C. Remigius Fresenius.

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potassium permanganate or chromate (p. 433). The nitrate
is found by difference.

For estimating nitric and nitrous acids, when only one
base is present, e.g., either sodium or potassium, an indirect
method may also be employed. Intimately mix the weighed
substance with powered ammonium chloride, heat moderately
in a porcelain crucible until the excess of ammonium chloride
and the decomposition products have been expelled, dissolve
the residue in water, and titrate the sodium chloride formed
(if a sodium salt has been present) witli silver solution ( 141,"
I., 5, oi). After the necessary corrections have been made
for the slight quantity of sodium carbonate present, 2\<?., de-
ducting the carbonate fron the weight of the substance taken,
and the weight of the sodium chloride equivalent to it from
the sodium chloride found, the necessary data for calculation
will be at hand. From the residual sodium chloride calculate
its equivalent in sodium nitrate, and deduct from this the
total weight of the sodium nitrate and nitrite, and thus
obtain the difference corresponding to the sodium nitrite,
according to the following proportions: 16 (the difference
between the equivalents of NaNO, and NaNO.) : 85-09
(the equivalent of NaNO,) :: the remainder in question: a?;
x being the quantity of sodium nitrite in the sub-
stance taken. On finally deducting the sodium carbonate
and nitrite from the substance taken, the sodium nitrate
is found. Of course this method is applicable only when
no other substances are present (compare TicnBORNE,f
and my own report on this method f). A similar indirect
method is also based on the expulsion of the nitrous, nitric
(and carbonic) acids by vitrified borax, 1-39, II., <?, and
149, II., #, /?, and also on the different oxidizing action

*The alkali nitrates do not react alkaline.

\Cfiem. News, 1865, No. 304. \Zeitschr.f. analyt. Chem., iv, 446.



170.] ACIDS OF GROUP III. 759

of nitrous and nitric acids on ferrous sulphate solution acidu-
lated with hydrochloric acid (p. 577), compare C. D. BRAUN.*

II. SEPARATION or THE ACIDS OF THE THIRD GROUP FROM

EACH OTHER.

"We have as yet no method of effecting the direct separation 288
of nitric acid from chloric acid ; the only practicable way,
therefore, is to determine the two acids jointly in a portion of
the compound, by the method described for nitric acid, 149,
II., d, /?, bearing in rnind that 12 atoms iron are converted
from a ferrous to a ferric salt by 2 mol. chloric acid (HC1O 3 )
or 1 mol. chloric anhydride (01,0.) 150, II., ). In
another portion estimate the chloric acid by adding sodium
carbonate in excess, evaporating to dryness, fusing the residue
until the chlorate is completely converted into chloride, and
then determining the chlorine in the latter, taking care that
the silver chloride contains no difficultly soluble nitrite. 2
mol. silver chloride produced from this corresponds to
2HC1O 3 or C1,O,, provided there was no chloride originally
present.

* Zeitschr.f. analyt. Chem., vi, 47.



INDEX.



PAOB
Acid boric, determination 465

as potassium borofluoride 466

separation from basic radicals 468

arsenic, separation from alkalies, alkali earths, zinc, etc 711

from arsenous acid 716, 721, 729

from barium, strontium, calcium, and lead. . . 713
from copper, cadmium iron (ic), manganese,

etc 712

from manganese, iron, zinc, copper, nickel,

and cobalt 710

from metals of groups I and n 713

from metals of groups i-iv. - ! . . 712

from tin and antimony 721

arsenous, determination gravimetricafty, indirectly 419

by Rose's method. 419

by Vohl's method 419

separation from arsenic acid 716, 721, 729

carbonic, determination by Dietrich's method 504

by Kolbe's method 493

by measuring the gas 500

by Pettenkof er's method 484

by Rose's method 496

by Scheibler's method 500

gravimetrically 482

volumetrically 483

in carbonates 487

in gases 479

with barium chloride or calcium chlo-
ride and ammonia 481

with calcium hydroxide 480

Geissler's apparatus for determining , 491

separation from all other acids 738

from basic radicals 487

table of absorption of. 5^8

761



762 INDEX.

PAOB

Acid carbonic, table of weight of 1 c.c. at various temperatures and

pressures 506

Well's apparatus for determining 499

chloric, determination 593

in chlorates 593

separation from bases 593

from other acids 757

chromic, determination as barium chromate 423

as lead chromate 423

as oxide 422

by Bunsen's method 424

by oxalic acid 423

by Schwarz's method 424

by Vohl's method 423

determining volumetrically 424

separation from aluminium 427

from basic radicals 426

from chromium 427

hydrochloric 129

hydrofluoric 130

determination as calcium fluoride 472

separation from other acids 735

hydrofluosilicic, determination of 442

by Stolba's method 443

iodic, determination of 432

molybdic, determination as dioxide, lead molybdate, or disulphide . 420

by Pisani's method 421

nitric 128

determination 571

as ammonia 584

by Harcourt's method 585

by Siewert's method 587

as nitrogen 592

by decomposition with alkalies 574

by decomposition with ferrous chloride by

Pelouze's method 575

by distillation 573

by Schlosing's method 579

by Tiemann-Schulze's method 582

from loss of hydrogen, by Schulze's method.. 588

separation from basic radicals 572

from other acids 757

nitrous, determination 433

oxalic, crystallized, pure 144

determination as calcium carbonate 470



INDEX. 763

PAGE

&cid oxalic, determination as carbonic acid 471

with gold, by Rose's method 470

with permanganate 470

separation from basic radicals 471

phosphoric, determination as ferric phosphate 452

as lead phosphate 445

as magnesium phosphate by Schulze's

method 453

as magnesium pyro phosphate 445

as uranyl pyro phosphate 451

by Chancel's method 450

by Girard's method 449

by Neubauer's method 454

by Reissig's method 448

by Rose's method 448

by Sonnenschein's method 446

by Weeren's method 452

volumetrically 453

eparation from alkalies, barium, calcium, lead, and

strontium 457

from all bases 464

from aluminium and magnesium 458

from basic metals 462

from chromium 460

from metals of the second, third, and

fourth groups 460

of fifth and sixth groups . . 462

selenous, determination 429

silicic 233

determination 505

by fusion with alkali carbonates 51 1

by Mitscherlich's method 521

by Smith's method 519

in compounds decomposable by HC1 or HNQ, . 509

with ammonium fluoride 516

with barium hydroxide or carbonate 517

with calcium carbonate and ammonium

chloride 518

with hydrofluoric acid 513

with hydrogen potassium fluoride 516

separation from all other acids 737

from basic radicals 509

Bulphuric, determination 434

by Bohlig's method 436

by Clemm's method 436



764 INDEX.

PAGB

Acid sulphuric, determination by Mohr's method 435

by Wildenstein's method 437

in presence of sulphates 442

separation from all other acids 731

from barium, calcium, lead, and stron-
tium 441

from mercury in mercurous sulphate 442

sulphurous 149

determination 431

thiosulphuric, determination of 432

Acids arsenous and arsenic, separation from all other acids 730

separation of 739

Air-baths 63

Alkalies in f errocyanides, determination of 554

Alumina ISO

Aluminium hydroxide 179

oxide ISO

separation from alkali-earth metals 623

from ammonium 622

from barium and strontium 627

from calcium 627

from chromium 630

from iron (ic) 646

from iron (ic and ous), cobalt, and nickel 643

from magnesium and calcium 628

from potassium and sodium 622

from radicals of the fourth group 640

from uranyl 674

from zinc, cobalt, and nickel 656

Ammonia-iron alum 147

Ammonium, arseno-molybdate 224

carbonate 142

chloride 143, 167

determination as ammonia 253

as ammonium-platinic chloride 252

as chloride 252

as nitrogen 256

as oxide 278

-ferrous sulphate 146

-hydrogen fluoride 142

-magnesium arsenate 222

-magnesium phosphate 177

-manganese phosphate 188

molybdate 136

nitrate . . 142



INDEX. 765

PAGE

Ammonium, phosphate 135

phospho-molybdate 230

-platinic chloride 167

separation from metals of the fourth group 631

from potassium and sodium 604

from sodium 603

succinate 135

Analysis, volumetric 122

Antimony 218

determination as sulphide (ous) 396

as tetroxide 398

by decomposing the sulphide 403

by Kessler's method 400

by Mohr's method 400

by Schneider's method 403

with dichromate 401

with permanganate 402

volumetrically 400

separation from antimonic acid 729

from arsenic 720

from lead 714 ,

from mercury 70S

from metals of groups iv and v in alloys 707

from tin 716

from tin and arsenic 718

sulphide 217

tetroxide 218

Arsenic, see also acid arsenous.

determination as ammonium-magnesium arsenate 412

as arsenate 411

as sulphide (ous) 414

as uranyl pyroarsenate 413

by Bunsen's method 417

by Kessler's method 417

by Mohr's method 416

by Werther's method 413

in tin 726

volumetrically 416

f eparation from antimony 72Q

from antimony and tin 722

from antimony in alloys 718

from copper 714

from metals of groups n, rv, and v 708

from tin 717 t 723

ulphide, determination in antimony sulphide , 720



766 INDEX.

PAGB

Arsenous acid, see acid arsenous.

oxide 149

sulphide 221

Asbestos filters 120

Aspirator, Bunsen's 103

Balance, testing, etc 12

Barium acetate 137

carbonate 138, 170

chloride , 137

chromate 226

determination as carbonate 264

as sulphate 263

separation from calcium 617

from potassium and sodium 607, 608

from strontium and calcium 616, 617

silicofluoride 171

sulphate 168

Belohoubeck's method of determining uranium 336

Berzelius' method of separating phosphoric acid from aluminium 459

Berzelius-Rose's method of determining sulphur 564

Bismuth 212

and copper, separation from lead and cadmium 692

carbonate 212

chloride, basic 212

chromate 212

determination as arsenate 387

as carbonate 383

as chromate 385

as metal 386

as trioxide 383

as trisulphide 383, 384

by Lowe's method 385

eparation from all other metals 684, 690

from cadmium 694

from copper 002

from copper cadmium, and mercury (ic) 002

from lead and cadmium 002

from silver, lead, and copper OOC>

trioxide 211

trisulphide 213

Bohlig's method of determining chlorine 526

of determining ferroeyanides 557

of determining sulphuric acid 436

Borax . 140



INDEX. 767



Boric acid, see acid boric.

anhydride, determination of 465

Bromine containing chlorine, analysis of '. 754

determination as silver bromide 532

colorimetrically by Heine's method 534

gravimetrically and volumetrically 532

in free state 536

with chlorine water and chloroform by Rei-

mann's method 532

with chlorine water and heat by Figuier's

method 533

separation from chlorine 744

from chlorine and iodine 750

from metals 535

Bunsen's aspirator 103

method of determining arsenic 417

of determining chlorine volumetrically 530

of determining chromic acid 424

of determining sulphur 566

Burette, Gay-Lussac's 48

Geissler's 49

Mohr's 42

Burettes 42

Cadmium carbonate 214

determination as oxide 388

as sulphate 389

as sulphide 388

oxide 213

separation from copper 693

separation from zinc 684

sulphide . 214

Calcium 132

carbonate 173

chloride 155

determination as carbonate 269

as oxide 269

as sulphate 269

by volumetric methods 273

fluoride 232

oxalate 175

separation from aluminium 627

from magnesium 618, 619

from nickel and cobalt 633, 638

from potassium and sodium 607, 609

from strontium 619



770 INDEX

PAGE

Decantation 93

De Haen's method of determining copper 377

of determining f erro- and f erri-cyanides 554

Dedication 54

Dessicators 56

Dietrich's method of determining carbonic acid. 504

Drying 54

Drying-disk 67

Duflos' method of determining iodine 540

Dupasquier's method of determining hydrogen sulphide 558

Elutriaiion 53

Erdmann's Float 47

Eudiometer 28

Evaporation 81

Ferricyanides, determination by Lenssen's method 556

by Bohlig's method 557

by Rheineck's method 557

Ferrocyanogen, separation from hydrochloric acid 756

volumetric determination by De Haen's method 554

Figuier's method of determining bromine 533

Filter, Gooch 120

Filtering 94

Filters, asbestos 120

Fleck's modification of Parkes' method of determining copper 378

Fleischer's method of determining copper 382

Fleitmann's method of determining copper 382

Float, Erdmann's 47

Fluids, measuring 36

Fluorides, determination by decomposition with alkali carbonates. . . . 474

by decomposition with sulphuric acid 474

from silicon fluoride evolved 475

Fluorine, separation from metals 473

Fordos-Gelis's method of determining cyanogen volumetrically 550

Fuch's method of determining ferric iron 334

Gas-lamp 82

Gases, measuring 27

reading-off 30

Gay-Lussac's burette 48

method of determining silver 342

Geissler*s apparatus for determining carbonic acid 491

burette 49

Giratd'a method of determining phosphoric acid 449



INDEX. 771

PAGE

Gold 215

determination as metal 391

as sulphide (ic) 393

in platinum ore 727

separation from lead and bismuth 715

from metals of group 1 705

from metals of groups iv. and v. in alloys 703

from platinum 716, 727

from silver 713

from tin 727

sulphide 215

Gooch filters 120

Gunpowder residues, examination of, by Werther's method 742

Harcourt's method of determining nitric acid as ammonia 585

Heine's colorimetric method of determining bromine 534

Hydrofluoric acid, see hydrofluoric acid.

Hydrofluosilicic acid, see acid hydrofluosilicic.

Hydrogen 143

-ammonium fluoride 142

-potassium fluoride 141

sulphide, determination by Mohr's method 560

with iodine by Dupasquier's method. . 558

Jodie acid, see acid iodic.

Iodine 148

containing chlorine, analysis of 753

determination as silver iodide 536

as palladious iodide by Lassaigne's method 536

colorimetrically by Struve's method 541

in free state by Schwarz's method 542, 543

with ferric chloride by Duflos* method 540

with nitrous acid and carbon disulphide 537

with palladious chloride by Kersting's method . . 540

with permanganate by Reinige's method 538

with silver solution and starch iodide by

Pisani's method 539

volumetrically 537

separation from chlorine 748

from chlorine and bromine 750

from metals 541

Iron acetate, basic (ic) 197

Iron-alum 147

-ammonium sulphate (ous) 146

arsenate (ic) 224

converting ferrous into ferric . . .. 311



772 INDEX;

MM

Iron ferric, determination as oxide or hydroxide 323

as sulphide 323, 325

by Oudeman's method 332

by reduction with hydrogen sulphide 326

by reduction with stannous chloride 327

by reduction with zinc 325

volumetrically , 325

with thiosulphate 331

with thiosulphate and copper sulphate 332

Fuch's method of determining 334

eparation from aluminium . 646, 652, 660

from aluminium and chromium 652

from barium and strontium 633, 634

from calcium and magnesium . 633, 634

from ferrous iron 664, 666

from ferrouo iron, zinc, and nickel 661

from manganese, nickel, cobalt, and zinc 644, 649

from manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, and

ferrous iron 647

from potassium and sodium 632

from radicals of the fourth group 640

from uranium 675

ferrous, determination 311

as metal . '. 313

by Penny's method 319

volumetrically . . 312

with ammonium-ferrous sulphate 315

with oxalic acid , , . 316

with permanganate 313

separation from ferric iron 645

formate, basic (ic) 197

hydroxide (ic) 194

oxide (ic) 195

phosphate (ic) 227

separation from copper 683

euccinate, basic (ic) 196

sulphide (ous) 195

Kersting*s method of determining iodine . 640

Kessler's method of determining antimony 400

of determining arsenic 417

Kolbe's method of determining carbonic acid > 493

Lamp, Haste's 82

Lassaigne's method of determining iodine 636

Lead araeoatt 221



INDEX. 773

PAGE

Lead carbonate, normal , 201

chloride 203

chromate 152, 225

determination as chloride 357

as chromate 356

as metal 358

as oxide 353

as oxide 4- lead 357

as sulphate 355

as sulphide 354

by Schwarz's method 360

volunaetrically 359

oxalate 202

oxide 134, 202

phosphate 227

separation from antimony 714

from bismuth 697

from other metals 689, 690

from silver 693

sulphate 202

sulphide 204

Lenssen's method of determining f erricyanides 556

of determining tin 408

Levigation 52

Liebig's method of determining chlorine 525

of determining cyanogen volumetrically 549

Lime 132

Liquids, reading-off 46

Lithium, determination of 258

separation from other alkalies 605

Litmus, tincture 145

Lowe's method of determining bismuth 385

(ium-ammonium arscnate 222

ammonium phosphate 177

chloride 138

determination as oxide , 276

as pyrophosphate 275

as sulphate 275

oxide 179

phosphate 227

pyroarsenate 223

pyrophosphate 178

separation from barium and strontium 617

from calcium tt gig

from potassium and sodium 610



774



INDEX.



PAGE

Magnesium, separation from uranium 674

sulphate 176

Manganese-ammonium phosphate 188

carbonate 185

determination as carbonate 293

as dioxide 294

as hydroxide 294

as protosesquioxide 293

as pyrophosphate 297

as sulphate 297

as sulphide 295

volumetrically 298

with potassium f erricyanide 298

with potassium permanganate 300

dioxide 186

hydroxide (ous) 186

protosesquioxide 186

pyrophosphate. 189

separation from alkalies 632

from aluminium and iron 665

from barium and strontium 633, 634, 635. 636

from cobalt and nickel 651

from lead, bismuth, cadmium, and copper 685

from nickel and cobalt 633, 638

from nickel and zinc 644

from zinc 665

sulphate, anhydrous (ous) 188

sulphide 187

Marguerite's method of ferrous determination. 312

Maste's Lamp

Measuring 26

Mechanical division ' 51

Mercury 205

chloride (ous) 206

chromate (ous) 226

mercuric, determination as choride (ous) 366

determination as metal 364

as oxide 367

as sulphide . . . 366

by Scherer's method 369

volumetrically 367

separation from mercury (ous) copper, cadmium, and

lead 68b

mercurous, determination as chloride 361

determination volumetricnlly 362



INDEX. 775



Mercury, mercurous, separation from mercury (ic), copper, cadmium,

bismuth, and lead 688

oxide (ic) 134, 207

phosphate (ous) 230

separation from antimony 708

from arsenic and antimony oxides 713

from gold and silver 710

from metals 679

from silver, bismuth, copper, cadmium, and

lead 694

sulphide (ic) 206

Metals in cyanides, determination of 553

Mitscherlich's method of determining silicic acid 521

Mohr's burette 42

method of determining antimony 400

of determining arsenic 416

of determining hydrogen sulphide. 560

of determining sulphuric acid 435

Moisture, influence of upon gases, in reading-off 34

Molybdic acid, see acid molybdic.

Mortreux's method of determining sulphur in free state 570

Miiller's modified Schulze's method of determining phosphoric acid

as ferric phosphate 452

Neubauer's method of determining phosphoric acid 454

Nickel 190

and cobalt, separation from barium and strontium 633, 634, 638

determination as metal 304

as nickel tripotassium nitrate 307

as oxide and hydroxide 302

as sulphate 304, 308

as sulphide 303,307

volumetrically t 305, 308

hydroxide (ous) 189

oxide (ous) 189

separation from alkalies 632

from copper 683

from zinc 658

sulphide, hydrated (ous) 190

Nitric acid, see acid nitric.

Nitrogen 168

tablo of absorption 259

table of weight of 1 c.c. at different temperatures and

pressures 260

Nitrous acid, see acid nitrous.



776 INDEX.

FAGB

Oil-bathi 66

Operations 11

Otto's method of separating phosphoric acid from aluminium 459

Oudeman's method of determining ferric iron 332

Oxalic acid, see acid oxalic.

Oxygen 153

Palladium, determination as chloride (ic) 390

as metal 390

iodide (ous) 237

Pelouze's method of determining nitric acid with ferrous chloride . . . 573
Penfield's method of determining silicon fluorides evolved from

fluorides 478

Penny's method of ferrous iron determination 319

Pettenkofer's method of determining carbonic acid 484

Phosphates, see acid phosphoric.
Phosphoric acid, see acid phosphoric.

Pinchcocks 43, 44

Pipettes 39

Pisani's method of determining chlorine 524

of determining iodine 539

of determining molybdic acid 421

of determining silver 349

Vogel's modification of 351

Platinum 216

and gold, separation from tin, antimony, and arsenic 716

determination as metal 393

as potassium-platinic chloride 394

as sulphide (ic) 395

separation from gold 716, 727

from metals of groups iv and v in alloys 705

sulphide (ic) 216

Potassa 131

fused 155

solution 155

Potassium borofluoride 232

chloride 162

-cobaltic nitrite 193

cyanide 136

determination as chloride 245

as nitrate 244

as potassium-platinic chloride 245

as silicofluoride 248

as sulphate 243

dichromate 156

disulphate 141



INDEX. 777

PAGE

Potassium hydroxide 131

-hydrogen fluoride 141

iodide 148

nitrate 162

permanganate 145

-platinic chloride 163

separation from sodium 599, 604

silicofluoride 164

sulphate . . . . k 161

Precipitates, drying 110

igniting , f 112

washing 98

Precipitation, effecting 91

Pressure, influence of, upon gases in reading-off 33

Radicals, determination of 239

Reagents 127

Reimann's method of determining bromine 532

Reinige's method of determining iodine 533

Reissig's method of determining phosphoric acid 448

Rheineck's method of determining ferrocyanides 557

Rivot's method of determining copper 376

Rivot-Beudant-Daguin's method of determining sulphur 568

Rose's method of determining arsenous acid 419

carbonic acid 496

oxalic acid 470

phosphoric acid 448

Rose-Finkener's method of determining cyanogen in mercuric cyanide 552

Samples, selection of 50

Scheibler's method of determining carbonic acid 500

Scherer's method of determining mercury (ic) 369

Schneider's method of determining antimony 403

Schlosing's method of determining nitric acid 579

Schulze's method of determining nitric acid 582

nitric acid from loss of hydrogen .... 588
phosphoric acid as magnesium phos-
phate . 453

Schwarz's method of determining chromic acid 424

copper 381, 382

free iodine 542, 543

lead 360

Selenium, determination 429

Selenous acid, see acid selenous.

Sifting 53

Silica (see also acid silicic) 233



778 INDEX.



Bilicic acid, see acid silicic.

Siewert's method of determining nitric acid as ammonia. 687

Silver 150,198

bromide 236

chloride 198

. cyanide 201

determination as chloride 338

as cyanide 341

as metal 341

as sulphide 340

by Gay-Lussac's method 342

by Pisani's method 349

volumttrically 342

oxide 236

phosphate, normal 230

separation by cupellation 698

from copper, cadmium, bismuth, mercury, and lead.. 686

from gold 713

from lead 693

from mercury (ic), copper, and cadmium 690

from metals 679

sulphide 200

Smith's method of determining silicic acid 519

Soda 131

-lime. 153, 154

Slodium carbonate v. 135

anhydrous.. 166

chloride 150, 165

determination as carbonate 250

as chloride 250

as nitrate 249

as sulphate 249

disulphate 141

hydroxide 131

nitrate 165

-platinic chloride 166

separation from ammonium 603

from potassium 599, 604

silicofluoride 167

sulphate, anhydrous 164

thiosulphate 135

Solution of substances 79

potassa 155

stannous chloride for ferric-iron determination 329

Sonnenschein's method of determining phosphoric acid 446

Starch iodide 849



INDEX. 779

PAGE

Stoiba's method of determining hydrofluosilicic acid 443

Strontium carbonate .....' 172

determination as carbonate 267

as sulphate 266

separation from calcium 619, 621

from potassium and sodium 607, 609

sulphate 171

Struve's method of determining iodine colorimetrically 541

Substances, converting into weighable forms 81

Sulphides, determining in presence of carbonates 742

in silicates ' 742

Sulphur, determination as hydrogen sulphide 558, 562, 569

by Berzelius-Rose's method 564

by Bunsen's method 566

by Rivot-Beudant-Daguin's method 568

in free state by Mortreux's method 570

in sulphides 562, 569

in sulphides, separation from chlorine 756

Sulphuric acid, see acid sulphuric.
Sulphurous acid, see acid sulphurous.

Table of absorption of carbonic acid 508



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