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Not to speak of other differences, there is this entirely

1 Num. xxi. 2 ; 2 Kings xviii. 4.

2 On Isa. vi. 2, comp. Baudissin, Studien, I. pp. 255 ff.

» Ezek. i. 11. * Ezek. iii. 12. s Ezek. x. 2. 6 f.


external distinction, that the former have wings ; while
the angels, as we shall see, appear throughout the Old
Testament in the human form and without wings, and
they receive titles that are never given to the cheru-
bim or the seraphim.

III. Angels,

We have seen that the malahh of God, though he is
generally represented as a personal being, is not a being
distinct from God, an angel properly so-called, but a
simple appearance in the visible world of the invisible
God. The same may be the case every time there is
reference to malakliim. This is what Reuss, for exam-
ple, in part maintains. ^ He takes the malakhim for
veritable angels only in certain passages, like Job iv.
18; xxxiii. 23; Ps. xci. 11; ciii. 20; cxlviii. 2.2 Bib-
lical angelology cannot then be based chiefly on the
passages in which there is reference to malakhim.

An old fragment. Gen. vi. 1-4, speaks of sons of God
who take for wives the daughters of men and with them
beget the heroes famous in antiquity. Now these sons
of God are superhuman beings, veritable angels. ^ The
angels are often called sons of God* and even Gods.^
An old passage, Deut. xxxiii. 2, says that when Jeho-
vah appeared from Sinai to the children of Israel, he
came forth from the midst of myriads of holy ones.
These myriads can only have been celestial beings,

1 Gesch., §§ 260, 366. 2 Gesch., §§ 236, 482.

3 See Reuss and Dillmann, [Delitzsch], i.l.; Budde, Biblische
Urgesch., p. 3 ; [Lenormant, Beginnings, pp. 295 ff.].

* Job i. 6 ; ii. 1 ; xxxviii. 7 ; Ps. xxix. 1 ; Ixxxix. 6 ; Dan. iii. 25.
5 Ps. viii. 5 : Ixxxii. 1.


angels. Still elsewhere, the angels are called holy
ones.^ These various titles that are given to them in-
dicate their exalted nature and character. With re-
spect to their functions they are called servants of God,^
and also malakhim, messengers, as we have seen in some
of the passages cited.

A passage in document A speaks of a superhuman
man, calling himself the chief of the host of Jehovah,
who appeared to Joshua; Joshua cast himself on the
ground before him and at his command removed his
shoes from his feet, on account of the holiness of the
place. ^ The angels are more than once represented as
forming an army or a congregation that surrounds the
throne of God, to receive his commands and execute
them among men.^ This is their chief office, and it is
for this reason that they are called the servants of God,
or his messengers. They sing, besides, the praises of
God in his heavenly temple.^

The angels generally have the human form.^ In the
mythological fragment. Gen. vi. 1-4, they appear even
as sensual beings. But as we have seen, they are
called gods, sons of God, and holy ones; they were,
then, evidently regarded as heavenly beings, partakers
of the divine nature, clothed with superior purity.

1 Zech. xiv. 5 ; Job v. 1 ; xv. 15 ; Ps. Ixxxix. 5, 7 ; Dan. iv. 13, 17,
23 ; viii. 13.

2 Job iv. 18 ; comp. Ps. ciii. 20 f.

3 Josh. V. 13-15 ; comp. Ex. iii. 5.

4 Job i. 6 ff. ; ii. 1 ff. ; 1 Kings xxii. 19 ff. ; 2 Kings vi. 16 f. ; Dan.
vii. 9 f. ; Ps. Ixviii. 17 ; Ixxxix. 5-7 ; ciii. 20 f. ; cxlviii. 2.

s Job xxxviii. 7 ; Ps. xxix. 1 f ., 9 ; ciii. 20 ; cxlviii. 2.
6 Josh. V. 13 ff. ; Ezek. ix. 2 f?. ; xl. 3 ff. ; xliii. G ; Dan. viii. 15 ff. ;
X. 16 ff.


According to the book of Job, however, they are not
absolutely pure in the eyes of God.^

Schultz, among others, claims that the belief in the
existence of angels had its origin in the polytheism of
the ancient Semites; that, when the idea of a single
and sovereign God began to replace and prevail over
polytheistic ideas, the numerous divinities that had
hitherto been acknowledged, became elohiiti of an infe-
rior order, bene elohim^ angels. He bases this opinion
mainly upon Gen. iii. 22, where God seems to be sur-
rounded by beings similar to himself, and Jud. ix. 9
and 13, which speak of gods, and contain, as it were,
echoes of ancient Semitic polytheism. ^

To this view, " that the angels of the Old Testament
are dethroned gods, " Oehler, following deWette, replies,
that " if such were the case, it is the first books of the
Old Testament and not tlie last in which the angels
should appear with functions and names most clearly
defined."^ This reply is far from being decisive; sev-
eral passages of document A, cited above, in fact prove
that, even in early times, the Israelites believed in the
existence of a multitude of angels, and placed a chief at
the head of this celestial host. What seems, moreover,
to confirm the view of Schultz, is the fact that there is
nowhere in the Old Testament any reference to the
creation of angels ; it is fair to conclude that they were
regarded as having always existed; according to Job
xxxviii. 7, they were present even during the work of

1 iv. 18 ; XV. 15.

2 II. pp. 215 ff. ; comp. I. pp. 184 f. and I. chap. vii.

8 § 61 ; comp. de Wette, Archeologie, § 108. * Schultz, IT. pp. 227 f.


Since, in poetical language, the forces of nature are
sometimes personified and entitled messengers or angels
of God,^ it has been concluded that the angels were
originally personifications of the forces of nature, or,
according to other passages, ^ extraordinary events sent
by God. 2 But it is evident that such a personification
presupposes belief in the existence of angels.^ Most of
the passages quoted in favor of this hypothesis, more-
over, are of recent date, and therefore lack the evidential
value attributed to them.

IV. The Spirit of God.

We have already spoken of the spirit of God in con-
nection with prophetism, creation, and providence. We
have recognized its activity in various spheres. We
have only to complete what we have said on this sub-

We have seen that the angel and the face of God
were with the children of Israel and led them across the
desert. Deutero-Isaiah also recalls the fact that the
angel of the face of God saved the Israelites from afflic-
tion, that he bore them and carried them in olden times ;
but immediately afterwards he adds that it was Jeho-
vah who, by his holy spirit, accomplished this work of
salvation.^ The book of Nehemiah says that God gave
his good spirit to the children of Israel, during their
journey in the desert, to make them wise.^ Haggai

1 Ps. Ixxviii. 49 ; civ. 4 ; cxlviii. 8 ; comp. cxlvii. 15.

2 Gen. xxi. 17 ; xxviii. 12 ; 2 Kings xix. 35 ; Ps. xxxv. 5 f. ; xxxiv.
7 ; xci. 11.

3 De "Wette, as above. * Oehler, as above. ^ Isa. Ixiii. 9-14.
6 ix. 20.


takes a similar standpoint when he makes God say : " I
am with you, I remain faithful to the covenant that I
made with you when ye came forth from Egypt, and my
spirit is in your midst." ^ In these passages the spirit
of God is clearly placed on the same level as several
of the divine manifestations of which we spoke at the
beginning of this chapter. But this is a rare and late
standpoint, which is seldom found, especially in the
earliest documents.

In the book of Judges, it is often said that the spirit
of God, taking possession of the judges, renders them
capable of daring projects and heroic actions. ^ Accord-
ing to Gen. xli. 38, Pharaoh, seeing the wonderful
wisdom of Joseph, says to his servants : " Shall we find
a man like this one, having in him the spirit of God?"
This spirit is, in fact, considered the source of wisdom
and understanding, of counsel and strength.^ It is
granted especially to the chiefs of the people Israel,
whose duty it is to judge and govern them.* It pro-
duces fear of God in the heart, ^ regenerates it,^ and
teaches it to do the divine will.^ According to docu-
ment C, it is the spirit of God also that gives to the
workmen the intelligence and skill necessary to prepare
the objects used in the service of the sanctuar}^, and
makes them real artists.^ All the extraordinary gifts
of man, physical and moral, are regarded as produced

1 ii. 5.

2 Jud. iii. 10 ; vi. 34 ; xi. 29 ; xiii. 25 ; xiv. 6, 19 ; xv. 14 ; comp.
1 Sam. xi. 6.

3 Isa. xi. 2 ; Mic. iii. 8 ; Job xxxii. 8 ; Deut. xxxiv. 9.

* Num. xi. 17 ; xxvii. 18 ; Jud. iii. 10 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 13 ; Isa. xi. 2 ff.
s Isa. xi. 2. 6 Ps. li, 10 f. ^ Ezek. xxxvi. 27 ; Ps. cxliii. 10.

8 Ex. xxviii. 3 ; xxxi. 3 ff. ; xxxv. 31 ff.


by the spirit of Gocl. Throughout the Old Testament
the spirit appears as essentially a divine power commu-
nicating to man all the superior abilities that he may

The most characteristic feature of the activity of the
divine spirit in the world is unquestionably that by
virtue of which it is represented as the agent of evil.
In early Hebraism there is no reference, as there is in
the Jewish and the Christian church, on the one hand,
to good spirits, whose activity is always beneficent,
and, on the other, to evil spirits, whose influence is
always harmful. The same spirit of God is believed to
act sometimes in the one way and sometimes in the
other. Hebraism is thus as far removed from dualism
as from pantheism.

Thus, in order to explain the discord that broke out
between Abimelech and the inhabitants of Shechem, it
is said, Jud. ix. 23, that God sent an evil spirit among
them. The melancholy that takes possession of Saul is
referred to the influence of an evil spirit coming from
Jehovah, or of an evil spirit from God.^ This is the
Hebrew standpoint with respect to evil spirits; they
appear, not as personal beings independent of God,
least of all as beings hostile to God, but as simple
emanations or effects of the activity of God in the

1 Knobel, Der Prophetismus der Hchraer, I. § 10 ; [Schultz, II. pp.
202 ff.]. ^

2 1 Sam. xvi. 14-16, 23 ; xviii. 10 ; xix. 9.



After having become acquainted with Jehovah, the
God of Israel, the God of the covenant, we shall next
consider man, with whom the covenant was made. We
shall first of all discuss what, in modern times, has been
called biblical psycliology. We shall see how little this
pretentious term befits the simple conceptions of the
Hebrews concerning the human soul.

The older account of creation tells us : " God formed
man from the dust of the earth and breathed into his
nostrils a breath of life, and man became a living soul." ^
This way of looking at the matter appears elsewhere
also in the Old Testament. The book of Job declares
that man was formed from clay,^ and that it is the breath
of the Almighty that gives him life.^ It calls respira-
tion the breath of God in the nostrils of man.* It says
that if God recalled his spirit and his breath, man would
return to the dust.^ We read exactly the same thing
respecting animals, Ps. civ. 29. Ecclesiastes teaches
that, when man dies, the dust returns to the earth as it
was, and the spirit, the vital breath of man, returns to
God who gave it.^ Thus the body of man, being taken
from the earth, is purely material, but it is animated by
a vital breath that comes from God.

The body of man is often called flesh," and this same
term is applied to animals,^ which are taken from the

1 Gen. ii. 7. 2 xxxiii. 6. 3 xxxiii. 4.

* xxvii. 3. 5 xxxiv. 14 f. ^ xii. 9.

"' Gen. ii. 23 f. ; vi. 3 ; xxix. 14 ; xxxvii. 27 ; Lev. xiii. 2 ff. ; Jud.
Ix. 2 ; 2 Sam. v. 1 ; xix. 13.

8 Gen. vi. 19 ; vii. 15 f. ; viii. 17 ; Lev. xvii. 14 ; Num. xviii. 16.


earth like man.^ The expression "all flesh" often de-
notes both men and animals, all living beings. ^ Man
as a whole is sometimes called flesh or dust, when the
object is to emphasize his weakness, his nothingness,
especially in contrast with God.^

Man, vivified by the creative breath of God, is called
7iephesh cliayyali^ living sonl.* But animals also are
thus designated.^ This is natural, since the term
nephesh, whose root means breathe^ often denotes only the
principle of life, as numerous passages testify. How-
ever, in just as many passages the same term serves to
designate the spiritual part of man, the seat of all the
affections, and the organ of all the functions of tli>e soul.

Hence we must conclude that the vital principle and
spiritual part of man, to the thought of the Hebrews,
were one, that they did not distinguish the principle of
life from the principle that thinks, feels, and wills.
According to the Old Testament, the seat of the soul is
in the blood. ^ This is another proof that the Hebrews
identified the principle of corporeal with that of spirit-
ual life. The idea that the seat of the soul is in the
blood, moreover, is easily explained. Since the soul is
the principle of life, and life ceases after a great loss of
blood, nothing was more natural for the untaught ob-
server than to conclude that the soul resided in the

1 Gen. ii. 19 ; comp. i. 24.

2 Gen. vi. 12 f., 17 ; ix. 11, 16 f. ; Num. xvL 22 ; xviii. 15 ; xxvii. 16 ;
Jer. xxxii. 27.

3 Gen. xviii. 27 ; Isa. xxxi. 3 ; xl. 6 f . ; Jer. xvii. 5 ; 2 Chron. xxxii.
8 ; Ps. Ivi. 4 ; Ixxviii. 39 ; ciii. 14. ^ Gen. ii. 7.

5 Gen, ii. 19 ; i. 20 f., 24, 30 ; ix. 10, 12, 16.

6 Gen. ix. 4 f. ; Lev. xvii. 11, 14 ; Dent. xii. 23.


Besides a nephesh, the Old Testament represents man
as possessed of a ruach, spirit. The root of this word
also means breathe and blow. Thus it is used to denote
the wind and the breath. Moreover, it denotes the
principle of life in men and animals. i Nothing, again,
is more natural than this way of thinking and speak-
ing, since respiration, the breath, is the visible sign of
life, and the two cease together. The ruacJi, like the
nephesh, is besides, as appears from numerous passages,
the origin of all the affections, and all the functions of
the human soul, the spiritual part of man.

There is then a close resemblance between the nephesh
and the ruach. It even seems as if they are only two
different names to designate one and the same thing.
Thus, to cite only a few examples. Job xii. 10 affirms
that Jehovah holds in his hand the soul of everything
that lives, the spirit of all human flesh. A prophet
cries to God; "My soul desireth thee in the night, my
spirit within me seeketh thee. " 2 To denote impatience,
the expression used is either the nephesh is shortened, s
or the ruach is shortened. * When life departs, the ex-
pression employed is either the spirit departs,^ or the
soul departs.6 Likewise, when life returns to a person,
it is said the spirit has returned to him,^ or the soul
has returned to him.^ Sorrow affects both the spirit
and the soul.^ Bitterness is predicated of the spirit, i

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