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20 f. ; Joel iii. 17.

9 Isa. xxx. 22 ; xxxi. 17 ; Ezek. xi. 18 ; xxxvii. 23 ; Hos. ii. 17 ;
xiv. 8 ; Mic. v. 12-14 ; Zecli. ix. 7 ; xiii. 2.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 22. SALVATION. 209

there will reign a state of things entirely new and truly
ideal. 1 A number of other prophets, especially among
the latest, also express the hope that the Levitical
worship will maintain its importance under the new
covenant. 2

Then Jehovah will again dwell in Zion, in the midst
of his people, of whom he will be the king and the
saviour. 3 He will gather about him the Israelites scat-
tered among the heathen nations.* The most cordial
union and agreement will ever reign between the king-
dom of Israel and the kingdom of Judah, which will be
subject to one and the same head, a descendant of David. ^
The king of this new Israel will be surrounded by great
glory. 6 He and his princes will govern in righteous-
ness and uprightness.' This wonderful restoration
appears to the eyes of the prophets like a veritable
resurrection.^

The new people of God will multiply extraordinarily
and extend themselves afar.^ They will be strong and

1 Chaps, xl.-xlviii.

2 Zech. xiv. 16 ff. ; Jer. xxxi. 14 ; xxxiii. 18, 21 f. ; Isa. xix. 21 ;
Ivi. 7 ; Ix. 13 ; Ixvi. 21, 23 ; Mai. i. 11 ; iii. 3 f.

3 Mic. ii. 13 ; iv. 7 ; Zeph. iii. 15, 17 ; Ezek. xxxvii. 27 ; xliii. 7 ;
xlviii. 35 ; Jer. iii. 17 ; Isa. xxiv. 23 ; Joel iii. 17, 21 ; Zech. ii. 11-
13 ; viii. 3 ; Mai. iii. 1.

4 Isa. xi. 11 ff. ; xiv. 1 ; xxvii. 12 f. ; xliii. 5-7 ; xlix. 12, 17-22 ; Ix.
4 ; Ixvi. 20 ; Jer. iii. 18 ; xvi. 15 ; xxiii. 8 ; xxix. 14 ; xxx. 3, 10, 18 ;
xxxi. 8, 10 ; xxxii. 37, 44 ; xxxiii. 7 ; Ezek. xi. 17 f. ; xxxiv. 12 ; xxxvi.
24 ; xxxix. 27 ; Hos. xi. 10 f. ; Amos ix. 14 ; Mic. ii. 12 ; iv. 6 ; Zeph.
iii. 18-20 ; Zech. x. 8 ff. ; viii. 7 f.; Deut. xxx. 3-5.

5 Hos. i. 11 ; iii. 5 ; Amos ix. 11 ; Isa. xi. 13 ; Jer. iii. 18 ; xxxi. ;
1. 4 ; Ezek. xxxvii. 15 ff., 24 ff. 6 jga. xi. 10 ; xxxiii. 17.

' Isa. xxxii. 1 ; Jer. xxxiii. 15.

8 Hos. vi. 1-3 ; xiii. 14 ; Ezek. xxxvii. 1-14 ; Isa. xxvi. 18 f.

9 Isa. ix. 3, 7 ; xxvi. 15; xxxiii. 17 ; xlix. 19-21 ; liv. 2 f.; Ix. 22 ;



210 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

happy, and no longer fear foreign poAvers.^ They will,
on the contrary, subdue the other peoples under their
yoke or else destroy them.^ Other passages say that
the foreign peoples will themselves voluntarily submit
to the new Israel and serve them.^ The treasures of
the nations will be offered to Israel and to their God.^
Israel will live in peace and security protected from
dangers, and the whole panoply of war will become su-
perfluous.^ They will enjoy perfect happiness.^ Uni-
versal peace will be established on earth. "^

What is even more remarkable than all this is that the
new era will be inaugurated by a not less extraordinary
change that will take place in nature and extend from
the stars of heaven to the beasts of the field and the
products of the earth. There will be a wonderful abun-
dance of the fruits of the earth, a surprising material
prosperity, a state of things so like fairy-land that the
desert will be changed into a paradise.^ God will make

Jer. iii. 16 ; xxx. 19 ; xxxi. 27 f. ; Ezek. xxxvi. 10 f., 37 f. ; xxxvii. 26 ;
xlvii. 15 ff. ; Hos. i. 10 ; Amos ix. 12 ; Ob. 19 f . ; Zech. ii. 4 ; viii.
4 f. ; ix. 10, 17 ; x. 8.

1 Isa. ix. 4 ; liv. 17 ; Ix. 18 ; Ezek. xxxiv. 28 f. ; xxxvi. 15 ; Joel iii.

17 ; Mic. V. 5-9 ; Zech. ix. 8.

2 Isa. xi. 14 ; xli. 14-16 ; xlv. 14 ; li. 22 f. ; Ixi. 5 ; Joel iii. 4-8 ;
Amos ix. 12 ; Ob. 17-21 ; Zeph. ii. 4-7, 9 ; Zech. ix. 13 ff.; x. 5ff.

3 Mic. iv. 1-3 ; Isa. ii. 2-4 ; xi. 10 ; xiv. 1 f . ; xliv. 5 ; xlix. 22 f . ;
Iv. 5 ; Ix. 10-14.

* Isa. xviii. 7 ; xxiii. 17 f. ; xlv. 14 ; Ix. 5ff., 16 f.; lxi.6 ; Ixvi. 10 ff. ;
Zeph. iii. 10 ; Hag. ii. 7 f. ; Zech. xiv. 14.

5 Isa. iv. 6 ; xxxii. 16-18 ; xxxiii. 6 ; Ix. 17 f. ; Jer. xxx. 10 ; xxxii.
27 ; xxxiii. 16 ; Ezek. xxviii. 26 ; xxxiv. 25, 27 ; xxxvii. 26 ; Hos. ii.

18 ; Mic. iv. 4 ; v. 8 f . ; Hag. ii. 9; Zech. ix. 10 ; xiv. 11.

6 Isa. ix. 3 ; li. 3 ; Ixv. 18 f . ; Jer. xxx. 19 ; xxxi. 12-14 ; xxxiii. 10 f .
' Mic. iv. 3 ; Isa. ii. 4.

8 Isa. xxx. 23-25 ; xxxii. 15 ; xxxv. 1 f ., 6 f. ; xli. 17-20 ; xliu. 19 f. ;



SECOND PERIOD. — § 22. SALVATION. 211

a covenant with the beasts of the field, the birds of
heaven, and the reptiles of the earth, ^ that men may no
longer fear them.^ According to other passages the wild
animals will be exterminated for the sake of the safety
of men.^ Every one will attain an advanced age.* One
prophet even hopes that death will forever be abolished,
and that God will also dry all tears. ^ The blind will
see, the deaf hear, the dumb speak, the lame leap, and
no one will be sick more.^ The light of the moon will
be equal to the brightness of the sun, and the bright-
ness of the sun will be sevenfold greater.'^ According
to deutero-Isaiah the light of the sun and the moon will
even be replaced by Jehovah, who will serve as a light
day and night. ^ There will, then, in reality be new
heavens and a new earth. ^

This state of things, being, as we have seen, based on
an everlasting covenant, will naturally have an ever-
lasting duration. ^^

We see that, under the new covenant, there will be
a sort of golden age, and that all the imperfections of
the old covenant and of the present world will have
disappeared. Under the new order of things Israel will

xlix. 10 f.; li. 13 ; Iv. 1 f., 13 ; Ix. 17 ; Jer. xxxi. 12-14, 24 f. ; xxxiii.
12 f. ; Ezek. xxxiv. 26 f., 29 ; xxxvi. 29 f. ; xlvii. 1-12 ; Hos. ii. 21 f.;
Joel iii. 18 ; Amos. ix. 13 ; Zech. viii. 12 ; ix. 17 ; x. 1 ; xiv. 8, 10.
1 Hos. ii. 18. 2 isa. xi. 6-8 ; Ixv. 25.

3 Ezek. xxxiv. 25, 28 ; comp. Isa. xxxv. 9 ; Lev. xxvi. 6.

4 Isa. Ixv. 20 ; comp. Zech. viii, 4 ; Ex. xxiii. 26.

5 Isa. XXV. 8 ; comp. Ixv. 19.

6 Isa. xxix, 18 ; xxxiii. 23 f. ; xxxv. 5 f . ; comp. Ex. xxiii. 25.

' Isa. XXX. 26. 8 Isa. ix. 19 ; comp. xxiv. 23 ; iv. 5.

9 Isa. Ixv. 17 ; Ixvi. 22.

10 Jer. vii. 7 ; xxiv. 6 ; xxxi. 36, 40 ; Ezek. xxxvii. 25 ; Isa. xxxy.
10 ; Ixv. 22 ; Ixvi. 22 ; Joel iii. 20 ; Amos ix. 15 ; Mic. iv. 7.



212 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

be faithful in all respects to their Gocl, and consequently
enjoy without measure all divine blessings, material
and spiritual. It is clear, however, from the above dis-
cussion that, in the eyes of the prophets, the future
world will not be a celestial, but a terrestrial one, the
present world transformed or transfigured.



II. The Participation of the Gentiles in the New
Covenant.

The judgment of God against the heathen peoples will
not result in their complete extermination. Just as a
remnant of Israel will come forth from the judgment
purified, to form the nucleus of a new people of Jehovah,
so some among the heathen peoples will escape and
survive the catastrophe of the judgment. ^ Those who
escape will be able to participate in the final salvation,
the new covenant, made between Jehovah and the new
Israel.

Two passages, almost identical, one found in Isaiah
and the other in Micah, which seem to be copied from
an older prophetic document, thus early give us a clear
glimpse of such a prospect. They say that at the end
of the da3^s, i.e. at the end of the present era, and in
the time of the new covenant, all peoples will flow to
the mountain of the house of Jehovah, to be taught in the
law, in the word of Jehovah ; and then Jehovah will
be their judge, their arbiter; they will no more draw
the sword against one another, they will not longer learn

1 Zech. xiv. 16 ; ix. 6 f. ; Jer. xlviii. 42, comp. with v. 47 ; xlix.
1-5, comp. with v. 6 ; Ezek. xlix. 13 ff.; Isa. xlv. 20.



SECON DPERIOD. — § 22. SALVATION. 213

to make war, but they will transform their arms into
agricultural implements.^

Micah, it is true, does not seem to have completely
assimilated the universalism that these words express.
He adds immediately afterwards : " While all the peo-
ples walk, each in the name of its god, we will walk
in the name of Jehovah, our God, forever and ever."^

Micah, then, seems to have admitted that the partic-
ularism according to which Jehovah is only the God
of Israel, would endure forever. He treats the for-
eign peoples as enemies and gives us to understand that
they will be completely overthrown and governed by
Israel. This follows especially from v. 7-9, where
he says of the remnant of Jacob that it will fall upon
the other peoples as suddenly and unexpectedly as the
dew, and will be among them like a lion among the
beasts of the forest, like a young lion among the flocks
of sheep, that tramples and rends, with none to deliver.
Verse 9, in particular, leaves the enemies of Israel no
other prospect than that of extermination.

This view is found in other prophetic writings, in
which the heathen peoples are treated as enemies of
God and Israel, worthy of the most severe penalties,
without the least prospect of salvation. It is the domi-
nant view in most of the books of the Old Testament.
Salvation is promised to the gentiles only in certain
prophetical books, and in some few passages not
prophetic.

According to those of the prophets who hope for the
salvation of the gentiles, the judgment executed by
God will contribute especially to their conversion, by
1 Isa, ii. 2-4 : Mic. iv. 1-3. ^ Mic. iv. 5.



214 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

making them understand the vanity of idolatry, and
acknowledge that Jehovah is the only true God.^ The
deliverance, the restoration, and the new glory of Israel
will produce the same salutary effect. ^ The king of
the new covenant will be like a banner toward which
the heathen nations Avill turn.^ The superiority of the
law and the word of Jehovah will beget among them
the desire to be instructed therein.* Jehovah will
in fact establish his law that it may be the light
of the peoples.^ Deutero-Isaiah rises to a standpoint
almost evangelical, when he teaches that the servant of
Jehovah, i.e. the faithful portion of Israel,^ will pub-
lish righteousness to all the nations and establish it
upon the whole earth; that he Avill everywhere make
known the true religion, consisting in the observance
of the law, the practice of righteousness ; ^ that he will
be the light of the nations, and will carry salvation to
the ends of the earth. ^ He hopes also that those of
the heathen peoples who escape, after having become
acquainted with the glory of Jehovah as a judge, will
be sent by him to the remote nations and islands that
have never heard of him, that they may there establish
his glory. ^

Sometimes there is reference only to the conversion

1 Isa. xix. 21 f. ; xxv. 2 f. ; xlv. 5 f., 14 ; xlix. 26 ; Zeph. ii. 11 ; Jer.
xvi. 19-21 ; Ezek. xxv. 7, 11, 17 ; xxvi. 6 ; xxviii. 22-24 ; xxix. 9 ;
XXX. 8, 19, 25 f . ; xxxii. 15 ; xxxviii. 16, 22 f . ; xxxix. 6 f .

2 Mic. vii. 15-17 ; Jer. xxxiii. 9 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 23, 36 ; xxxvii. 28 ;
Isa. xlv. 16 ff. ; lii. 10 ; Iv. 5 ; Ixi. 9, 11 ; Ixii. 2 f.; 1 Kings viii. 59 f. ;
Ps. Ixvii. 1 f. 3 Isa. xi. 10, 12.

* Isa. ii. 3 ; Mic. iv. 2 ; Deut. iv. 6, 8. & Isa. li. 4.

6 See § 24. ' Isa. xlii. 1, 3 f. « Isa. xlii. 6 ; xlix. 6.

* Isa. Ixvi. 18 f . ; comp, Zech. viii. 21 f.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 22. SALVATION. 215

of some peoples. Thus Isaiah foretells the conversion
of the Assyrians and the Egyptians, who will make a
covenant with Israel, and form with them the people of
Jehovah.^ But most frequently the prophets express
the hope that the heathen nations in general will turn
to Jehovah and participate in salvation. ^ Nevertheless
they foresee exceptions ; there will be gentiles who Avill
not turn to Jehovah and serve him; they will be pun-
ished and exterminated by God.^

In these predictions of a universal salvation Israel-
itish prophecy attained its culmination. There are,
however, as we have seen, only certain of the prophets
who announce these universalistic hopes, and even they
stop short of absolute universalism ; they do not com-
pletely renounce particularism ; they claim for Israel,
for all time, great advantages over the other peoples.

First of all, Jerusalem will remain the religious
centre of humanity. Thither the peoples will betake
themselves to be taught in the law and the word of
Jehovah.* This thought is really very natural. The
prophets were convinced that Israel possessed the true
religion. History has justified them; religious truth
and the salvation of the world have come from this
people.^ They therefore had a right to declare that
other nations would come to Jerusalem to be taught in
saving truth. In so doing they maintained in sub-
stance the same proposition that the Christians do when

1 Isa. xviii. 7 ; xix. 18-23.

2 Isa. ii. 2 ff. ; xxv. 3, 6 f . ; xlii. 1, 4, 6 ; xlv. 22 f. ; xlix. 6 ; li. 4 f.;
Iv. 5 ; Ivi. 7 ; Ixvi. 23 ; Mic. iv. 1 ff. ; Zeph. ii. 11 ; iii. 9 ; Jer. iii. 17 ;
xvi. 19 ; Zech. ii. 11 ; viii. 22 f. ; xiv. 16 ; Ps. xxii. 27 ff. ; Ixvii. 3 ff. ;
cii. 22. 3 Zech. xiv. 17-19 ; Jer. xii. 17 ; Isa. Ix. 12.

* Isa. ii. 2 f. ; Mic. iv. If. s Comp. John iv. 22.



216 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

they assert that the heathen, to attain salvation, must be
converted to Christianity. There is only this differ-
ence, that Christians understand that they must go
through the whole earth to preach the gospel to all
human creatures, while the prophets, whose geographi-
cal horizon was less extended, thought that all the peo-
ples could without difficulty come to Jerusalem to be
taught in the law and in the service of the true God.

The prophets, besides, give utterance to the thought
that the sanctuary at Jerusalem is the only place to
which the converted gentiles should bring their offer-
ings and their sacrifices, and that they should there
celebrate the feasts in honor of Jehovah, and call upon
his name.^ Isaiah, however, admits that the Egyp-
tians may erect in their own country an altar to Jeho-
vah, to offer sacrifices on it.^ An analogous view is
perhaps expressed elsewhere.^ In any case it is very-
rare.

What most offends us in these present predictions is
that the people Israel are to remain, under the new
covenant, the political centre and aristocracy of the
kingdom of God. And it is well known that this is
not a secondary thought, from the standpoint of the
Old Testament, in which religion generally has a very
pronounced national character. The prophets foretell
that after the restoration Israel will be found at the
head of the other peoples, that the latter will be, as it
were, their servants, that they will bring back from

1 Isa. xviii. 7 ; xxv. 6 f. ; Ivi. 5-7 ; Ix. 7, 13 ; Ixvi. 20, 23 ; Zech.
xiv. 16 ff. ; Jer. iii. 17 ; Hag. ii. 7 f . ; 1 Kings viii. 41-43.

2 xviii., xix., xxi.

> Mai. i. 11 ; Zeph. ii. 11; comp., however, iii. 10.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 23. THE MESSIAH. 217

foreign countries their scattered members, that they
will bring their riches to them, will rebuild their cities
for them, and so forth. ^ The Israelites, as compared
with foreigners, will be priests of Jehovah, eating the
riches of the nations and glorying in their glory. ^ It
should be observed that these last hopes are found
chiefly in deutero-Isaiah, who on the whole rose to a
purer spiritualism and a broader universalism than the
other prophets.

It follows from the above that it is a strange mis-
conception of the character of the prophets' teaching
to find in it evangelical ideas concerning the 'salvation
of the world. It is at most the germs of these ideas
that are found there. We have seen that the salvation
of Israel is there regarded as the perfect realization of
the terrestrial theocracy which was the aim of the law
and the prophets. Now the salvation of the gentiles
will consist in their incorporation into this theocracy,
yet with this restriction, that they will occupy only a
subordinate rank, that they will be, as it were, the serfs
or vassals of Israel.



§ 23. THE MESSIAH.

The prevailing view among the prophets is that
Jehovah himself will direct the events of the new cov-
enant, that he will execute judgment and accomplish
salvation. This is altogether conformable to the theo-
cratic view maintained in the Old Testament and

1 Isa. xiv. 2 ; xxiii. 18 ; xlv. 14 ; xlix. 22 f . ; Iv. 3-5 ; Ix. 3-17 ; Ixi,
6 ; Ixvi. 20. 2 jga. Ixi. 5 f .



218 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

especially by the early Israelites, who would recognize
no other king than Jehovah.^

Later, however, a legitimate monarchy had succeeded
in establishing itself in the midst of the people of
Jehovah; then the thought arose that under the new
covenant also a king, sprung from the ancient royal
famil}^, would occupy the throne of Israel. This king
is generally called the Messiah, the Anointed of God,
though this name is not given to him in the Old Testa-
ment. It must, however, be observed that he is re-
ferred to only in a small number of passages. Several
prophets do not mention him at all. Christian theol-
ogy, it is true, which has given to the Messiah an
importance much greater than Israelitish prophetism
did, has held that he appears in a series of passages in
which there is no reference to him. We shall not
undertake to pass in review all these passages for the
sake of correcting the traditional interpretation. It
has been done in numerous works. ^ It is only necessary
to set forth the prophetic teaching to show to all unprej-
udiced minds that this teaching differs from that of the
New Testament on the same subject, and that in identi-
fying the one with the other great violence is done to
historical truth. •

Amos is content with saying that under the new
covenant Jehovah will raise up the house of David,
that he will repair its breaches, that he will restore its
ruins, that he will rebuild it as it was before.^ Hosea

1 Jud. viii. 22 f. ; 1 Sam. viii. 5-8 ; x. 18 f.

2 See especially Baur, Gesch. der AUtestam. Weissagung ; Anger,
Qescli. der Messianischen Idee ; Hitzig, Messianische Weissagung.

3 ix. 12.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 23. THE MESSIAH. 219

also hopes for the restoration of the house of David; he
says that in the new order of things the children of
Israel will seek Jehovah their God and David their
king.i The restoration of the house, the dynasty, of
David, is in fact the essence of the Messianic hope of
Israel and the prophets, and not the sending of a person,
a unique king, as has generally been believed in the
Christian church.

Thus Jeremiah teaches, in the most explicit manner,
that, in the Messianic era, an uninterrupted series of
kings, princes, will occupy the throne of David ; that
the posterity of David will be multiplied, in order that
he may never want a successor ;2 that Jehovah will
appoint over the remnant of the sheep of Israel, gath-
ered from all countries, shepherds who will feed them.^
Ezekiel is in perfect accord with Jeremiah on this
subject. According to him also, the house of Israel
will be governed by a series of kings, after the glorious
restoration which he foretells ; the prince who occupies
the throne will have sons who will mount it after him.*
It will be with the royal house, overthrown by the
catastrophe of the Exile, as with a broken cedar, of
which a branch, replanted, will grow and become a
great tree.^ This means that a new line of princes
will spring from the old royal house, the house of
David.

It is true that the same prophets sometimes seem to
speak of a single king who will rule over the new Israel.
Jeremiah and Ezekiel say that Jehovah will raise up
David his servant that he may be king over Israel

1 iii. 5. 2 xvii. 25 ; xxii. 4 ; xxxiii. 17-26. ^ xxiii. 4.,

4 xliii. 7 ; xlv. 8 ; xlvi. 16-18. 5 xvii. 22-24.



220 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

forever.^ But what precedes shows in what sense
these declarations must be understood. David is here
evidently taken collectively, or rather, the family of
David is individualized in its head and called servant
of Jehovah, as the entire people Israel is individual-
ized and designated by this title not only in deutero-
Isaiah, as we shall see later, but also in Jeremiah and
Ezekiel.2 Thus also prophetism is individualized,
Deut. xviii. 15, 18, and the house of David, 1 Kings
xii. 16.

The author of Zech. xii.-xiv. shares the idea of the
preceding prophets. He speaks simply of the house of
David, which, in the new era, will be powerful as the
Deity, as the angel of Jehovah, while the feeblest Isra-
elite will be a hero like David. ^

Isaiah also seems to share this view. He speaks of
princes who will govern the new people of God.* He
employs the same comparison that we have found in
Ezekiel, that of a branch that will spring from the
stump of Jesse, of a shoot that will grow from his roots,
to govern and judge this people.^ Is this not the col-
lective idea of the new Davidic dynasty? In chapter
ix. verse 7, the prophet in fact speaks of the throne of
David and of his kingdom which are to be established
and maintained by justice and righteousness. In the
verse preceding, however, there is reference to a child,
newly born, on whose shoulder the government is to
rest. Micah also says that from Bethlehem shall go
forth he who will rule over Israel.^ Finally, Zech. ix.

1 Jer. XXX. 9 ; Ezek. xxxiv. 23 f. ; xxxvii. 24 f. ; comp. Hos. iii. 5.

2 Jer. XXX. 10 ; xlvi. 27 f . ; Ezek. xxviii. 25 ; xxxvii. 25.

3 xii. 8. * xxxii. 1. e xi. 1 ff. « v. 2 ff.



SECOND PERIOD. — § 23. THE MESSIAH. 221

9 f. speaks of the king who will come to Jerusalem and
establish his reign from one sea to the other.

Did these prophets think that one and the same king
would always govern the Messianic kingdom? In that
case they would disagree with the prophets to whom
reference was made above, which would prove at least
that in Israel the expectation of a unique and eternal
Messiah was not a dogma. But it is more probable that
there was not on this subject any divergence of opinion
among the prophets but that all expected the restora-
tion of the dynasty of David, which was to be main-
tained forever by a perpetual descent; for this is the
general expectation of Israel.^

If there is in some passages reference to only one
king, it is because the prophets thought that there
would never be more than one king at a time on the
throne, and further because their attention was natu-
rally fixed upon the first, the one who was to inaugu-
rate the Messianic kingdom; this is certainly the case
in the passages cited above, Zech. ix., Isa. ix., and
Mic. V. Haggai thought that Zerubbabel, who had
returned to Judah at the head of the first exiles,
would be the king of the restored people, and that in
him would be fulfilled the early Messianic prophe-
cies. ^ Zechariah appears to have had the same thought.
He foretells the coming of a man, a servant of Jehovah,
called Sprout, who will build the temple of Jehovah,
who will wear the insignia of royalty and rule upon
his throne.^ Now according to iv. 9 it is Zerubbabel

1 1 Kings ii. 4 ; viii. 25 ; ix. 4 f . ; Ps. Ixxxix. 3 f,, 29-37 ; cxxxii.
10-12. 2 ii. 21-23.

3 iii. 9 ; vi. 12 f. ; comp. Jer. xxiii. 5 ; xxxiii. 15.



222 THEOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

who laid the foundation, and who Avill finish the tem-
ple. Zechariah had, in general, great hopes of this
chief of the Jewish people.^ But these prophets surely
did not believe Zerubbabel immortal; they did not
therefore expect an eternal Messiah, they simply placed
Zerubbabel at the head of the royal line of Israel.

The Messiah, — we will preserve this hallowed title,
even while giving it a collective sense, — is to be
essentially a king, i.e. to possess and exercise sover-
eignty in every acceptation of the term. Even in Hos.
iii. 5 and Zech. ix. 9 he is called a king; also in other
passages that we have cited. Executive, and, since
these also were exercised by the ancient kings of Israel,
judicial, functions are attributed to him.^ He will be
surrounded by great glory. ^ He will secure peace to
his extended realm;* but this will be by means of war
successfully waged, by which also all the enemies of
Israel will be annihilated.^

According to Ezekiel, the most Levitical of the
prophets, an important duty of the king under the new
covenant will be to furnish the numerous victims for
the sacrifices of the feasts and other solemnities.^ He
will offer sacrifices for himself." This single feature
shows that the prophets had ideas of the Messiah that
square perfectly with the view of the Old Testament,
but differ so much the more from the teaching of the


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