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VOLUME .1. 1870-1871.




Absence of Green Color in the Leaves of Plants ... 6

Australian Gum Trees, Eucalypii 50

Agricultural and Horticultural Work, 55, 90,

115, 142, 177, 208, 232, 270, 310, 333, 365

Asparagus H^' ^51

Animal Life ll|

Apples. Good Quality J ' .onr

Azaleas, Propagation of 18, 200

Antidote to Poison 240

.\nts. How to Destroy. . .'. j^^O

Apples and Pears, Raising of in Dry Seasons 366

Azaleas, Time of Repotting 21

Acclimatizing Society, Onithological and Piscato-
rial 120, 121. 156, 215, 275

Almond, Culture of 157, 221

Apples, Preservation of 159

Apples as Food '-^18

Artesian Wells, Boring of 222

Amateur 'Jai-deners, Hints to 245

Bay District Horticultural Society of California,

13, 31, 56, 93, 121, 154, 185, 189, 215, 231, 246, 275
Botany, Popular, 16, 40, 86, 108, 136, 167,

197, 228, 261, 294, 327, 362

Bedding Plants, Tender, etc 44, 285

Bulbs, Flowering, etc 65, 314

Botanist, Letter from ~ 173

Biilbs, Persistence of Life in 208

Bee Notes 213

Blue Gum, Eucalyptus globuhcs 226

Bulbs, Californian 227

Big Trees of California, Sequoia gigardea 291

Hegonia '^21

Bursaria Spinosa 368

Bananas in Brazil 126

Bouvardia Davisonii 160

Hlackberries 224

Bermuda Grass 280

Camellia Japonica 2

Castor Oil Plant, Bicinus communis 44

Californian Grapes and Wines, etc 24, 81

Californian Rose Bay, Rhododendron Calif omicum . .84

Cement for Handles 89

ConifersB, Cones of 94

Coniferffi, Cones of. Lecture on 113, 134

Coffee, Swedish 143

Cranberries 163, 370

Calochortus Leichtlinii 170

Cactus 193

Camphor Tree 201

Crops, The 211

Crop, Profitable 239

Cauliflower • 239

Correspondence.. . .21, 62, 248, 273, 280, 317, 343, 373

Cyclamen 364

Cabbages, American and Foreign, etc., . . . .21, 122, 250

Cashmere Goat in America 30

Cotton Culture 27, 256, 352, 374

Chestnut, American Sweet 124

Cultivation, Steam, etc 125, 255

Castor Beans 160

Cloves, What They Are 160

Color in Flov.ers, Changes of 191

Cut Worms, Sawdust for 192

Crown Imperial, Variegated 252

Calceolaria Culture 256

Chmate, Effect of Trees on, etc 286,348

Cherry Trees, Culture of. 349

Cundurango ^'^

Developments, Agricultural 138

Duck Ranch 152

Daisy and its Varieties 223

Darliugtonia, Californica 254, 369

Dahhas ^47

Editorial Portfolio, 19, 60, 94, 119, 153, 187,

214, 241, 273, 313, 338, 368
Editorial Gleanings, 21, 63, 122, 158, 191, 218,

251, 280, 320, 345, 374

I^rica -37

Eggs in Winter ^^^

Eucalypti Leaves. 206

Essay on Association • • 298

Exhibition First, of Horticultural Society 303

Flowering of Shrubs lAi}:^

Farm, A Small *^' ^J^

Fertilizers, .':!oue ^^3

Floor, How to Sweep 11°

Fruit Trees, Seedling o ' oc^

Fungi and Its Structure, etc 148, 163, 284

Fuschia j^l

Flowers, Sleep of \'_\

Farmers, What Eats them Up? 174

Flowers, Hints About • - • • • ■ ■ 177

Forest Trees Growing Up, etc., 155, 156, 178, 256, 34b

Floral Returns 206

Ferns — Filices 289

Fruits and Flowers, CaUfornian 296

Fi-uits and Vegetables of San Francisco 309

Fn;its, Kasteru v. Californian. 311

Fruit Cultiire, Faults in 330

Fruit Market, Report on 217, 247, 279, 336, 367

Flowering Shrubs, Hardy 353

Fruits, Notes on 359

Forests, Our, How They are Going 29, 61

Flowers, Love of, in New York 219

Fruits. Increasing the Flavor of 220

GUmpses into the World of Plants 68, 101

Game, Introduction of 88

Gladiolus in Bloom ^^

Geraniums, Pelargoniums 97, 252

Gorse as Food for Stock 233

Guarana 238

Garlic 239

Gardening 20, 283

Grape Vines, Rearing of, in Pots 218

Grape Sugar 222

Gas Iniurious to Vegetation ''o^

Gold Fish 282,284

Guano "^74

Horticultural Exhibition in San Francisco, 1870 14

Hortus. Letter from ^9

Hedges 71, 3&1

Hint to California ' ^

Horses, Galled Backs of 105

Hyacinths, Indoor Cultivation of 130

Hybrids •■„131

Hens, Expenence with i^**. ^oo

Hens, How to Keep ■ • • ■ 179

Horticultural Exhibition, Our Next 207, 277

Hay Crops, Our 236

Hydrangea, Hortensia ^'^

Horticultural Exhibition, Late, 1871 331

Horticulture, American • • ■ -22

Heat on Growth of Plants 378, 380

Introductory ^

Cy^isji —


r^c Rior> Kfi c*— T.


Insects, Destructive 132, 251, 281, 315, 352

Improvements, PubUe 1''

Insect Larvae l*'"

Industry, A New ^f_^

Iron, Watering Plants with ' - ^S

Irrigation, Value of '-''^


Lands Ljdng Idle


Lilie^;, and their Kind.




.... 145

_^^ 162

Lake Tahoe, isTotes of a Trip to 265

Leaves, Walking, of Austraha 23

Lime, Value of 251

Leaves, Transpiration of

Milk Weed, Californian

Manure, Spreading, etc., 178, 188, 192, 218, 237, 240. 2.54

Markets, Our j°^^

Molds Poisonous : 1^^

Moss, Sea '^/^

Mealy Bug— ' 'w.ridtK, Vines Infested with 21

Mechanics' Institute Fair -63

Mulching ^55

Mallow, Indian 351

Mesquit Bean 3a2

New York. Letter from ^1

New and Rare Plants 121, 155

179, 217, 247, 316, 371

New Zealand Flax -'^'^

Ornamental and Landscape Gardening-, 10, 39,

79, 106, 139, 166, 198, 230, 263, 295, 328, 3G1

Oaklaud, Letter from oO

Oleander. Nerium '^

Olive Tree, Oka ^^




Orchards, Selection of Localities for 170

Orchards, Culture of 227

Oats, Norway 237

Orange Tree, Citrus -^^

Orange Tree, Grafting ^ 2^^

Orchard Trees, Decay of ■" l^tj

Osage Hedges

Pansy, Viola Tricolor

Preservation of Wooden Stakes and Labels 8, 287

Preserving Hops ■*?

Pasture Grass for California -lo

Parks. PubUc 54, 111, 122

Primrose, Primula 10^

Pink, Dianihus 129

Plant Lice, Aphides 13-

Phantom Leaves 172

Prospects, Our Domestic 175

Plants, Effects of Gas on 181

Piedmont, Sulphur Springs 182

Premium List, Horticultural Society 183

Plants for the Dwelling U ouse 194

Parks 202

Parks, Our City 202

Pruning, with reference to Fruit Production. 128, 20-2

Ploughing Deep 23o, 34o

Poppy, Cultivation of, in California ■ • 2o9

Premiums, Award of 308, 332

Poultry 122,127,157

Peat as Fuel 127

Pumpkins Among Corn lo^

Potatoes. Special Manures for, etc . . 159, 218, 283, 379

Poison Oak j^O

Pansies in Masses 192

Pine Trees, Eftects on the Soil 220, 288

Palms 250

Peas 252, 349

Plants, Watering with Hot Water 255, 380

Plants, Origin of 281

Plants, Fibrous and Oil- Yielding 349



Plaue-Tree in Cities

Quails as Insect Eaters

Quince. Cultivation of

Ense, Bona ^3, 230, 2g

Tioso LuTC .....-••-•••

Rope. New, to Make it Pliable .^ . . ._. . . .^. • -^73

Ramie ...

Rose of Sharon

Rains, Onr Late

Ramie as a Forage Plant

Redwoods. Sequoia Sempervireiis


.77, 171, 222, 275







Raspberry, Mammoth Cluster ^^'

Radishes, Speedy Growth of ^'^

Shade Trees

Sugar Beet, BeUt, Cida

Sun Flower

Stock, Food for

Sugar, How .Made White..
Soil. Cultivator of

75. 351
... .79
.... 84

Sugar Beet Culture iaq ' 144

Sherman Island, Farming on i'^-^. '■'^f

Sorgo, Sorqhum Snccharaiuiti ' .A ,ii

Suggestion 143,204

Sugar Beet in England |*'

Singing Birds, Treatment of 151

S.and Drifts, How Checked in France .152

Silk Culture ^"^- ^^^

Success, Road to ^'°

Sheep, Utility of, to Farmers. ^ • ■ ■ •2Uy

Shrubs and Trees, Enumeration of 292, d2d

State Fair ?^*

Silk Worm Eggs, Trade m foo

Salt as a Manure, Effects of J^^

Smut in Wheat. Remedy for ^blJ

Squirrels, Suffocation of -;f^

o 1 I- ,^1 2/0

Seed, 1 >ad • ■ • ^^^

Solomon's Seal, Two-Leaved 20¥

Small Fi-uits, Culture of «><*

Talk About Flowers • •»

TroiDical Fruits. Sketches of ooc ' oki

Tuberose, Polianthes Tuberosa 225, 2&1

Timber Trees. ..'. 301, 325, 355

Trees, Age of oi ' 9V0 970 07^

Tea Plantation 21, 252, 278. ilo

Tallow Tree °J

Tomato, Trophy • • • • ,•"*

Tomato 1^^' f^i

Thistles, to Destroy j^^

TowTi Gardening ^^

Tui-meric ^-r

Trout, Food for Young ^^^

Trees, Washing and Scraping of ^^^

Thuja Lobbii ^^^

Von Muller, Letter from -^^

Vine Culture, Cahfornian «. ^°^

Vinevards, Planting of ^^^

Vegetable Life, Curiosities of ■ • • • :ii

Vegetables. New and Promising VaneUes ot ii>3

What is Wanted in California • .^. • - • • ■ • • - • - '

Woodward's Gardens 9, 61, 181, 314, 34d

Watering ^, ,

Word to Pomologists ^ig', 240,' 286

Weeds ' 04.8

Washington, Letter from ^*°

Wine-making, Prize Essay on *°*

Walnut Black, Juglans nigra ■ - -^^^

Walks, Neat ' nn^

Who Makes the Money ? ^' °

Water-lily, gigantic, Victoria Regm -^^

Yeast, Home-made ^^^

Yucca 206

Verba Buena Park



California Horticulturist


Vol. I.


No. 1.


It is but right that the projectors .of any
new undertaking in the field of journalism,
should, in making their appearance before the
public, give as far as possible an insight into
their ultimate end and aim, state what they
propose to accomplish, and also the means at
hand for its successful issue. In endeavoring
to place a horticultural journal before the
public of California, we may be accused of a
rash act, and, no doubt, if we thought as the
majority do, such might be the case. It shall
be our province to show the aforesaid major-
ity that they are wrong and we are right.
Encouraged by this belief, and also in the
belief of an actual need for a publication such
as we propose to issue, we, with all due defer-
ence, lay before the public the first number of
the "California HoRTiruLTurasT."

An extended and practical intercourse with
all classes of cultivators of the soil, from the
landed proprietor of two or three flower-pots
to the possessor of hundreds of acres, has long
since convinced us of the pressing necessity
for a medium, through which all might set
forth their experiences, observations and ideas
on the horticulture and agriculture of the Pa-
cific coast. The circumstances under which
every cultivator finds himself placed, whether
the experienced agriculturist from distant parts
of the world, or the amateur, just initiating a
flower-bed, render not only desirable, but ab-

solutely necessary, that all the local informa-
tion possible to be attained should be laid
before him ; and that it should be so arran-
ged as to be of practical use and value to him
in his occupation. It is this idea which has
led us to the publication of this journal, as
the long needed medium.

The climate, seasons and soil of California
differ so materially from those of other re-
gions, in almost every particular, and are so
diverse, even in different parts of the State,
that in many operations we are compelled to
deviate from old established rules, and frame
a system of our own. This variation and di-
versity, while presenting formidable difficulties
to the agriculturist and horticulturist, yet
affords an extended field for the successful
cultivation of plants from the most widely
separated localities. Our horticultural and
agricultural products astonish the world as
much now, as our gold fields have done in
years gone by; and if we take into considera-
tion the short space of time given to the culti-
vation of our fields and gardens, we must
claim a marvelous progress already attained.
The success, of our labors has been so great
that local peculiarities of soil and climate have
been hardly taken into consideration ; and the
apple and orange, the grape and the water-
melon, the walnut and the almond, the tea
plant and the hop vine, the cabbage and the
peanut have been cultivated in one and the
same locality, and with some success


These experiments have, however, proved
to the more intelligent observer that certain
plants will do better in one locality than in
another, and that almost every plant and tree
requires some peculiarity in soil and climate
to bring it to perfection. We will instance
the vine, which our readers are well aware
yields such widely different results in different
situations; and we find that the same can be
said in regard to every plant cultivated for
use or ornament. These facts being duly
considered, it becomes necessary that the ex-
perience of our cultivators should be collected,
condensed, and presented to the public; and
thus serve as a very important guide in the
future development of our agricultural and
horticultural resources. Unless we profit by
the experiences of others, we will always be
subjected to unnecessary expense, and serious
loss of time must ensue to the general progress
and prosperity of the country. The ex-
change of opinions on horticultural subjects
must be limited, so long as we are without
a proper vehicle through which we can ex
press ourselves without trespassing on the de-
partment of others.

In bringing before the public the " Califor-
nia Horticulturist,''' we propose to correct
this long existing evil, and offer a journal that
shall be open to every one interested in the
cultivation of our soil, and to horticulturists
in particular. In our journal we desire to
treat on every subject comprised in horticul-
ture, and while we shall endeavor to be high-
ly interesting to our neighbor who cultivates
a few parlor plants, and trains her ivy branches
— -nourished by a glass of water — aroimd the
parlor mirror, we shall seek to supply indispen-
sable information to the owner of the conser-
vatory with its oranges and its camellias ; or of
the hot-house with its tropical collection.
We shall strive to be instructive alike to the
admirers of the canary and the goldfinch,
whose sweet voices make glad melody in the
sitting-room ; and to the occupant of the rural
residence, with its picturesque landscape, its
lakelets and streams teeming with trout, and
its woods enlivened with the deer and the

quail. We shall distribute information in re-
gard to the management of the kitchen-garden,
as well as details for the guidance of the pro-
fessional grower of extensive fields of aspara-
gus, tomatoes, etc., and make a strong effort
to further the interests of our extensive vine-
yards in all parts of the State, as well as our
numerous orchards. The production of silk,
the propagation of the ramie, the tea plant,
and other important features of horticulture
will alike receive our watchful attention.
We shall use the greatest care, in giving our
readers from time to time, a selection of the
best varieties of plants for useful and orna-
mental culture, with the most approved mode
of treatment.

In fact, we will do our best to make the
"California Horticulturist" what it should
be; and we trust that those occupied in culti-
vating our soil, and in ornamenting our homes,
wall favor us with communications on any sub-
ject bearing on horticulture, either in support
of, or at variance with our own expressed
opinion; as in keeping up a constant inter-
change of thought, and in comparison of expe-
riences, the real merits of many controverted
subjects will be brought to light. The knowl-
edge of a single individual, published to a
community, may produce a large amount of
good to the general public. As a new jour-
nal, we will be subject to the same difiiculties
which every similar enterprise meets with; but
we trust that the encouragement which we
received on approaching our friends, and those
interested in horticulture, on the subject of
publishing this monthly journal, may prove
an indication of its final success.


The Camellia Japonica is a native of Japan
and China, where it grows to the hight of
from forty to fifty feet. This exquisite ever-
green, was named by Linnaeus, the great
botanist, after Camelli, a Jesuit, who is said
to have first brought it to Europe, in the year
1739. It w/as first cultivated in England, from
whence it gradually spread into Italy, France


and Germany, in the order which I have
named. It is now cultivated all over the civ-
ilized world, and America, though the last to
take u]) its cultivation, can show as a result,
some of its most valued varieties.

The camellia as first known, produced a sin-
gle white flower, with trom six to seven petals;
but care and skill in its culture, has so much
improved it, that it is now considered the
finest production of floral beauty. The form
and color of its most exquisite flowers,
cannot be surpassed by any plant which
we have at present under cultivation.
It produces its rich blooms at a season of
the year when the scarcity of flowers is so
much felt, that it makes it all the more desir-
able as a green-house and parlor plant.
But it is not only the flowers which are so
highly esteemed, the foliage in itself, makes
the plant the most elegant and choicest of our
evergreen flowering shrubs.

The camellia is easily cultivated, and will
do well in almost any kind of soil, which is
not too poor or sandy. The soil should be
rather coarse, and not prepared (as is some-
times done) by running it through a fine sieve.
If the plant requires repotting, it should be
done when the flowering season is over, which
will be in the latter part of April or the
beginning of May. The transplanting should
not be repeated often, as it has an injuri-
ous effect upon the flowering. Plants that
have remained in the same pot for five or six
years, often produce the greatest abundance of

During the summer months when the plant
is out of bloom, it should occupy a shady
place ; well protected from our strong winds,
but at the same time, in such a position as
shall give it plenty of fresh, pure air, and keep-
ing the earth moderately moist. It is
now, during the summer months, that
the flower buds of the camellia are forming ;
as they advance in size a little more water
may be given. The first flowers may be ex-
pected in November, and then the plant should
be kept closer; plenty of water, a moderately
warm temperature, and an occasional sprink-

ling of the floor, if in a green house, or the
plant, if in the parlor, is required. Care
should, however, be taken, not to wet the
flowers, as every drop of water is apt to pro-
duce a yellow spot on the delicate petals of
this floral treasure. The worst enemies of the
camellia are gasses of any kinds, and a diy
hot atmosphere. At times, the professional
grower of the camellia, keeps his plants very
close, and subjects them to a high temperature ;
this he does for the purpose of forcing the
plants into bloom more rapidly. Such treat-
ment, it is easy to see, must be anything but
beneficial to the plants.

To cultivate this choice plant in the parlor
or sitting-room, with the most satisfactory
results, I would advise the construction of a
double-window, somewhat in the style of a
show window, which will enable the grower
to maintain an equal temperature and exclude
gasses, etc. Light frosts will do the camellia
no harm, but on the other hand, the hot rays
of the sun are sure death to its flowers.
The climate of San Francisco is favorable
for the outdoor cultivation of the camellia,
were it not for the prevalence of our strong
winds, which more than counterbalances the
good eftects of our moderate sun heat.
When plants are confined in a room, or the
green house; the sun acts more powerfully by
reason of the glass, and consequently a great
deal of air must be given, especially during a
warm day : but care must be taken in admit-
ting air, not to create drafts. The camellia re-
quires that its foliage and buds shall be kept
free from dust and insects, which can be done
by means of a soft sponge slightly moistened.

If we were asked to lay down short and
simple rules, for the successful cultivation of
this plant by the amateur; we would advise
a shady, temperate position ; protection from
winds; regular watering; (rather too much
than too little, at least during the flowering
season,) cleanliness, with plenty of air, and a
moist atmosphere created by occasional sprink-
ling. The propagation of this valuable plant is
mostly done by cuttings from the single vari-
eties; they are also raised from seed, and


many new varieties have been produced in
this way. The camellia plants cultivated on the
Pacific boast, are all imported from the Eastern
States and Europe; generally arriving here
in good order.

Professional gardeners cultivate them for
the flowers, which are sold here, (in San Fran-
cisco) at 50 cents per flower. The white flow-
ers are always in great demand for bouquets,
wreaths and the hair. During the camellia
season a fine bouquet is incomplete without
containing one of these floral gems. The
flowers are plucked before they open, and
when used for the bouquet, are opened by
hand, in this way they keep much longer.
The flower is mounted on wire, and always
occupies the most conspicuous place in the
bouquet or basket.

We can recommend the more extensive cul-
tivation of the camellia, feeling certain that
from the simple mode of treatment w^hich it
requires, success must follow.

THE PANSr. {Viola tricolor.)

C. D. Copeland, saj^s : — " Nothing in the
world of flowers is painted with such exqui-
site beauty or endless variety of coloring, as
the fancy or German pansy. They talk, and
smile, and look you in the face, with intelligent
countenances and cheerful eyes, as though
they were creatures of life."

This little pet of the garden is familiar to
all our readers. It isindigenous both in Europe
and America, and in its wild state in some
parts of this country, is quaintly called the
" Johnny jump up." Since it has been taken
to the fostering care of our nurserymen and
professional gardeners it has so rapidly and
continuously improved as to have become one
of the most interesting of small bedding plants,
and should find a place in every garden.

In all Horticulturist's flowers certain features
are considered necessary to constitute a per-
fect plant, so with the Pansy we expect from a
well-grown specimen the following character-
istics. The flower-stem should be of just
sufficient hight to permit the expansion of the

blossom ab£)ve the foliage of the plant, the
form of the flower should be round and regu-
lar, and the petals should be firm and flat and
present a lively contrast of color. The soil
for its cultivation should consist of a rich
sandy loam mixed with well rotted manure.
It thrives best where shade can be given
during the hotter portion of the day, and
requires copious moisture. While in the East-
ern States, the winters are to cold, and the
summers too hot, and the cultivators of this
little favorite are compelled to be content with
its gay beauties during the spring season, the
San Franciscan, by providing sufficient shel-
ter from the burning rays of the sun, and
abundant moisture, can indulge in the pleas-
ure of a continuous succession of blooming
plants during the whole year.

The Amateur Horticulturist must not how-
ever be too exacting, the few plants first pur-
chased, which have embellished her parterre
for a period of 3 or 4 months with a profusion
of elegant blossoms have done good service^
and must be replaced by a succession of young-
er ones which can be procured at a moderate
outlay. But should the expense of replanting
the Pansy bed be objected to, the plants may be
raised from seed in some box which should be
placed in a warm and sheltered situation, and
covered during cold nights until the seeds
are up. This is especially advisable in San Fran-
cisco where for weeks during the year the
warmth of the sun is insufficient to stimulate
the seeds, in which case they decay. Seedsmen
are often blamed for furnishing bad seed, when
they are entirely innocent, the best of seed will
fail by laying too long in the ground.
When the young plants are large enough
for transplanting, prepare the bed by working

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