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he will hope to change the times and the law; the
saints will be delivered into his hands for a time, two
times and half a time, i.e, three and a half 3'ears; then
will come the judgment, the dominion Avill be taken
from this king, and everlasting dominion over all
the kingdoms that are under heaven will be given
to the people of the saints of the Most-High.^ It is
evident that the little horn on which the author of our
book especially dwells, is Antiochus Epiphanes,^ whose

1 vii. 1-14. 2 vii. 15-17. 3 vii. 19-22. * vii. 23-27.

5 Comp. what is said in this chapter with xi. 31, 36 ; 1 Mace. i.
46 ff. ; 2 Mace. vi. 6.


dominion must come to an end after three and a half
years, according to verse 25 of our chapter, as accord-
ing to xii. 1. The fourth animal, then, represents the
Greek empire founded by Alexander, and the ten horns
of his head ten kings, his successors; the third animal
is the Persian empire, and its four heads are four kings,
our author not being acquainted with a greater number; ^
the second animal is naturally the Medean empire, and
the first the Babylonian empire. According to this
chapter, also, the Messianic empire is to immediately
follow that of the Greeks in the time of Antiochus
Epiphanes. Thus far all the competent and impartial
exegetes of our day are agreed ; but they differ on the
question. Who is the some one like a son of man who
comes on the clouds of heaven and obtains everlasting
dominion over all the peoples 7^ The general opinion
has always been that it is the Messiah. Even in the book
of Enoch this latter receives the title. Son of man.^ It
is also well known that Jesus preferred this title as a
Messianic designation for himself. But as the book of
Daniel nowhere speaks of the Messiah, though it says
much of the coming of the Messianic kingdom, some
modern scholars have thought that this expression serves
to designate, not the Messiah, but the Messianic king-
dom; that this latter is compared to a man coming from
heaven, on account of its high dignity and its celestial
origin, while the heathen powers, the powers of this
world, are compared to animals coming forth from the
sea, on account of their inferior dignity and their ter-

1 xi. 2. 2 vii. 13 f.

3 Wittichen, Beitrage znr bibl Theol. II. pp. 67 ff., IIL p. 128;
Stapfer, p. 123 ; [Toy, p. 354] .


restrial origin. What favors this view is that in the
explanatory part of our chapter the kingdom is con-
stantly promised to the saints of the Most-High, ^ i.e.
to the Jewish people.

Chapter viii. contains another vision of Daniel. A
ram appeared to him that had two horns, one of which
was higher than the other and rose last. This ram
smote with his horns toAvard the east, the north, and
the south, and no other animal was able to resist him.^
Daniel then saw a he -goat coming from the west, that
passed through the whole earth without touching it,
and had a great horn between the eyes ; and he smote
the ram, and broke his two horns, and cast him to the
earth, and trampled on him, and no one could deliver
him. But when this he-goat had become very mighty
his great horn was broken, and four great horns arose
in its place toward the four winds of heaven.^ From
one of these went forth a little horn that grew much
toward the south, the east, and the most beautiful of
countries (Judea) ; it exalted itself to the host of heaven
and to the chief of the host, from whom it removed the
perpetual sacrifice, overthrowing his holy place ; it finally
cast truth to the earth ; and this profanation was to last
two thousand and three hundred evenings and morn-
ings, after which the sanctuary would be purified."*
According to the explanation that the angel Gabriel
gives to Daniel, the ram represents the king of the
Medes and Persians.^ The smaller horn of the ram is
the power of the Medes, and the larger that arose after-
ward the power of the Persians ; ^ and since, according

1 vv. 18, 22, 17. 2 vv. 3 f. ^ Comp. xi. 4.

4 viii. 5-14, 5 viii. 20, ^ Comp. ii. 59.


to history, the latter absorbed the former both may be
represented by a single animal having two horns. As
for the he-goat, it is the king of Javan, the king of
Greece; the great horn between the eyes is the first
king (Alexander); the fonr horns that arise to take
the place of this broken horn are four kingdoms which
Vv'ill arise this nation, but which will not have so
much strength (they are tlie four kingdoms that Avere
tinall}^ formed from the empire of Alexander); at the
close of their dominion there will arise a shameless and
crafty king whose power will grow, who will destroy
the powerful and also the people of the saints, who will
cause many peaceable men to perish, and will exalt him-
self against the prince of princes ; but he will be broken
without hands. 1 If we compare this vision with the
preceding we see clearly that we again close with Anti-
ochus Epiphanes, the chief object of our book. It
is he who is represented by the little horn that rises
from one of the four horns, ^ or from the kingdom of
Syria ; for all that is here said of him agrees with the
previous references to him. This vision, like those
preceding, relates to the end of all things, the end of
the world. '^ We have seen that the end will come when
the people of the saints shall have been oppressed,
and the perpetual sacrifice interrupted three and a half
years, or 1290 daj^s.* According to our chapter thi >
time is to last 2300 evenings and mornings,^ or 1150
days, which make only a little more than three years.
The difference between the two intervals is, therefore,

1 viii. 21-35. 2 yiii. 9.

3 viii. 17, 19, 23 ; comp. x. 14 ; xi. 35 f., 40.

4 vii. 25 ; xii. 7, 11. ^ V. 14.


inconsiderable, and is explained by the very natural
supposition that the visions of our book do not all date
from the same time, that there was an interval between

Chapter ix. informs us that Daniel, seeing from the
book of Jeremiah 1 that the overthrow and oppression
of Jerusalem was to last seventy years, wished to know
how this prediction was to be understood. ^ This desire
seems the more natural at the time when our book was
composed, since several centuries had elapsed without
the fulfilment of this prophecy, and the Jews still
groaned under the hated yoke of the stranger. After an
ardent prayer, in which Daniel confesses the sins of
his people and implores the forgiveness of God,^ the
angel Gabriel comes to explain to him that the seventy
years in question are weeks of years, or periods of seven
years. This lapse of time was determined to put an
end to sins, to expiate iniquity, to bring in everlasting
righteousness, and to anoint the holy of holies.* From
the date when the prophecy of Jeremiah was uttered to
that when a prince will be anointed there are seven
weeks ; for sixty-two more weeks the places and moats
will be rebuilt, but in troublous times; then, in the
last week an anointed one will be cut off, the city and
the sanctuary will be destroyed by the people of a prince
whose end will come as by a flood, who, for a week, will
make a firm alliance with many, and will for half a week
cause the sacrifice and offering to cease, who will commit
the most abominable deeds until overthrow finally breaks
upon him.^ In spite of some obscurities in this proph-

1 XXV. 11 ff. ; xxix. 10. ^ ix. 1 ff. 3 ix. 5 ff.

4 Comp. viii. 14. ^ ix. 20 ff.


ecy the essential points are perfectly clear. Thus, the
seventy years of Jeremiah become weeks of j^ears,
i.e. periods of seven years. These seventy weeks of
years are divided into three periods, of which the first
includes seven weeks, or forty-nine years, the second
sixty-two weeks, or 434 years, the third one week, or
seven years. Since, according to vv. 26 f., the prince
who is to reign during this last week will cause the
sacrifice and offering to cease for half a week, i.e. for
three and a half years, and since all that is here said
perfectly agrees with what we have seen touching Anti-
ochus Epiphanes and the end of the world, ^ we are
authorized in saying that this prophecy, like those pre-
ceding, closes with this prince, that this is the limit
of the prophetic horizon of our author, as well as the
end of the ills of the Jewish people and the end of the
world, which will be followed by the Messianic king-
dom. As to the first period of seven weeks, it extends
from the prediction of Jeremiah to Cyrus the anointed
one, to whom reference is made in v. 25. ^ The second
period of sixty-two weeks, then, necessarily extends
from Cyrus to Antiochus. The anointed one who
will be cut off at the end of this period is probably
the high-priest Onias whose death is mentioned,
2 Mace. iv. 34. This lapse of time, it is true, is more
than half a century too short, according to exact
chronology. But instead of taking useless pains to
make this prediction agree with chronology, we must
rather admit that, in the days of our author, the Jews
did not have a thorough chronology, and that he him-

1 See especially vii. 25 ; viii. 11-14 ; xi. 31, 36, 45 ; xii. 7, 11.

2 Comp. Isa. xlv, 1.


self, in many a passage of his book, proves that he was
acquainted only with the grand outlines of history.
The historian Josephus made a similar mistake.^ That
here noticed ought to surprise us the less since our book
has a practical and not a historical aim.

Though the apocalypse of Daniel foretells the com-
ing of the Messianic era in a series of prophecies, it
nowhere gives a description of it, as most of the old
prophets did. It is content with leading us to the
threshold of the new era which is to begin with the ap-
proaching end of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, the
great persecutor of the faithful Jews and their religion.
It is content to say repeatedly that this era will be that
of the universal and everlasting dominion of the saints
of the Most-High, i.e. of the faithful Jews, and, there-
fore, of their God.^ In this our author is inspired with
the view of the old prophets ; it is the same when he
teaches that the end of the world and the Messianic
kingdom are very near, when he sees in the political
events of his time the precursors of the final judgment,
a prelude to the Messianic era.


Having fulfilled our task as historian, we might now
lay down our pen. Before doing so, however, we be-
lieve it our duty to add some remarks in response, not
to the historical, but to the religious interest, the inter-
est of faith.

The Bible was originally a book for the edification

1 Scliiirer, The Jewish People, etc., Div. I. Vol. I. p. 81.

2 See especially iv. 3.


of the pious. Later the theologians made it a fountain
of doctrine, a dogmatic authority, the supreme and
infallible authority in matters of faith. Thenceforth
it hardly occurred to any one to study the Bible except
from the dogmatic standpoint. It was left for those of
our day to begin to study it as a historical document,
and according to the historical method. Biblical the-
ology as a historical science is, in fact, of recent date.
But there is now danger of going to the opposite extreme
and studying the Bible henceforth only from the his-
torical and critical standpoint, losing sight of its
religious value, the value that it has for faith.

We think that it is indispensable to study the Scrip-
tures historically, that indeed we must commence in
this way. It is the only way to avoid the erroneous
view in which traditional dogmatism has always repre-
sented it. This is the reason why, in our work, we
have followed the strictly historical method. We
think, however, that those who study the Bible by this
method should take especial pains to show that its
religious value is not impaired, as many people imag-
ine. If they neglected this duty they would sin against
believers. They would fix a great gulf between science
and faith; they would prepare the way for divorcing
historical truth from piety, a result that would be a sad
one for both ; for faith would thenceforward be without
truth, and truth without faith ; faith would no longer
be anything but superstition, and truth would become
inseparable from unbelief. Such a divorce, then, is at
any cost to be avoided, and these last few lines have for
their object to show how this is possible.

To examine, to study the Bible as we have done, is


to take account of the historical development of the
ideas and customs that are there revealed ; it is to show
that these have not always been the same, that they
have varied in the course of time; it is to admit more
or less important divergencies among the biblical docu-
ments, doctrinal and historical errors committed by the
sacred authors. This is what startles faith: it fears
that it will see the foundation on which it rests shaken.
Is it really so ? In a sense, Yes. Faith in the ortho-
dox sense of intellectual adherence to a dogmatic sys-
tem, considered as perfect and infallible, because, as
it claims, it is drawn from an infallible source, the
Bible, and rests on its infallible authority, — such a faith
is evidently impaired beyond recovery by the histori-
cal study of the Bible. But is this true faith, faith
in the biblical sense ? Certainly not. It is the product
of Jewish rabbinism and Christian dogmatism.

Faith, as the Bible, especially the Old Testament,
freed from rabbinical influence, understands it, is not
faith in the sacred letter, the written word, but faith
in the manifestation of God in history, in his interfer-
ence in the world with a view to the salvation of hu-
manity, faith in the living word, inspired by the divine
spirit in the prophets, faith in the holy mission of
these men of God. Now we claim that this faith is
not impaired, and could not be by the historical study
of the Bible, because this faith has for its foundation
not simple words, but facj^, evident and undeniable

When, having shown the divergencies, contradic-
tions, errors in the Bible, we go below the surface to
the substance of things, we are obliged to admit that


the Bible has not only a human, imperfect, transitory
side, but also a divine, perfect, unchangeable, eternal
side. Some have wished to see only the former, others
only the latter side. To be fully in the right we must
recognize that one exists as well as the other. This
is coming to be understood more and more even among
J conservative theologians. There, then, is not the great
difficulty. It is rather in separating, distinguishing,
in the Bible, the divine from the human elements.
This difficulty, together with habit and tradition, leads
many pastors who would probably admit the human
and imperfect side of the Scriptures, to speak of them
nevertheless as if they were from one end to the other
the unadulterated word of God. This is encouraging
Christian people in an illusion which is thought inno-
cent but which may, and many times does, become in-
jurious. In fact when the people learn, and the day
comes sooner or later, that the Bible contains errors,
they are led to doubt revelation itself, since they have
been made to believe that it is to be identified with the
so-called infallible letter of the sacred Scriptures.

What then is to be done? Can we distinguish in
the Bible the human from the divine elements, the
human errors from the divine truth? Can we say that
such a biblical word or text is inspired, and that such
another is not? No, such a mode of procedure would
be very mechanical and superficial ; besides it would be
impracticable. We must rather recognize that tradi-
tional faith and theology have been led astray by the
doctrine of the literal inspiration of the sacred code,
invented by the Jewish rabbis and adopted by the Chris-
tian doctors. It is not the dead letter in which inspir-


ation and revelation are to be souglit, as tliis doctrim;
would have it, but the direct action of the spirit of God
upon the hearts of men. Let us explain, confining our-
selves to the Old Testament, with Avhich Ave liave thus
far had to do.

We have just represented it as an undeniable fact
that this part of the Scriptures contains errors. He
who gives his attention exclusively to sacred criticism
instead of attempting the historical reconstruction of
the biblical teaching, as we have done, will be able to
discover many more errors than have been casually
noticed or become apparent from our work ; he will be
able to show that there exist a large number of scien-
tific, historical, and doctrinal errors. The fact that we
have stated is therefore fully established. But there
is another which it seems to us is just as well estab-
lished ; it is that the elite of the Israelitish nation —
at the head of whom were the prophets, the psalmists,
the sacred authors in general — were under the influ-
ence of the spirit of God, which communicated to them
a life and a loftier insight, of which we find the expres-
sion, the translation, imperfect but actual, in the Old
Testament. In the midst of the people Israel, origi-
nally idolatrous, and subject to all the vices of the
Semitic race, there was formed a nucleus of men of God
much superior to those about them in faith, in insight,
in ethical life. They were by no means perfect, either
with respect to ideas or morals. They yielded in some
measure to the influence of their time ; for no one can
completely withdraw himself from the influence of his
age and his environment. But, in spite of the imper-
fections that they shared with the men of their time,



they rose to so pure ideas concerning God and our rela-
tions to him, that thus far they have not been sur-
passed. That Avhich seems to us, however, still more
remarkable than these ideas, to which the intellectualis-
tic theology of the past has wrongly attributed an exag-
gerated or even exclusive value, that which appears to
us more important, is the superior life that distin-
guished these men of God. There, especially, we
clearly discover the divine activity.

The history of ancient Greece proves that, left to its
own powers, human thought can rise to very pure
moral and religious conceptions, and give admirable
precepts. But it also proves that in spite of fine pre-
cepts and lofty thoughts a people or an individual may
remain morally corrupt. We meet this fact everywhere
and in all times. Man is naturally egoistic, and incap-
able of breaking the yoke of his egoism. There is
therefore much more need of moral than of intellectual
assistance, and purity of moral life is a safer criterion
of the divine action upon the heart than lofty concep-
tions. Now among the Slite of the people Israel, and
more particularly among the prophets, we find an ethical
life that is truly remarkable. We find these men ani-
mated by a sincere and profound love for God, by an
ardent zeal for his glory and the establishment of his
kingdom. These men forgot themselves, living only
for God and their fellows, and that out of pure love for
God and men ; they even endured, for the sake of the
holy cause that they defended, the severest persecutions.
When we examine the documents of the Old Testament,
and especially the Psalms and the prophetical books, we
find ourselves confronted not merely by a beautiful


morality, beautiful precepts recommended to others;
these writings are the living, so to speak, palpitating
expression of what took place in their souls; we find
there the expression and experience of a higher life, a
life produced by God and devoted to God. Behind
these writings we feel the beat of the hearts that in-
spired them, and behind these hearts we feel a higher
power, a divine, regenerating, sanctifying influence.

We find then, in the midst of the people Israel, the
foundation of the kingdom of God, the kingdom of truth
and holiness, the substructure of that glorious edifice
of which Christ has become the corner stone, which will
continue to rise under the action of the same divine
spirit that filled the prophets, and is the soul of all the
development of the kingdom of God throughout the
ages. Here then is a solid, immovable basis for faith.
It rests, not upon simple words, but upon facts, his-
torical facts of which the aggregate constitutes the
kingdom of God; facts which date from times the most
remote and reveal to us traces of the action of God upon
the heart, an action which we can discover through
all the ages and even about us wherever there are be-
lieving hearts ; facts which we experience in our OAvn
hearts when we open them to the beneficent influence
of the spirit of God.

Faith is therefore not impaired by a scientific and
historical study of the Bible. That which alone is im-
paired is the dogmatism that must needs stay itself upon
an infallible authority. Faith and piety can do with-
out this authority because they can do without infalli-
ble dogmatic truth. The apostle Paul confesses without
reserve that Christian knowledge is not perfect here


below, that we can hope to attain a perfect knowledge
only in eternity.^ But in spite of his imperfect knowl-
edge what mighty faith the great apostle of the gentiles
possessed! And our faith may also be firm, powerful,
living, though we have not a perfect knowledge of dog-
matic and metaphysical truth, since we have no infalli-
ble source and norm for this truth.

It is enough for faith to have a firm foundation on
which it can rest, to feel a mighty impulse urging it
toward God, to possess a confident assurance that God
graciously receives sinful man to pardon and sanctify
him. It is enough for the world in general that God is
so clearly revealed in his holiness and love that each
can recognize his sinful condition, and then hope for
the divine favor. This legitimate want is partly satis-
fied even in the revelation of the old covenant; it is
fully satisfied by the final revelation of the new cove-
nant, to which we shall feel it a pleasure and a duty to
turn our attention if the public favorably receive this,
our first essay.

1 1 Cor. xiii. 9-12.



Aaron : in early documents, 46 ; ac-
cording to C, 286 f . ; in Chronicles,
etc., 288 f.

Abraham, the ideal Hebrew, 34 f.

Abstinence from wine, 70.

Advocate (redeemer) of Job, 269 f.

Anathema, 67 f.

Angels: nature, 153 f . ; functions,
154, 254, 256; form, 154 f. ; orders,
254; names, 255; origin of belief
in, 155 f.

Anthropomorphism: early preva-
lence, 25 ff. ; overcome by the
prophets, 97; corrected by the
Jews, 248.

Anthropopathism, 27 f.

Antiochus Epiphanes, the central fig-
ure of Daniel, 333, 334, 336, 337 f.,

Apocryphal books cited, 6.

Ark of the Covenant: a symbol of
Jehovah's presence, 28, 282; a
centre of worship, 42.

Asmodeus, 262.

Atonement: terms used, 311 fif , ; ob-
ject affected, 312 ff. ; means em-
ployed, 313; limits, 310 f. ; theory,
314 ff.

Atonement, day of, 304 ff.
Attributes of God : moral, 114 ff. ;
metaphysical, 120 ff.

Beasts, the four, of Daniel, 336 ff.

Body, origin and nature of, 159 f

263 f.
Bowels = seat of affections, 166.

Centralization : rooted in early his-
tory, 42; the struggle for, 178 ff. ;
the accomplishment of, 280 ff.

Cherubim, 148 ff.

Circumcision : practice of, 57 ; mean-
ing of, 33, 58 f.

Compilation, evidence of, in the
Hexateuch, 8.

Covenant: a fundamental notion,
29 f., 91 ; ground of, 30, 118 ; nature
of, 31 ff. ; duties, 33, 102, 174, 318
sign of, 33, 58 ; renewal of, 207 ff .
the new, and the gentiles, 212 ff.
abuse of the notion of, 320.

Covenant, book of, 36 ff.

Creation : statements concerning,
125 f. ; nature of, 126 f. ; biblical,
vs. scientific doctrine, 127 ff. ;
bearing of, on monotheism, 93.

Daniel, Apocalypse of, 331 ff.

David : first Hebrew hymnist, 9 ; an
ethical ideal, 35 f. ; and the Mes-
siah, 218 ff.

Day of judgment: date of, 201 f.,
334. 337, 340, .342 ff . ; effects of,
203 ff. ; means used, 202 f., 206.

Death, 263 f.

Deborah, song of, 21.

Prepared by the translator.



Decalogue : age of, 9, 21 ; contents
of, 37 f. ; on the Sabbath, 292 f.

Demonology, 256 ff.

Devil, 260 f.

Divination among the early prophets,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25

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