amassing
wealth through his faculties of organization
and financiering. Although he can theorize
in mechanics, he has not much practical skill
in that direction; but his other faculties have
served him well, for the skilled workmen and
the day laborers, who compose the organiza-
tion, which he has formed, contribute a share of
their money-value-force, thus filling his coffers.



GEORGE M. PULLMAN. 129

Mr. Pullman is tall, erect and muscular.
His head is large, and has the form of that of
the mechanic; but he has a very kind expres-
sion, denoting satisfaction with the world in
general. No one would ever mistake him for
a statesman or a college professor; but his
courteous manners denote contact with cul-
tured men of the world.

He resides with his family consisting of his
wife, two daughters and twin sons, on Prairie
avenue, With wealth estimated at several
millions, Mr. Pullman is called upon frequently
to contribute money for public use, and there
is no doubt that he responds liberally to all
such demands. Mr. Pullman's cars have
brought him riches, and the fame that lives
only in the material, which like the mansard
roof, the moncky wrench, and the macadam-
ized roads, will cause his name to become only
a qualifying word. Pestalozzi could not make
a comfortable living, but his prolific mind
spread an influence that has made his name
to live forever in the history of pedagogy, and
in the hearts of philanthropic humanity.



CHAPTER V.

MR. WILLIAM T. BAKER.

"There is no body of men on the face of the earth for whom
I entertain a higher estimate than the merchants who do the
work and regulate the commerce of the United States." Gen-
eral William T. Sherman

WILLIAM T. BAKER is a typical representa-
tive of Chicago's Enterprising Sons, and,
again, he is not. He is because he possesses
the regulation push and energetic spirit so
prevalent in the World's Fair city, and he is nat
because he resembles no other model in the
category. That handy word unique expresses
well the combination of his traits of character
as observed by his business colleagues. Mr.
George F. Stone on being requested to define
these characteristics of Mr. Baker which in a
special sense accounts for his prominence,
and for his selection as President of the Chica-
go Directory of the Columbian Exposition,
says:

' ' The career of Mr. Baker is that of a typ-
ical progressive American, which renders his

130




WILLIAM T. BAKER,



MR. WILLIAM T. BAKER. 131

appointment as President of the World's Fair
peculiarly an appropriate one. Endowed
with keen and discriminating mental charac-
teristics, of an intensely active temperament,
bordering upon impetuosity, yet so nicely ad-
justed as not to violate the dictates of good
judgment, courageously ambitous, of an in-
domitable will, he early grappled with humble
surroundings with a sublime confidence, to
carve out for himself an honorable and eminent
mercantile position. Towards that position
he steadily and unfalteringly advanced from
step to step through subordinate experiences,
until in the very prime of his manhood he is
recognized in the great markets of the world
as an eminent, successful and honorable mer-
chant.

' 'Mr. Baker possesses those qualities insepar-
able from strong characters, which hold a man
self-poised and imperturbable in times of great
tension, when many men are overpowered,
disheartened and defeated. In such times
his latent capacities are brought into requisi-
tion, and stamp him as the exceptional man
that he is qualified to discharge great respon-



Online LibraryC. DeanThe World's fair city and her enterprising sons → online text (page 7 of 27)