C. P. (Charles Patrick) Meehan.

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for his loss.*

Twelve days after this much- exaggerated skirmish,
Owen Roe, at the head of a considerable force, marched
into the county Westmeath, within fifteen miles of Mui-
lingar ; whilst Preston, with 7,000 foot and 700 iiorse, waa
carrying everything before him in the King's County.
'Moncke was sent to oppose him, but dared not meet him ;

• ly tbls action Con Oge O'Neill was naurdered by a Preebyteriaa
Tdnlfter, after quarter given. — O.XeiU's Jvumal.



CONFEDERATION- OF KILKENNY.

and thus left the Leinster general master of everj'' strong
place in that county, with the exception of Castlejor-
dan. The state of the English garrisons in av. ^ about
Dublin is described byt Carte and others to lia\ been
desperate. Tlicre was the greatest dearth of provisions,
and nothing but the saddest necessity could induce Or-
niond to attack tl)e confederates, who spread terror even
to tlie very walls of the city. Moncke was sent into
Wicklow to seize whatever corn and cattle lie could ;
but was soon recalled to reinforce Lord Moore,
^who was sent to dislodge Owen Roe, — who, with Sir
' James Dillon, held a strong position jfive miles from
Trim, at a place called Portlester-mill. O'Neill threw
up a breastwork, placed sixty men in the mill, and
waited patiently for the enemy. Moore* was about to
advance, when he was killed by a cannon-ball, and his
whole force fled, being routed with slaughter. O'Neill
was amply avenged for his loss at Clonish ;• and the way
to Dublin was open to him, had he been directed to ad-
vance. The victory at Portlester was the prestige oi
success, as well as a subject for mirth. Some " camping
chaplain" commenforated Moore's death in a distich,
which Borlase gravely remarks had more sallies or*wit
than skill. It is, however, too good to be lost: —

" Contra Ptomanos mores res mira Dynasta,
Morus ab liugenio canonizatus erat."t

Ormond, who had left Dublin at the head of 6,000
men, accompanied by Lord Lambert, failed to bring
^ Preston to an action ; nor did the conduct of ihis general
'fail to engender suspicion, for he had an army which
was well supplied, whilst that of the marquess was, ac-
cording to the testimony of Carte, "ready to starve for

* He was of English descent, and his ancestors came in for a large
ihare of the confiscated church property in the time of Elizabeth.

t See Borlase, p. 129. The following is an attempt at the transla-
tion :— V.

" Tome's ancient rights are now but lightly prized,
Since Moore by Owen Eoe was canonized T

Lord Jloore, the subject of this distich, was a Protestant. I men-
tion the fact most respectfully, and simply because the Terses in Latin
or English would have no point if the religion oJ his lordtjliip wus
not known.



CONFEDEBATIOIJ O? KlLKKNlfY.



7i



want of provisions." Far difi'erent, however, was the
Bpirit of the leaders in the west and south. The siege
of Gal way was pressed with vigour ; and so straitened
was Willoughbv, that he offered to surrender the fort to
the Marquess of Clanricarde after Rear-Admiral Brook

' had failed to throw in supplies. Burke would not hear
of such an overture, unless the Marquess consented to
take the confederate oath, which he sternly refused, and
the parliamentary general surrendered the fortresses of

r Gal way and Oranmore ta^the heroic Burke on the 20th
of June. Three days afterwards a squadron entered
the bay ; but the colours of the confederates were stream-
ing from the flag-staff. The Archbishop of Tuam was
one of the parties who drew up the articles with Wil-

- loughby ; and this infamous murderer was permitted to
depart in peace. "Thus," says Mr. Hardiraan, "the
second fort of importance in the kingdom was in the
hands of the confederates."*

And now, to crown these signal triumphs, couriers were
spurting across the plains of Munster to announce to the
supreme council the intelligence of a defeat sustained by
[nchiquin and Vavasour. We have already said that
Castlehaven had marched to the borders of the county
- Limerick, and it is necessary that we should see what
he accomplished, Barry, the Munster general, was old
and infirm, f and perhaps had no greater value in the eyes
of the supreme council than that which resulted from his
local influence.

Castlehaven, who was beginning to grow tired of ad-
venture, seemed at first reluctant to take the command ;
nor did he move till urged by Lord Muskerry and the
assembly. Accompanied by Fitzgerald, commonly called

^.Garret-Garrough, he marched hastily to Cashel, where
he was met by General Barry and Lieutenant-General
Purcell, with 700 foot and some troops of horse. His
whole force now consisted of about 3,000 men, together

• with a troop of boys, mounted on fleet horses. Vava-
sour was at Castle-Lyons, after allowing a number of
women and children to fall into the hands of one of his
officers, by whom they were stripped and murdered.
Inchiquin having notice of the approach of the confede-



« Hist, of Gal way. p 123.
K



f Ca^tlehtren's Mem.



CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.

rates, sent orders from his camp to Moyalloe * for dt«
tachments to strengthen his lieutenant-general, but be-
fore they could arrive, Vavasour was set upon by squad-
rons of cavalry from the neighbouring hills. Fearing that
he would be surrounded, he sounded a retreat, and his
cannon and carriages were ordered to Fermoy, while he
himself rapidly crossed tlie Funcheon. His van was led
by Lieutenant King, the main body by Major Howell,
and the rear by Vavasour in person. Pierce Lacy, Cap-
tain Hutton, and Lieutenant Stadbury commanded the
forlorn hope. Their last man had not forded the Fun-
cheon, when the confederate cavalry was at their heels.
— The vanguard had ascended the hill which over-
hangs the river, and was dashing in haste through a
narrow defile which leads to Fermoy, when Vavasour
ordered a halt, and prepared to contest the pass ; but
that troop of boys, mounted on fleet horses, was press-
ing on the forlorn hope, not after the fashion of drilled
and disciplined men, but rather like "the Moorish and
Getulian horsemen," says Borlase, " mentioned by Salust
in Jugartli's war," In vain did the forlorn-hope strivef
to resist the impetuosity of their assailants. They were
driven in on the main body, ■;;rhich disordered those who
still held the pass. In a moment the rout wag univer-
sal. The confederates pursued the flying columns, and
cut them up in detail. All the cannon and colours were
taken. Vavasour and his officers were made prisoners,
and 600 of his best soldiers were sabred ^ci .vocu i]\e ivlan-
ning- water and Fermoy. It was a sad blow tolnchi-
quin, for by this action he wag reduccu lo abnut 2,500
men, and obliged to shut lilniself up in garrison. The
confederates soon after prepared to besiege Cappoquin
and Lismore, but abandoned the design when it was an-
nounced that the supreme council was negotiating a
truce with the Marquess of Ormond.

-Alas! that craft and intrigue should have stayed them
in their glorious career, for there never was a moment
Eo prosperous and bright with hope. Owen Koe was
master of the north, as far as the borders of Westmcatb
He had slaui Lord Mode, and driven Moncke within ih '.



* ^falTow. tht birih-pkce of my lamented Srleud, T. Duvia.
t Irish Kc-b



CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.



73



wails of Dablin. Preston liung on the outskirts of the
city, and threatened Ormond. The Munster army had
covered itself with glory. Drogheda, Dundalk, and the
garrisons in the north, were reduced to the direst want.
Was this a moment for diplomacy ? Certainly not. But
had the command of all the confederate troops been com-
mitted to Owen Roe, instead of dividing it between four
generals, Ireland would have achieved a glorious inde-
pendence, and must have been spared that long and
bloody catalogue of pains and sufferings, the recollection
of which must ever pain the heart, while it teaches us
that all our miseries have been the result of treachery
on the part of pretended friends, and disunion amongst
ourselves.



CHAPTER IV.

Aboct the middle of July, 1643, while the confe-
derates were gaining those important advantages which
we have described, there arrived on our coast a com-
missioner from ilie Holy See, who was sent by Urban
Vm. to report on the state of Irish affairs. This waa
Father Peter Francis Scarampi, a native of Piedmont,
and a priest of tlie oratory ; nor did he come empty-
handed. The Pontiff made him the bearer of a bull,
in which he lauded the zeal and earnestness with which
tlie Irish fuught for the independence of their religion,
inl Father Luke Wadding committed to his charge a
sum of 30,000 dollars, which he had collected from the
Barbarini,' Spada, and other noble families who took
an interest in the cause of the confederates. Nor did the
holy father confine his liberality to transmitting such
spiritual weapons as a jubilee, with a plenary indulgeace.



* In tli" library of this noble family there is i vast store of material
for Irish liistory. When tlie author of " Rome, under Paganism and
the Popes" visits the holy city again, it is to be hoped that he will turn
his attention to the archives of the IJarbai'iui palace. W'iio more equaJ
to the t«sk than the elor. Miley ?



74 CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.

to all wlio had taken up arms in defence of religion.*
He also sent a large quantity of arms and ammunition,
•bf -which he knew tliere was then mucli need. When
the supplies had been safely landed, Scarampi at once
proceeded to Kilkenny, where he found the confederates

^ engaged discussing the question of a cessation of arms.
Division and dissensions had manifested themselves in
the council, and the spirit displayed by the contending
parties, clearly evinced that the oath of association
was their only "essential tie." The Irish of tlie Pale

, . were tired of the war, whilst the *' old Irisli" were bent on
following up their success ; in fact, the former had been
drawn into the confederacy contrary to their inclination,
and were now anxious to make terms with Ormond.
The "old Irish," on the other hand, influenced by the
bishops and clergy, and fondly hoping to establish their

^independence, were inexorably opposed to all overtures
which did not tend to secure to them freedom of conscience,
and the public exercise of their religion. Naturally
enough, Scarampi advocated the views of the bishops,

^ and, in his capacity of envoy from the Holy See, ex-
horted the assembly, in the name of the Sovereign Pon-
tiff, not to recede an inch from their 'vantage, but to
prosecute the war and insist on such terms as a weak
and beleagured government could not dare to refuse.
And, although it has been the lot of this man to fall
under the censure of such writers as Carte and Leland,
he was perfectly right in principle; nor let us, who daily
echo tlie sentiment tliat " England's infirmity must be

4 Ireland's opportunity," dare to impeach the policy of a
friendly stranger, who, two hundred and three years
ago entertained the same view and gave utterance to a cor-
responding conviction. It has been the work of more
tlian two centuries to shake off these penal fetters which
must ever be a disgrace to English legislation. The
man who has done the mighty worlc stands proudly pre-
eminent as the greatest of his day. Had he done nothing
more than unrivet those chains, he shohld go down to
his grave canonized in the remembrance of his couutry-



• Borhise says that the Pope sent the Irish a pardon for all mannei
tf sins. The charge w;is repeated by Lord Orreiy, but ia nobly ro-
tated by Dr. I'rcnch in the " Bleeuhijj Iphigeiiiu."



COIfFEDKRATION OF KILKENNY. 7^

men ; and shall we join our own misrepresenters -when
they endeavour to cast blame on the head of him who
strove to do, in a moment of our greatest triumph, that
which O'Connell has effected after centuries of division,
weakness, and misrule? Forbid it, justice; for, come
honest counsel whence it may, or a helping hand from the
most distant region — be it Greek, Hindoo, or Roman —
we should not be ungrateful for kindness. And what Avaa
required in Scarampi's time? — unanimity, stern resolve,
and a march on Dublin. AVith an army in each of the
three provinces, and the most unparalleled enthusiasm
on the part of the people, and some great leader whose
command to "follow" all would have hearkened to—
what bitter ages of hate, and strife, awd degradation,
might we not have escaped ! But it was otherwise or-
dained — there was yet wanting a spirit of union ; and
even noAv, after so many painful lessons, what but the
same prolific source of evil stands in the way of our na-
tionality ? But, thank heaven, " we preach a land
awoken."*

We have already seen that the question of tlie truce
with Ormond had been adjourned for a month ; but,
although he had the king's peremptory order to carry it
into execution, he Avas in no hurry to comply with the
royal mandate. However, tlie reverses which he had sus-
tained began to make a deep impression on him, and
determined him to adopt another course. Want of
money and provisions had reduced him to the direst
straits; and. the condition of his troops and chief gar-
rison is thus described by an eye-witness : — " The state
and the army," says Sir P. Percival, "were in the
greatest distress. The streets of Dublin had no manner
of victuals many times for one day, so that the soldiers
would not move without money, shoes, and stockings;
for want of which, many had marched barefooted, and
had bled much on the road ; and others, through un-
wholesome food, had become diseased, and died." Yet,
notwithstanding this state of misery, Ormond was more
anxious to cater to the parliamentary faction than serve
the king ; but he hated the federative government, and
BCt his heart upon destroying it ; in fact, nothing, save

*Dnflfy, in the Sr'-it cf fiie Nation.



76 CONFEDERATION OP KILKENNY.

the ruin which stared him in the face, could hare Induced
liim to resume the negotiation which liad been broken
off. Towards tlie end of June he called the richest of
the citizens of Dublin before him, when be delivered a

^ motion in writing, " that if £10,000 could be raised,
the one-half in money, and the other in victuals, to be
brought in within a fortnight, he would break off the
treaty, and proceed in the war;" but the citizens were
unable to supply his demand. Sir H. Tichbourne, a
gloomy fanatic, then tried to raise £300 a-piece from the
members of the council board ; but he, too, failed ; and
yet, at this very moment, the confederates were well
supplied with men, arms, and money, and might have
overwhelmed the- designing Ormond and his faithless
colleagues, had the councils of the "old Irish" happily
prevailed. *' 'Twas the crisis of their affairs"* — the most
active moment of two conflicting principles, and the
conduct of the time-serving Pale lords, ruined and dis-
graced the country. They well knew that at this mo-
ment the country might have been their own, and that
they could have driven Ormond, Tichbourne, and their
famished mercenaries into the sea, and then flung them-
§elves heart and soul into the royal cause, and saved thp
monarchy ; but such was not their policy, for they lacked
the proper spirit.

But a rumour was industriously circulated by thft
Pale lords, that the king was inclined to dissolve the
, present parliament, and call a new one by the 10th
of November following, and Ormond was authorised
to assure them of his majesty's good intentions. The
latter was aware of the dissensions which were at
work, and by his agents artfully contrived to foment

^them. Many, nay, nearly all the lords and gentry
of the Pale Avere his relatives or dependants, and he
cajoled them with soft words, and flattering compli.
ments. Astutely hiding his own distressed condition,
te pretended that he was acting Avith friendly feelings,
and his artifice prevailed to his satisfaction.

One event, however, had well night marred his plans.

Though the supersedeas for Parsons had long since

-come, it had not been acted on. Thus was this infamous

• Dntlin Review, June, 1844. Percival'B Statemei.t m ^mic.



CONf liI>£RATION OF KILKENNY. i

raaji alloT'fid to take share at the council board iu
Dublin. A short time before that appointed for the
meeting between Ormond and the confederate commis-
sioners. Parsons wrote a letter to the supreme council,
touching an exchange of prisoners, couched in the
following terms : —

" We, the lords justices, do declare, that if Captain Fairer be re-
leased by the rebels, we ynll give orders for the releasincj Synnott
lately employed as captain among the rebels, the jailor's dues being
first paid."

'To this insolent document the supreme council re-
turned the following reply : —

"We do not know to whom this certificate is directed, neither shall
it be safe hereafter for any messenger to bring any paper to us con-
taining other language than suits our duty, and the atfections we beir
to his majesty's service, wherein some may pretend, but none sliall
have more real desires to farther his majesty's interests, than his ma-
jesty's loyal and obedieut subjects,

" MOONTGARRET. MUSKERRT."

Startled by this manly reply, which nothing but
insult could have drawn from them, Ormond became
alarmed. He did not know how soon Preston might
be on the north bank of tlie LiflTey, there was no
time to be lost, and he determined to strike a blow
which he knew would give pleasure to his friends and
partisans in the supreme council. Parsons, Loftus,
Meredith, and the veracious Sir John Temple, of
ghOst-seeing notoriety, were arrested. Parsons pleaded
impaired health, and the rest were committed prisoners
to the castle on charge of contravening the royal
amII. Sir Henry Tichbourne and Sir John Borlase
were appointed lords justices, and Mountgarret, Gor-
.manstown, and Muskerry openly boasted that they
had got rid of their most inveterate enemies. Ormond's
policy triumphed, and the question of the cessation was
immediately resumed. In vain did the few members
of the "old Irish" who were in the supreme council
inveigh against it ; they were in a minority from the
beginning, and tliose who were opposed to them placed
all their nopes in the genius of the marquess.

Perhaps there is no more humiliating scene in the
entire of these transactions than that which followed-
Oa the 16th September 1643, Muskerry, Dillon, Plunket,



78 CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.

Talbot, Barnwell, Neale, Brown, Walsh, and Maginnil
Btood bare-headed before Ormond's tent, at Sigginstown,
'' in the county Kildare, while ' ' he alone wore hat and
plume," prepared to sign a truce which was intended
to last an entire year. It will be necessary to ex-
tract some of the articles of this treaty for the satis-
faction of the reader, but before we do so, it is necessary
to premise, that before the ink in which it was written
dried, the confederate commissioners discovered that
Ormond had no notion of calling a new parliament,
although he knew that the present one was irregular
and illegal.*

ABBREVIATE OF THE TREATY.
"It was agreea that the Roman Catholics now in arms at any
time during the ceusation, may send to his majesty such agents as
they shiUI think tit, ana that the said agents shall have a free
coral uct from the chief governors of this kingdom.

" It is agreed that the Quarters in the province of Connaughtbe the
following, viz. : — that the county Galway, tlie county town of
Gaiway, the counties of Mayo, Roscommon, Sligo, and Leitiim, now
in pussession of the Roman Catholics, shall, during thu said
cess;ition, remain in their possession.

"It is agreed tKat the quarters of the province of Leinster be
the following, viz. : — that the county Dublin, the county of the city
of Dublin, the county of the city of Droghela, and the county
Louth, shall remain in possession of his majesty's Protestant
Bubjects.

" It is agreed that the county Tipperary, the county Limerick, the
coimty Kerry, the county Waterford, and the county Clare, shall be in
possession of the Roman Catholics, except Knockmorne, Ardmore,
Pilltown, Cappoquin, Ballinetra, Stroncally, Lismore, and Lisfinny.
"The quarters Ui Ulster are to be as followeth, viz. -.—That such
counties, baronies, tenements, hereditaments as are now possessed
by any of his majesty's Protestant subjects, o.' any that adhere to
them, and all places protected by any commainiers deriving autho-
rity from the king, shall be in their possession, excepting such
lands, castles, &c. &c. as are pow in possession of tlie Roman
CftthoUcs."

The rest of the articles regard traffic and free
intercourse between England and Ireland, and the
rules to be observed by both parties regarding the ex-
change of prisoners.

Sorely annoyed as were the "old Irish,'* by the
conchision of the truce, the parli-imentnry party did
not feel it less. The Karl of CoFl^, aocordin ,' to
Borlase, "took it so much to heart that he diedsoon

+ Carte, iii. 430.



CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY. 79

after, as he did not ^vish to survive what he suspected
might not be conducible to the English interest."
jBroghill and Inchiquin were altogether opposed to it ;
-ind the latter, seeing it carried against his unavailing
/emonstrance, betook himself to England, and made
an offer of his services to the king. It is probable
that Charles set no value on his assurances; and as
soon as he learned that the presidency of Munster
ras about to be bestowed on the Earl of Portland, he
/•eturned to Ireland, confirmed in his hatred of the
faithless monarch. But as for Ormond, he had gained
all he could have wished. Jealousies and rancorous
feelings grew up amongst the confederates, and the men
who hitherto dared not to cross the Liffey without hazard
to their lives, became fawning courtiers " and expect-
ants of office; but to none did the cessation give less
satisfaction than to the Catholic inhabitants of Ulster.
The provisions which were made for that province gave
Munroe and his adventurers both claim and title to all
the lands and tenements which they then held, as they
did to those intruders who had long since hunted out
the rightful owners. Yet, as the orders emanated from
the supreme council, they were rigidly observed, though
the population smarted under a sense of the injustice
which was done them.

The advantages derived by Ormond from his able
diplomacy may be collected from the fact, that hitherto
the confederate ships intercepted all supplies, and left
Dublin in such a state, that upon search being made
in the city and suburbs, there could not be found
fourteen days' provisions for the inhabitants and
soldiers.*

But now the ports and the approaches to them were
left open, and he began to gather in supplies of corn
and other stores, which restored to him the confidence
of the soldiers and citizens, and made him a match for
any section of the confederate army which might be
induced to violate the cessation. One article of that
fatal instrument obhged Ormond to join his forces with
those of the confederates in punishing those who would
be guilty of the shghtest infraction of the treaty ; but

• Sir Phil. Percival's Statement.



50



CONFEDERATION OF JiSHi&Wr.



we shall soon see how faithlessly he regarded it. The
Scotch forces, " recent and veterate," in Ulster at thipiuo-

/ inent, amounted to 20,000 men; and " memorable Mun-
roe"* was in direct communication with the parlinmeut.
About the beginning of November the infamous Owen
Connolly (who betrayed the plot of Lord Maguiref and hia
brave associates to seize the Castle of Dublin in 1641) came
over with a commission from the parliament, and an or-
der to the Scotch to take the covenant as the parliament
had done on the 25th of September. On bended
knees, in the kirk of Carrickfergus, Munroe com-
plied with the wishes of the rebels, who sent him
supplies of money, arms, and provisions, with an in-
junction to denounce with lire and sword all who
sliould observe the cessation.

It was at this period that the Marquess af Antrim (m ho

t having escaped Ijom Carrickfergus and proceeded to
England) returned to Kilkenny. A zealot in the royal
cause, he gladly took the oath of association. He me-.
dilated being appointed to some high post of honour
amongst them. This nobleman found the supreme
council in every way favourable to his views, and ap-
parently intent on squandering their resOTirces. Antrim,
now created marquess by the king's privy seal, proposed


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