C. E. (Charles Edward) Hammond.

Liturgies, eastern and western; being the texts, original or translated, of the principal liturgies of the church online

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LITURGIES
EASTERN AND WESTERN

*

EASTERN
BRIGHTMAN



HENRY FROWDE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE
AMEN CORNER, E.C.




Qten> JJorft

MACMIU.AN & CO., 66 FIFTH AVENI E



LITURGIES



BEING

THE TEXTS ORIGINAL OR TRANSLATED OF THE
PRINCIPAL LITURGIES OF THE CHURCH

EDITED WITH INTRODUCTIONS AND APPENDICES



F. E. BRIGHTMAN, M.A.

PUSEY LIBRARIAN



ON THE BASIS OF THE FORMER WORK BY
C. E. HAMMOND, M.A.

SOMETIME FELLOW AND TUTOR OF EXKTER COLLEGE




VOL. I. EASTERN LITURGIES




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

M DCCC XCVI



//"





PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY



DOMINIS REVERENDISSIMIS

EPIPHANIO

ARCHIEPISCOPO S. FLVMINIS IORDANIS

EDWARDO
EPISCOPO LINCOLNIENSI

AMBROSIO AMELLIO

ARCHICOENOBII S. BENEDICT! CASSINENSIS PRIORI

GRATISSIMI ANIMI TESTIMONIVM

NECNON ET STVDII

CHRISTIANITATIS READVNANDAE

MONVMENTVM QVANTVLVMCVNQVE



CAP TA ynep HMOJN eic TO AIMNCKCC AoopA npoc<t>epcoN, npdvroN

M6N 6AYTON AlA TOY CTAYpOY npOCNefKAC "NA AyCH TTACAN OyCIAN
AIA8HKHC, THN CNTeACCTepAN hi KAI ZOOCAN \Jlip HANTOC TOY KOCMOY ie

THCAC, AY T C lepeToN, AYTOC GYM*< AYTOC iepeYC, AYTOC GYCIACTHPION,
6e6c, AYTOC AN0pcoTTOc, AYTOC BACiAeyc, AYTOC ApX'epeYC, AYTOC npoBATON,

AYTOC ApNION, TA TTANTA N UACIN YTTGp HMO)N ^NOMeNOC ?NA HM?N ZCOH KATA
TTANTA Tp6nON ("eNHTAI KAI THC fepCOCYNHC AYTOY TO AMETACTATON eApA'lCOMA l'c

TOYC AIWNAC AnepfACHTAi. S. EPIPH. Haer. Iv. 4.



PREFACE



WHEN the Delegates of the University Press invited
Mr. Hammond to prepare a new edition of his LITURGIES
EASTERN AND WESTERN, first published in 1878, with their
consent he put the book into my hands with the generous
permission to do as I liked with it. The present volume is
an instalment of the result.

It will be obvious at once that considerable changes have
been made, and I can best explain the aim of the present
volume by describing its relations to Mr. Hammond's work.

In the first place, in consequence of changes described
below, it has been necessary to divide it into two volumes.
This first volume accordingly contains only the Eastern texts
with related appendices, while the Introduction is confined
to the description of materials, such properly liturgical dis-
cussions as I may have to offer being for the present reserved.
The discussion of the Apostolic Constitutions, concerned as
it is merely with the determination of their place among the
data of the history of rites and not with their internal litur-
gical character, seems properly to belong to this Introduction.
I cannot but regret the division of volumes, since part of the
value of Mr. Hammond's valuable work lay in its handiness,
and this is here sacrificed. At the same time Eastern and
Western liturgies are so far independent subjects that the



viii Preface

division is not an unnatural one ; and it is hoped that the
present volume will be found, so far as it goes, complete
in itself.

Secondly, Mr. Hammond confined himself to reprinting
texts and translations, whether Latin or English, derived
from the collections of the older ritualists and elsewhere,
without reference to manuscripts or other authoritative
sources. In the present edition resort has been had so far
as possible in each case to original texts and authorized
editions, and the translations are new or at least consider-
ably revised and all are in English. This has involved some
difficulty, and the results are, almost inevitably, not always
entirely satisfactory. Complete and satisfactory manuscripts
are not too common and, even when they can be heard of,
they are not always accessible, and one has to be content
with what one can get ; while, as every one acquainted with
the subject will know, printed service-books are difficult to
handle with any confidence without a larger experience of the
practical rendering of the several rites than most of us can
pretend to. to say nothing of the difficulties of language.
And some exceptions have to be made to the rule laid down
above. The anaphora of the Ethiopic Church Ordinances
follows the imperfect text of Leutholf: I had not realised
at the moment when the translation was printed that there
are available manuscripts in the British Museum. The text
of S. Mark has been corrected, not by the Vatican manu-
script, but by Dr. Swainson's edition of it. And in some
details, especially in the rubrics, the Armenian liturgy does
not follow the current texts, none of which seem to be strictly
authoritative, but has been adjusted by Dr. Baronian to
what he holds to be a better authorised type. It will be
noticed that in some cases texts of widely different dates
have been combined. This is inevitable, but it is of no great
importance : for. while rubrics of any explicitness are for



Preface ix

the most part comparatively modern and we have therefore
to choose between modern rubrics and none, the text of the
prayers has probably nowhere varied to any great extent
within the period covered by existing manuscripts.

Thirdly, Mr. Hammond's texts and translations for the
most part included only the invariable elements of the rite
in each case, and that simply according to the arrangement
of the books, an arrangement which it is often difficult to
follow, among other reasons because simultaneous movements
are written or printed successively. In the present volume
on the other hand an attempt has been made, wherever
possible, to represent the whole liturgy as it is celebrated
on some given day. With this object (a) the proper lections
and hymns for some day on which the particular liturgy
is used have been inserted : (b] synchronous movements are
printed in parallel columns : (c) cues have been expanded,
wherever the full text could be discovered : (d) subordinate
paragraphs which do not properly belong to the central public
service are printed in small type : (e] where the rubrics are
incomplete they have been if possible supplemented from
other sources, as indicated in the titles at the head of the
several sections. Here again there has been some difficulty.
The texts are not always of certain interpretation ; and in
the case of rites no longer in use the arrangement rests
simply on my own judgement and is open to criticism
accordingly. This applies particularly to S. James and
S. Mark: for although by the kindness of the late Arch-
bishop Dionysius of Zante, which I would here gratefully
commemorate, I had the opportunity on July 2, 1894, of
assisting at the celebration of S. James in his metropolitan
church, yet for reasons given in the Introduction the present
use of Zante scarcely represents the older Syrian practice.
Unfortunately it is only since the texts were in type that
I have also had the opportunity of witnessing the celebration



x Preface

of the monophysite rites, Syrian, Coptic, and Abyssinian :
but I am grateful to be able to say that, so far as I could
judge, I have not seriously misinterpreted those rites, and by
means of some ' addenda and corrigenda ' I have been able
to correct my mistakes for the most part. For the modern
Greek rite I have had the advantage of the help of the
Archbishop of the Jordan, and for the Armenian that of
the Rev. Dr. Baronian. For the Nestorian, the least accessible
and least known of Eastern rites, I have been allowed to
draw continually on the observation and experience of the
Very Rev. A. J. Maclean, formerly of the Archbishop of
Canterbury's mission at Urmi.

Fourthly, in the Appendix to Liturgies Eastern and Western,
Oxford, 1879, Mr. Hammond tabulated the evidence for the
liturgy of the end of the fourth century collected by Bingham
from the writings of S. Chrysostom, and published Dr. Bickell's
Latin reproduction of a fragment of a Persian anaphora, with
some other matter ; and in three small pamphlets, with the
title Excerpta Liturgica, nos. i-iii (Oxford, Parker & Co.), he
also published a collection of passages bearing on the liturgy
from several early writers. In the Appendices to the present
volume, this material, so far as it is Eastern, has been included
and supplemented. S. Chrysostom's evidence for Antioch
has been disentangled from that relating to Constantinople,
and similar evidence has been collected for the rites of
other liturgical areas. For some of this evidence I have else-
where acknowledged my indebtedness to Dr. Probst's Liturgie
des vierten Jahrhunderts und deren Reform. Besides 'this
the Appendices contain some other matter of various interest,
and in particular the diakonika of the Presanctified Liturgy
of S. James, hitherto unnoticed.

Fifthly, the references to biblical quotations in the text
have been very much extended. Perhaps they will appear
excessive : but it seemed worth while in this way to attempt



Preface xi

to trace the sources of liturgical language and to indicate
its associations. In the Greek texts the references have been
exhaustively verified ; in the other texts, they have been
largely verified in the originals from the several vulgates,
but not completely. I have not always had the whole text
before me ; while in such verification as I have made, I have
confined myself to such parts of the Bible as have been
published without resorting to manuscripts. It must be
understood therefore that in many cases seeming quotations
have been assumed to be such and marked accordingly. In
the Greek texts I have marked as a quotation anything
I have noticed as agreeing with any reading in the New
Testament or the LXX : but it is possible that in some cases
the biblical reading is derived from the liturgical text. In
the index of quotations a few references are given to other
than biblical sources, and a few biblical references are added
where the quotation has been overlooked in the text.

In the translations; while the aim has been to preserve the
forms of ecclesiastical English, it has seemed desirable at the
same time to be as literal as possible. This is important with
a view to the determination of the mutual relations of texts,
while it also reflects a characteristic of the texts themselves,
which occasionally reproduce literally idioms of their Greek
originals without regard to intelligibility. On the other hand,
in translating quotations from Holy Scripture my aim has
been to follow the language of the Authorised Version or of
the Book of Common Prayer, except where there seemed
reason for doing otherwise. Accordingly these renderings
are not always strictly accurate, and in some cases they
represent the Hebrew where the liturgical text in fact
depends upon the LXX : but it has seemed more valuable
to emphasise the suggestion of sources and associations
by the use of familiar words than to aim at an accuracy
which would only disguise the significance of the language.



xii Preface

Again, a great many technical words are simply trans-
literated. This seemed desirable for several reasons. The
words are sometimes interesting in themselves : and besides
this, while to attempt to render them by more or less
closely corresponding and better known words belonging to
other rites might sometimes be misleading, a literal transla-
tion of them would be no more intelligible than a trans-
literation. But what is more important, such transliterations
illustrate the degree in which Greek has supplied the technical
liturgical language of the Church, the words being very often
themselves only transliterations of Greek. To this or to the
principle underlying it I would venture to call the attention
of those who, whether with authority or without it, undertake
to translate the English Prayer Book into foreign languages.
In the Glossary I have added to the words explained or
commented on such corresponding words in the several
liturgical languages as I have been able to meet with.
Ecclesiastical terms are not always to be found in lexicons
and are a frequent source of difficulty. It has seemed worth
while therefore to print even so amateur a collection as the
present. My obligations to Mr. A. J. Butler's Ancient Coptic
Churches of Egypt will be obvious. My transliterations
throughout need apology : I make no doubt they are often
inaccurate, as they are certainly inconsistent : but I hope
they are intelligible enough to serve their purpose l .

It will be obvious that the lists of editions and of manu-
scripts in the Introduction make no pretence to exhaustive-
ness. The lists of editions are not meant to be bibliographies,
but references to authoritative sources or available texts, with
such account of their origin as I have been able to gather ;
while as to the manuscripts, I have only noted those which

1 In the transliterations of syriac the Jacobite zekofo is throughout repre-
sented by o, the Nestorian by a ; and in Nestorian rubrics the present Nestorian
pronunciation has been aimed at generally.



Preface xiii

I have myself inspected or collated, and those of which I have
found entries in such lists or catalogues as I have either met
with in the course of things or been able to lay hands upon
without going out of my way, and they are perhaps sufficient
to indicate the character and proportions of the accessible
material.

Besides the acknowledgements which I have already made,
I have to return my best thanks to many who have helped
me and without whom this volume, such as it is, could not
have been put together. Of those who have put material
at my disposal, I have to return thanks to the Most Reverend
the Metropolitan of the Pentapolis of Cyrene for the loan
of his copies of the Cairo MSS. of S. James : to the Right
Reverend the Bishop of Lincoln for the use of the collations
of manuscripts at Rome, Paris, and Oxford, made for him
some years ago by Dr. Mann and myself, and of a list of
Greek manuscripts drawn up by himself and the late Mr. Philip
Pusey : to the Rev. G. B. Howard for the use of a manuscript
of the Syriac S. James : to the Rev. G. A. Cooke and
Mr. A. E. Cowley for collations made at Sinai : to M. Perruchon
for extracts from Ethiopic manuscripts at Paris : to the Syndics
of the Cambridge University Press for leave to correct the
text of S. Mark by the edition of Dr. Swainson : and to
Mrs. S. Lewis for the use of a photograph of the Sinai
fragment of S. Mark. For translations from Syriac, Arabic,
Ethiopic, and Armenian, I have been almost entirely depen-
dent on the kindness of others, and I desire to thank the
Very Rev. A. J. Maclean, the Rev. W. C. Allen, the Rev.
C. F. Burney, and Mr. J. F. Stenning, for various parts of the
Syriac texts ; Prof. Margoliouth and Mr. G. B. Gray for
the Arabic ; the Rev. C. J. Ball for the Ethiopic (including
the collation of the British Museum manuscripts), and the
Rev. Dr. Baronian for the Armenian. This does not express
the full extent of my obligations to them ; they have besides



xiv Preface

allowed me to make constant reference to them in all
difficulties and have been unreserved in their readiness to
put their knowledge and judgement at my disposal. In
particular I feel that most of what is of any value in
the account of the Armenian rite is due to Dr. Baronian.
At the same time I must relieve them from all responsibility
in detail : I have dealt freely with what they have supplied
me with and have used my own judgement, so far as I was
capable of one, sometimes without consulting them, and
in some cases I have maintained my own judgement in
opposition to theirs. For the Slavonic words in the
Glossary I am indebted to the Rev. E. Smirnoff. Besides
this I have to acknowledge the courtesy of many librarians,
and in particular to thank the Rev. Padre Antonio Rocchi.
Librarian of Grotta Ferrata, for answers to many questions
and for the hospitality of his illustrious House. And finally
I return my best thanks for the revision of various parts
of the proofs to the Most Reverend the Archbishop of
the Jordan and my friends the Rev. Roland Allen and
Mr. C. H. Turner.

F. E. B.

FEAST OF S. THOMAS 1895.



CONTENTS

PAGE

INTRODUCTION . y . .... . xvii

I. THE SYRIAN RITE . . ... i

II. THE EGYPTIAN RITE . , . . in

III. THE PERSIAN RITE . . . . . 245

IV. THE BYZANTINE RITE . . . . . 307
APPENDICES . . . .... . 459

INDEX OF BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS AND CROSS-
REFERENCES ........ 553

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS .... 568



INTRODUCTION

I. THE SYRIAN RITE, p. xvii.

A. The Apostolic Constitutions, p. xvii.

i. Structure and Sources, p. xviii.

ii. The Compiler, p. xxiv.

iii. The Liturgical forms, p. xxix.

1. The Clementine Liturgy, p. xxix.

2. The order of the Liturgy in the second book, p. xlvi.

B. The Greek Liturgies, p. xlviii.

C. The Syriac Liturgies, p. Iv.

II. THE EGYPTIAN RITE, p. Ixiii.

A. The Greek Liturgies, p. Ixiii.

B. The Coptic Liturgies, p. Ixvii.

C. The Abyssinian Liturgies, p. Ixxii.

III. THE PERSIAN RITE, p. Ixxvii.

IV. THE BYZANTINE RITE, p. Ixxxi.

A. The Orthodox Liturgies, p. Ixxxi.

B. The Armenian Liturgies, p. xcvi.



INTRODUCTION

I. THE SYRIAN RITE
A. THE APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS

THE Apostolic Constitutions are a manual of ecclesiastical life,
a body of law and ethics and in some degree of doctrine 5
applied, enforced and illustrated by instruction, exhortation and
example, purporting to come from the mouths of the apostles,
speaking now collectively and now individually, and to be given
to the world through S. Clement (Ap. Const, vi. 18: Ap. Can. 85).
In the course of them there occur a number of liturgical forms, 10
and in particular the so-called Clementine Liturgy and the
outline in the second book, both of which are given below.
These forms come to us therefore not as the libelli of a living
rite, but as chapters in an apocryphal literary work : and it
follows, first that they have not been subject to the processes 15
of development which affect all living rites, and therefore that
they still preserve unchanged the form in which they were
originally incorporated in the Constitutions : and secondly that
any inquiry into their sources, date and significance must
start from the question of the origin and composition of the 20
work of which they form a part. They therefore require
a treatment at this point different from that of the rest of the
documents contained in this volume.

b ' "'



xviii Introduction

For the sources of the text see Lagarde Constituhones apostolorum Lips, et
Lond. 1862, pp. iii. sqq., Ueltzen Constitutiones apostolicae Suerini et Rostochii
1853, pp. 281 sq., Pitra Juris eccl. graec. hist, et rnon. i. Romae 1864, p. in ; for
editions, Ueltzen pp. xxii. sqq., Pitra p. 112. The text adopted below is
5 Lagarde's (his apparatus gives the readings of all his mss. and of the editio
princeps, Turrianus, Venice 1563 : Pitra adds the readings of the Vatican mss.
and of several editions). The numbering of chapters and sections below is
Ueltzen's (Lagarde's chapters do not always correspond with those of Ueltzen
and Pitra, and neither Lagarde nor Pitra subdivides the chapters).

10 The state of the question, so far as it bears on the present
purpose, may be summarised as follows :

The latest and fullest discussion is that of Dr. F. X. Funk die apostolischen
KonsMutionen Rottenb. 1891. For the history of the question see pp. 1-27.

i. The Structure and Sources.

15 i. Bks. i-vi are derived, by means of considerable inter-
polation and some omission and modification, from the
Didaskalia Apostolorum, a work of the early third century and
of the same general character as the A. C., except that the
dogmatic element in the latter is proportionately larger.

20 The Didaskalia is known only through a syriac version published by Lagarde,
Dtdascalia apostolorum syriace Lips. 1854, simultaneously with his recon-
struction of the greek in Bunsen Analeda antenicaena ii. Lond. 1854. The
original was produced in Syria in the first half of the third century, and perhaps
retouched after the middle of the century : Funk pp. 28 sqq., Harnack Gesch.

25 d. altchristl. Litteratur i, Leipz. 1893, pp. 515 sqq. On Lagarde's reconstruction
see Funk p. 41, and on other sources to which the compiler is indebted for
details, pp. 107-112.

A large part of the matter of bks. i-vi is also contained in
the Arabic and the Ethiopic Didaskaliae : but these are derived
30 from A. C.

On the arabic Didaskalia, which is unpublished, see Funk pp. 215 sq. ; for the

contents, as compared with A. C., pp. 222 sq. The ethiopic is published in

Platt The ethiopic didascalia Lond. 1834 (ethiop. and engl.). It is derived from

the arabic, perhaps mediately through a coptic form : see Funk pp. 207 sqq.;

35 contents, pp. 209 sq.

2. Bk. vii. 1-32 is similarly derived from the Teaching of the
twelve Apostles, which belongs at least to the second century.



The Syrian Rite xix

The rest of the seventh book consists chiefly of liturgical matter,
of which no source is known.

On the Didache see Harnack op. cit. pp. 86 sqq.: on minor sources used in
bk. vii, Funk pp. 118-120.

3. Bk. viii falls into four parts : 5

a. cc. i, 2 nepl ^opta/iarwc, which perhaps includes an other-
wise lost riepi xopjoYiaTwy of S. Hippolytus : in any case, much
of it is the work of the compiler.

On the work of S. Hippolytus and its possible relation to these chapters see
Funk pp. 136-142 ; Harnack p. 643 ; Achelis die Canones Hippolyti in Gebhardt- jo
Harnack Texte u. Untersuch. vi. 4, Leipz. 1891, pp. 269 sqq. On the signs of
the compiler's hand in the present form see Funk pp. 139-141, Achelis
pp. 272-274, 278-280.

)3. cc. 3-27 TT(p\ x ei pvi)i> t consisting chiefly of the formulae
for conferring all the orders and including the 'Clementine' J 5
liturgy (5-15) as the mass at the consecration of a bishop.

y. cc. 28-46 Trepi Kavovav, being a collection of canons on
various subjects put into the mouths mostly of individual
apostles and including regulations and formulae for the
blessing of oil or water (29), for the office of evening (35-37) 20
and morning (37-39), for the offering of first-fruits (40) and
for funerals (41).

Most of the matter of a-y occurs also in other documents
outside the Constitutions. No completely satisfactory inter-
pretation of their relations to one another and to the Constitu- 25
tions has yet been, or perhaps with the present materials is
likely to be, arrived at. The documents are the following.

(i) In Greek, besides a number of mss. containing fragments
of various lengths of the matter of bk. viii, which are of
no importance for the present purpose, there is an important 3
group containing substantially c. i sq., 4 sq., 16-28, 30-34,
42-46, i. e. the irtpl x a P t<T P-^ Ta>v ) the Tr*pl x f 'P OTOl ' t '' >v omitting the
liturgy (and with shorter forms of the prayers for the bishop
and the presbyter and a different regulation as to the reader),
and the jrepl navovmv omitting all the liturgical elements : the 35
ascriptions to particular apostles are omitted throughout.

b 2



xx Introduction

This document is perplexing in some respects, and perhaps
the only view of it which is possible at present is one which
regards it as a preliminary draft of the eighth book by the hand
of the compiler himself or an excerpt from such a form.

5 For the mss. see Pitra Juris eccl. graec. hist, et mon. i, Romae 1864, pp. 46 sq.
(but the list seems incomplete and the description of the contents not always
accurate), Achelis Can. Hippol. pp. 240 sqq., Funk pp. 142-144. The text is
printed from three mss. in Lagarde Reliquiae juris eccl. antiquiss. graece Vindob.
1856, pp. 1-18, under the titles Ai5acra\ia TWV ay. airoir. -ntpl xa/xcr/ttiTcw (^ A. C.

TO viii. I sq.) and Amrd^tts roiv avrwv ay. airoar. irfpl x fl P OTOVl ^ lv 8id 'I-mroXvTov
( = 4-46), and the latter also in his Hippolyii romani quae feruntur omnia graece
Lips. 1858, pp. 73-89. The ascription to Hippolytus is sometimes omitted,
sometimes given to the whole of this latter, sometimes only to the section
corresponding to A. C. viii. 4-31 : see Funk p. 143.

i ^ As to the relation of this document to A. C. viii : Lagarde (opp. citt. viii and
89 respectively) and Funk (pp. 147 sqq.) regard it as an excerpt from the latter,
Achelis (p. 243) as a proximate source, and Harnack (p. 643^ as an excerpt
from an older form of A. C. viii. On the one hand it refers to previous
regulations, which find no place in the document itself, while they occur in



Online LibraryC. E. (Charles Edward) HammondLiturgies, eastern and western; being the texts, original or translated, of the principal liturgies of the church → online text (page 1 of 59)