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choose between good and evil. Our author also attrib-
uted the same freedom to the protoplasts ; this is clear
from what he says of them. Hence it could not occur
to him to explain the origin of sin, the possibility of
sinning being implied in the freedom of man. The
transition from the possibility of sin to its realization
was, moreover, favored by the external circumstances
in which God had placed man. It was God, in fact,
who had planted in the midst of the Garden of Eden
the tree of knowledge of good and evil. It was he who
had created the serpent and permitted him to stay in
paradise.^ The account of the Fall describes simply the
starting-point of sin in the human bosom. In this
sense it may be said to explain the origin of sin, but not
in that of revealing its source or primal cause. It does

1 Rothe, Dogmatik, I. pp. 302 f.

2 Weisheitslehre der Hebrder, pp. 92 f. ; [Wellhausen, History, pp.
300 ff.J. 3 Gen. iii. 1.



196 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

not reach this cause. It confines itself to the external
circumstances which furnished our first parents with an
occasion for sin, by summoning them to make use of
their freedom.

What our author wished least of all to explain,
though the contrary has been asserted, is the origin of
the innate inclination to evil. On the one hand, he
grants the existence of this inclination even in Adam
and Eve, so readily do they yield to the solicitations of
the serpent; he seems to find it perfectly natural that
the woman should have coveted the forbidden fruit after
the serpent had induced her to eat of it.^ On the other
hand, he considers Cain as free as his father before the
Fall and perfectly capable of repelling evil.^ The only
change produced by the Fall affects man's knowledge,
in which respect he has gained much, since discernment
between good and evil was a great advance ; ^ it affects,
moreover, the external condition of man, who has lost
much, in that, having at first been happy, he has be-
come miserable. As for moral power, as we have just
seen, it has not been changed in the least.* Nor does
the Old Testament as a whole say more than this story
about a change produced in the moral nature of man as
a result of Adam's sin, since outside of this story there
is never any reference to the fall of Adam or a fall of
humanity, but it is taken for granted that man is free
to do good and shun evil.

This is doubtless the reason, this and the fact of its
essential practical tendency, why prophetism did not

1 Gen. iii. 6. 2 Qen. iv. 7.

3 Gen. iii. 5, 22 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 17 ; 1 Kings iii. 9.
* Comp. Schultz, II. pp. 301 f.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 20. THE GUILT OF SIN. 197

feel the need of giving attention to the origin of sin.
The question is hardly raised except in the book of Job.
It sees the cause of the sinful condition of man in his
natural weakness, his earthly origin, his descent from
unclean parents.^ Thus even in this comparatively
speculative and theoretical book Israelitish thought
remains essentially empirical; it does not feel the need
of going back to the causes or first and metaphysical
reasons for moral evil.

§ 20. THE GUILT OF SIN.

The feeling of guilt was very fully developed in
Israel. It is admirably expressed in the first four peni-
tential psalms,^ and in many another passage. Every-
where in the Old Testament we see sinners filled with
the feeling of guilt seeking the forgiveness of God.
Since moral freedom was attributed to man, his respon-
sibility, and consequently, in case of unfaithfulness,
his guilt, naturally appeared very great. Guilt is fre-
quently designated by the same terms as sin itself. Yet
the Hebrew language also has a peculiar term to ex-
press it; viz. asham and its derivatives.^

The Old Testament generally represents sin as a
conscious and voluntary transgression of the will of
God; but it teaches that man is also guilty and should
offer a guilt offering when he has sinned involuntaril}-,
by mistake or in ignorance.* Thus it appears that there

1 iv. 17-19 ; xiv. 1-4 ; xv. 14 ; xxv. 4-6 ; comp. Ps. ciii. 12-14.

2 vi., xxxii., xxxviii., li.

3 Gen. xxvi. 10 ; xlii, 21 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 13 ; Hos. v. 15 ; xiii. 1 ;
Zech. xi. 5 ; Ezek. xxii. 4 ; etc.

* Lev. iv., V. 14-19 ; Num. xv. 22 ff., 27 ff.



198 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

is guilt every time the divine commands have been vio-
lated, Avhether this violation has been intentional or
not, and that even in the latter case reparation is due
to the sacred majesty of God. It is clear that, in this
view, the principle in accordance with which God takes
note of the heart, the intention, is not sufficiently pro-
tected; that more importance is assigned to the external
act than to the internal disposition. But it should be
noticed that this conception appears in document C, in
which Levitical purity generally much outranks moral
purity. It is a fruit of Levitism, not of prophetism.
In other documents, it is true, we encounter passages
which allow that man may be guilty on account of sins
committed by his ancestors,^ and even that he may be
punished for faults of others without regard to ties of
nature in either direction. ^ On the other hand, the
guilty may be spared or blessed on account of the
righteousness of other men.^

The Old Testament, then, allows the transfer both of
guilt and righteousness from one person or generation
to another, the imputation of the merits and demerits
of other persons. This arises from the fact that in
Israel as in antiquity in general, the idea of solidarity
was very fully developed ; ^ the individual was sacrificed

1 Ex. XX. 5 ; xxxiv. 7 ; Lev. xxvi. 39 ; Num. xiv. 18 ; Deut. v. 9 ;
Amos vii. 16 f. ; Hos. iv. 6 ; Jer. ii. 9 ; xxxii. 18 ; Lam. v. 7 ; Isa. xiv.
21 ; Ixv. 6, 7 ; Job xxi. 19 ; Dan. ix, 16 ; Ps. cix. 14.

'^ Deut. i. 37 ; iii. 26 ; iv. 21 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 26 ; xxiv. 3 f. ; Jer. xv.
4 ; Isa. liii.

3 Gen. xviii. 26 ff. ; Deut. ix. 26 f. ; 1 Kings xi. 13, 32, 34, 36 ; xv.
3-5 ; 2 Kings viii. 19 ; xix. 34 ; xx. 6 ; Jer. v. 1 ; Job xlii. 8.

* Gen. XX. 9 ; xxvi. 10 ; Num. xvi. 25-33 ; Josh. vii. ; 2 Sam. xxi.
1-14 : xxiv. 1 ff,



SECOND PERIOD. — § 20. THE GUILT OF SIN. 199

to the community. The old covenant, in fact, was a
covenant beween God and Israel taken collectively,
and not a covenant with individuals ; they were little
accounted in comparison with the famil}-, the tribe, or
the nation. It is. moreover, a matter of experience
that children often suffer for the faults of their fathers.
But it is not right to conclude that, therefore, the chil-
dren are as guilty as the}^ and of their faults; they are
much more to be pitied than blamed. Havernick ^
and Oehler^ remind us also that vices easily propagate
themselves in the same family. We do not, however,
believe with these two scholars that this is the consid-
eration that gave rise to the view expressed Ex. xx. 5,
and elsewhere, where it is said that God visits the
iniquity of the fathers upon the children. It is our
modern individualism that attributes to the sacred
authors this way of thinking, because we have difficulty
in believing that God punishes the righteous instead of
the guilty. The ancients, being much less individual-
istic than we, had not the same scruples. Oehler, i»n
defence of his statement, says that the passages in ques-
tion are very imperfectly understood "when they are
made to say that God visits the sins of the fathers upon
innocent children, and that he causes the blessing of
pious fathers to rest upon their most degenerate descend-
ants." It is certain that the sacred authors thought
neither of innocent children nor completely degenerate
descendants. But they had just as little thought that
the children and descendants had sinned like their par-
ents and ancestors, and been punished for that reason,
as Oehler would have it. The truth is that they ignored
1 Theologie, p. 113. 2 § 75.



200 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

the moral worth of the descendants and believed in
heredity of merit and demerit. Because these passages
mean that God punishes or blesses children for their
fathers, without regard to their own conduct and moral
worth, a feeling of justice afterwards arose in opposi-
tion to this way of thinking and gave rise to the convic-
tion that each one was punished only for his own sins.^
The above discussion proves that the traditional
doctrine of original sin, which teaches the heredity of
the guilt of Adam, finds some support in the Old Tes-
tament, although it nowhere says that the guilt of
Adam was transmitted to his descendants or even to
the whole human race. It allows, in fact, that guilt
may be transmitted and sometimes is transmitted from
father to son, and from one generation to another. On
the other hand, however, it cannot be said to favor the
doctrine teaching that the natural state of man is a state
of guilt, that the innate inclination to evil renders
man worthy of eternal damnation from his birth. The
Old Testament, on the contrary, sees in this native
evil inclination an extenuating circumstance which
the sinner may plead before God. The book of Job
asks that God be not too strict with man, on account of
his natural weakness ; that he exercise forbearance
toward him, because it is impossible that a pure man
should spring from an impure one.^ One of the psalmists
also alleges as a reason that should procure him forgive-
ness with God the fact that he was conceived and born in
sin.* Another psalmist says that God has compassion

1 Jer. xxxi. 29 f. ; Ezek. xviii ; xxxiii. 10-20 ; Deut. xxiv. 16 ; 2 Kings
xiv. 6 ; Prov, ix. 12.

■^ xiv. 1-4 ; comp. xiii. 25 f. ; x. 8-14 ; vii. 12-21. 3 pg. n. 5.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 21. THE DAY OF JUDGMENT. 201

on those who fear him, as a father has compassion on
his children, because he knows our origin, and remem-
bers that we are dust.^ Even in document A, God
promises not to curse the earth on account of man, be-
cause the designs of his heart are evil from his youth. ^
According to deutero-Isaiah God would not contend
and be angry forever, because the spirit and the souls
of his creatures faint in his presence.^

We see that these passages give to the natural weak-
ness of man, whether physical or moral, the force of a
reason that should secure for him the divine forbearance.
This view is unquestionably much more correct than
the orthodox doctrine of native and hereditary guilt.

§ 21. THE DAY OP JUDGMENT.

The prophets generally first set forth the unfaithful-
nesses of Israel, as well as those of other peoples, and
afterward the day of judgment, when the penalties
decreed will break upon the guilty. This day is often
called the day of Jehovah.* Then, in fact, will be dis-
played more clearly than ever his supreme power, and
he will triumph over his enemies ; ^ then also he will be
known and glorified by the whole world. ^ It will be
a day of extraordinary terror, causing commotion in

1 Ps. ciii. 13 f. 2 Gen. viii. 21. 3 isa. Ivii. 16.

* Amos V. 18, 20 ; Zeph. i. 7, 14 ; Zech. iv. 1 ; Isa. xiii. 6, 9 ; Ezek.
xiii. 5 ; xxx. .3 ; Joel i. 15 ; ii. 1. 11, 31 ; iii. 14 ; Ob. 15.

5 Isa. ii. 12 ff. ; v. 15 f. ; Jer. xivi. 10 ; etc.

6 Isa. xix. 21 f. ; xlix. 26 ; Ezek. vi. 7, 10 ; xi. 10, 12 ; xii. 15 f., 20 ;
xxii. 15 f. ; xxv. 5, 7, 11, 17 ; xxvi. 6 ; xxviii. 22-24 ; xxix. 6, 9, 16 ; xxx.
8, 19, 25 f. ; xxxii. 15 ; xxxiii. 29 ; xxxviii. 16, 22 f. ; xxxix. 6 f., 13,
211, 28; Joel iii. 14-17.



202 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

heaven and earth. ^ It will put an end to the present
world, and open a new era, as is indicated by the term
acharith-hayyammi, the end of the days, by which it is
designated,^ and as is suggested by the description of
the coming of the Messianic kingdom with which we
shall soon become acquainted. The prophets for the
most part thought that this day was nigh.^ They saw
in every striking public misfortune the prelude to the
day of judgment, and in every extraordinary deliverance
the commencement of the Messianic era.* As the ful-
filment of these predictions was delayed, many of the
Israelites were led to make sport of the prophetic vis-
ions and discourses.^

The punishment foretold to Israel by almost all
the prophets is destruction, oppression, and captivity.
The foreign peoples will serve as instruments in the
hands of God in executing this penalty. Since the
prophets generally allow themselves to be guided in
their predictions by the political condition of their time,
the oldest of our prophetical books foretell that it will
be chiefly the Assyrians and the Egyptians who will
inflict upon Israel the penalties merited by their un-
faithfulness.^ From Jeremiah on, the Chaldeans under

1 Amos viii. 8 f. ; Isa. ii, 9 ff., 19 ff. ; xiii. 6 ff. ; xxiv. 17 ff. ; Hab.
iii. 3 ff. ; Ezek. xxxii. 7 ff. ; xxxviii. 19 ff. ; Hag. ii. 6, 21 f. ; Joel ii.
30 f. ; iii. 14 f.

2 Gen. xlix. 1 ; Num. xxiv. 14 ; Hos. iii. 5 ; Isa. ii. 2 ; Jer. xxx. 24 ;
xlviii. 47 ; Ezek. xxxviii. 8, 16.

3 Mic. vii. 4 ; Zeph. i. 7, 14 ; Isa. x. 25 ; xiii. 6, 9, 22 ; xxix. 17 ;
Ezek. xxx. 3 ; xxxvi. 8; Hag. ii. 6 ; Joel i. 15 ; ii. 1 ; iii. 14 ; Ob. 15.

* Oehler, § 215 ; Sclmltz, II. pp. 356 f.

5 Ezek. xii. 22-28 ; comp. Isa. xxviii. 14 ff.

6 Hos. viii. 13 ; ix. 3, 6 ; x. 6 ; xi. 5, 11 ; Isa. vii. 17 ff. ; viii. 4 ff. ;
xi. 11 ff. ; Mic. vii. 12.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 21. THE DAY OF JUDGMENT. 208

the leadership of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,
are regarded as destined to be the chief instruments of
these penalties.^. Besides the sword, Jehovah will em-
ploy famine, pestilence, and other plagues in punishing
the unfaithful people. ^

Most frequently the prophets represent the judgment
as a complete destruction, because they have in view
the majority of the guilty people. But in reality they
thought that a remnant would escape the catastrophe.
Even Amos teaches that the judgment will rather be a
sorting: the good will be separated from the wicked;
the latter will perish; the others, a small remnant, a
tenth of the mass of the nation, will return, after having
been carried into captivity, to their country. ^ In one
passage, characteristic in this respect, Isaiah foretells
that the cities will be devastated and stripped of inhab-
itants, until there will be no one in the houses, and
the country will be a solitude, a desert; that, if there
remain a tenth of the inhabitants they in their turn will
be annihilated. The overthrow, then, seems to be com-
plete. Yet the passage closes with these words : " As the
terebinth and the oak retain their stump, when they are
cut down, another posterity shall spring from this peo-
ple."* Thus the present guilty generation must dis-
appear, but to give place to a new and pure one. The
judgment may also be compared to the harvesting of
grain and the gathering of olives, in which all is car-

1 Jer. XX. 4 ff. ; xxii. 25 ; xxv. 9-11 ; xxvii. 12-22 ; xxxii. 24 f., 36 ;
xxxiv. 2 f., 21 ; xxxvii. 17 ; Hab. i. 6 ff. ; Ezek. xxiii. 22 f. ; xvii. 12 ff. ;
xii. 13.

2 Jer. xiv. 12, 16, 18 ; xv. 2 f. ; xvi. 4 ; xxix. 17 f. ; xxxii. 24, 36 ;
Ezek. V. 16 f . ; vi. 11 f. ; vii. 15 ; xxxiii. 27.

3 V. 3, 15 ; ix. 8-10, 14 f. -» Isa. vi. 11-13,



204 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

ried away except a small remnant of gleanings and scat-
tered berries. 1 Elsewhere we learn that the judgment
is not to result in the total extermination of the people
Israel, 2 but that they are to be made to pass through
the crucible of trial, that all the impure elements may
be eliminated. 2 Thus in numerous prophetic passages
there is reference to a remnant that will escape the
catastrophe of the judgment and be the nucleus of the
new people of God.* We shall discuss it farther on.

But the judgment is not to affect Israel alone ; it is
to be executed against the heathen peoples also. Amos,
at the beginning of his book, speaking for Jehovah,
foretells destruction to the peoples adjoining Israel ; the
Syrians, the Philistines, the Phoenicians, the Edomites,
the Ammonites, guilty of crimes against Israel, and the
Moabites, who have outraged a king of Edom.^ After
him, most of the prophets, along with threats against
Israel, utter threats against the heathen peoples, fore-
telling the judgment and the penalties of God which
will overtake them as the reward of their wickedness.
In the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, is found
a series of chapters that contain onl}^ predictions of
this kind.^ They are chiefly directed against the peo-
ples adjoining Palestine, with whom Israel maintained
relations.

1 Isa. xvii. 4-6.

2 Jer. iv. 27 ; v. 10, 18 ; Zech. xiii. 8 ; xiv. 2 ; Isa. Ixv. 8 f.

3 Isa. i. 25 ; Ezek. ix. 4 ff. ; xx. 38 ; Zech. xiii. 7-9 ; Mai. iii. 1 ff.

* Isa. i. 9 ; iv. 3 ; x. 20-22 ; xi. 11, 16 ; xxiv. 6 ; xxviii. 5 ; xxxvii.
31 f. ; xli. 14 ; xlix. 6 ; Jer. vi. 9 ; xxiii. 3 ; xxxi. 7 ; Ezek. ri. 8 f . ; xii.
16 ; xiv. 22 ; Mic. ii. 12 ; v. 6 f . ; Zeph. ii. 9 ; iii. 12 f . ; Deut. iv. 27.

Si. 3-ii. 3.

6 Isa. xiii.-xxi., xxiii. -xxvii. ; Jer. xxv. 9-38 ; xxvii. 2-11 ; xliii.
3-13; xlvi. -Ii. ; Ezek. xxv. -xxxii., xxxv., xxxviii. f.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 21. THE DAY OP JUDGMENT. 205

Jehovah, whose eye watches foreign nations as well as
the tribes of Israel, feels offended by the proud might of
these nations and undertakes to break it.^ He would
humble all that is exalted that he alone may be exalted. ^
Assyria, in particular, which has served as a rod in
the hands of God to punish Israel, has grown proud of
its power and its successes, and has forgotten its depen-
dence as regards God; it must, therefore, be humiliated
by overthrow.^ Babylon, also, to which Jehovah has
delivered his people, has abused its power and been
merciless toward the captive Israelites ; it has become
proud, and placed its confidence in wickedness ; it has,
therefore, merited overthrow.*

Besides, the heathen peoples appear as the enemies
of Jehovah and his people ; so that God, on account of
his jealousy, believes himself obliged to punish them in
order to revenge himself and his people.^ God is angry
with them also for the wickedness that they have prac-
tised toward others and especially toward Israel.^ What
further incites him against them is their idolatry.''' The
nations and kingdoms that do not serve Jehovah must
be exterminated.^

1 Zech. ix. 1-6; i. 15 ; Hab. ii. 4 ff. ; Ob. 3 ff. ; Isa. xiv. 13 ff. ;
xvi. 6 ; xxiii. 9 ; xxv. 11 ; xxvi. 5 ; Jer. xlviii. 29 ff. ; xlix. 16 ff. ;
1. 31 ff. ; Ezek. xxvii. 1 ff, ; xxviii. 1 ff. ; xxix. 2 ff., 9 ff. ; xxx. 18 ; xxxi.
1 ff., 10 ff. 2 Isa. ii. 11 ff. ; V. 15 f. ; xxxiii. 10.

3 Isa. X. 5 ff. ; xxxvii. 21-29. * Isa. xlvii,

5 Nab. i. 2 fif. ; Jer. xlviii. 26, 42 ; 1. 14 f., 24, 28 f., 34 ; Ii. 6, 11, 36 ;
Isa. XXXV. 4; xlvii. 3 ; Ixiii. 4 ; Zech. i. 14 f. ; Joel iii. 21.

6 Nab. ii. 1 ff. ; iii. 1 ff. ; Zeph. ii. 8 ff. ; Hab. ii. 9 ff. ; Zecb. xii. 9 ;
xiv. 12 ; Jer. xii. 14 ; xlviii. 27 ; 1. 17 f. ; Ii. 24 ; Ezek. xxv. 3 ff., 8 ff.,
12 ff., 15 ff. ; xxvi. 2 ff. ; xxxv. 5 ff., 10 ff. ; xxxvi. 2 ff. ; xxxviiif. ; Isa.
xiv. 4 ff. ; xii. 11 f. ; xlix. 25 ; Ii. 22 f. ; Joel iii. 1 ff., 19 ; Ob. 10 ff.

7 Jer. 1. 38 ff. ; Ii. 47, 52. s Isa. Ix. 12 ; Jer. xii. 17.



206 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

God executes his judgment against the heathen peo-
ples by choosing the most powerful among them to
destroy the others. Egypt and especially Assyria are
first called to play this part, as they did toward Israel ; ^
later it is the Chaldeans, led by Nebuchadnezzar, ^ then
the other peoples, previously governed by the Chal-
deans ; ^ and chiefly the Medes and Persians under King
Cyrus.* Sometimes also God exterminates a people
by civil Avars. ^ Or perhaps Israel, after having been
oppressed by foreign peoples, repay them in kind.^
Finally, God interferes directly by prodigies and ex-
traordinary plagues.'''

We see, in fine, that the judgment of God upon the
world is executed by natural means, especially by
wars ; but by reason of the theocratic standpoint adopted
in Israel, the advancement of the principal Asiatic
peoples of this period and their final humiliation are
regarded as produced by God himself, who thus realizes
his purposes respecting all the nations of the earth and
particularly respecting his peculiar people. We see
also that, to the prophets, the world is equivalent to
the peoples who came within their narrow geographical
and political horizon.

1 Isa. vii. 18 ff. ; viii. 4 ff. ; xx. 1 ff. ; xxiii. 13.

2 Hab. i. 5 ff. ; Jer. xxv. 9-11 ; xxvii. 2-6 ; xliii. 8-13 ; xlvi. ff. ;
Ezek. xxvi. 7 ff. ; xxix. 18 ff. ; xxx. 10 ff., 24 ff. ; xxxii. 11.

3 Hab. ii. 8 ; Jer. xxv. 12 ff. ; xxvii. 7.

4 Isa. xliii. 14 ; xlv. 1 ff. ; xlviii. 14 ; xiii. ; xxi. 1 ff. ; Jer. 1. f.
s Isa. xix. 2 ff. ; Zech. xiv. 13.

6 Mic. iv. 13 ; Zeph. ii. 9 ; Zech. xii. 6 ; ii. 8 f. ; Joel iii. 8 ; Ob. 18.

7 Mic. vii. 15 ; Zeph. ii. 12 ; Hab. iii. 1 ff. ; Zech. xii. 4 ; xiv. 3 f.,
12 ff. ; Ezek. xxviii. 23 ; xxxviii. 20, 22 ; Isa. xiii. 9 ff. j Ixvi. 15 f. ;
Joel iii. 14 ff.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 22. SALVATION. 207

§ 22. SALVATION.
I. The Restoration of Israel under the New Covenant.

Jehovah cannot completely and forever cast off his
people; he cannot deal with them according to his
wrath; when he sees them in distress, he is touched with
compassion, as a mother pities the fruit of her bowels.^
He is, moreover, bound by oaths that he has sworn to
the fathers. 2 Finally, he cannot abandon his people,
on account of his name, which is profaned among the
heathen nations and which must be sanctified by the
restoration of Israel, that these nations may become ac-
quainted with Jehovah and know that it is he who has
upraised that which was thrown down and planted vthat
which was laid waste. ^

We have seen that the judgment of God is not to
result in the complete extermination of Israel ; that, on
the contrary, a small remnant will escape. With this
remnant Jehovah will make a new and an everlasting
covenant.* It will be a new Israel, which will really
be the people of Jehovah, and of which Jehovah will
be the God.^

But to this end the people must fulfil certain condi-
tions. They must profit by the chastisements endured ;
they must confess their faults ; they must return to Je-

1 Hos. xi. 8 f. ; Isa. xlix. 15 f. ; Jer. xxxi. 3 ff. 2 Mic. vii. 20.

3 1 Sam. xii. 22 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 22-36 ; Isa. xlviii. 9, 11.

4 Hos. ii. 14 ff. ; Jer. xxxi. 31-37 ; xxxii. 40 ; 1.5; Ezek. xvi. 60, 62 ;
xxxiv. 25 ; xxxvii. 26 ; Isa. xlii. 6 ; xlix. 8 ; liv. 5-10 ; Ixi. 8.

5 Hos. i. 10 ; ii. 23 ; Jer. xxiv. 7 ; xxx. 22 ; xxxi. 1, 33 ; xxxii. 38 ;
Ezek. xi. 20 ; xiv. 11 ; xxxiv. 24, 30 ; xxxvi. 28 ; xxxvii. 23, 27 ; Zech.
xiii. 9 ; viii. 7 f.



208 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

hovah and humbly ask his forgiveness.^ Jehovah does
not desire that his people should die, perish ; he desires
their conversion, that is to say, that they should live
and be saved. ^ He will, on their repentance, grant his
people a full pardon. ^ He will pour his spirit upon the
new Israel,* the members of which will be taught by
himself.^ The whole land will be filled with the
knowledge of Jehovah.^ God will give to his people a
new spirit ; he will replace their stony heart with a heart
of flesh; he will imprint upon it his law and his fear,
that he may render it fit to fulfil his commands.^ Thus
will be formed a holy, righteous, faithful people, fear-
ing God, purified by him from all stains.^ Idolatry
and every superstition will disappear from the midst
of his people.^ According to Ezekiel, an ecclesiastical
will correspond to this religious and moral regeneration ;
Jerusalem will have a splendid sanctuary, a Levitical
worship well regulated and free from all impurity;

1 Hos. xiv. 1 f . ; Isa. i. 27 ; x. 20 ff. ; Jer. iii. 14, 22 ff. ; xxiv. 7 ;
xxix. 13 ; xxxi. 9, 18 f . ; 1. 4 f . ; Ezek. vi. 9 ; xvi. 61-63 ; xx. 43 ;
xxxvi. 31 ; Deut. iv. 30 ; xxx. 1 f., 8.

2 Ezek. xviii. 23, 30-32 ; xxxiii. 11.

3 Mic. vii. 18 f. ; Isa. xxxiii. 24 ; xliii. 25 ; xliv. 22 ; Iv. 7 ; Jer. xxxi.
34 ; xxxiii. 8 ; 1. 20 ; Ezek. xvi. 63 ; Zech. iii. 9 ; v. 5 ff.

4 Isa. xxxii. 15 ; xlii. 1 ; xliv. 3 ; lix. 21 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 27 ; xxxix.
29 ; Joel. ii. 28 f . ^ Isa. liv. 13 ; Jer. xxxi. 34.

6 Isa. xi. 9 ; Jer. xxxi. 34.

7 Jer. xxiv. 7 ; xxxi. 33 ; xxxii. 39 f . ; Ezek. xi. 19 f. ; xxxvi. 26 f. ;
Deut. xxx. 6.

8 Isa. i. 26 f. ; iv. 3 f. ; vi. 13 ; xxvi. 2 ; xxxii. 16 ; xxxv. 8 ; Iii. 1 ;
Ix. 17 f ., 21 ; Ixii. 12 ; Jer. xxxi. 23 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 33 ; xxxvii. 23 f. ;
xliii. 7 ; Ob. 17 ; Zeph. iii. 9, 13 ; Zech. v. 1-4 ; viii. 3 ; xiii. 9 ; xiv.


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