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California Horticulturist



C. STEPHENS, Editor.



No. 409 Washington Street, opposite the Post Office,




Absorption of Moisture by Leaves 1G7

Adiantums 3G5

Agapauthiis 201

Agreements, Put them in Writing 2G4

Agricultural Show 356

Ailunthus, Perfume of 338

Alfalfa as Hog-feed 257

Alfalfa for Cattle 234

Alfalfa Hay, How to Cure it 305

Algfe, Plain Directions for Collection of. . . 14

Althcea frutex 162

Amaryllis 300, 361

American Pomological Society 179

American Pomological Society 212

American Plants in Great Britain 85

American Steam-plows 206

Ammonia for Verbenas 270

Ancient Farms 106

Ancient Timber 161

Announcement for 1874 375

Annuals 72

Ants' Nests in Gardens 260

Aphides, or Green Fly 196

Aplectum, Flowering of 364

Apocynum as a Fibre-plant 282

Apples in Plaster 224

Apple-worm in California 100

Acpiarium 247

Arbutus, or Strawberry-tree . 75

Arranging Flowers in Beds 207

Asparagus and Manure 371

Asparagus, Medical Value of 158

Auricula, (Primula auricula) 136

Australian Method of Cooling Water 296

Azaleas and Ehododendrons 153


Balloon Vine 301

Banana Culture 146

Banana, The 36

Burn-yard Manure, Value of. 195

Bay District Horticviltural Society, Report

of Secretary . . 376

Bay District Horticultural Society, Spring

Exhibition .' 180

Bay District Horticultural Society, Third

Annual Exhibition 340

Begonia 347

Benzoin 239

Boracic Acid, Preserving Action of 100


Botanical and Zoological Farms 77

Blood Globules 191

Books, Notices of 25, 60, 122

Boufiuet, John Muir's Idea of 248

Bouquets in Paris 238

Bulb Culture in Holland 100

Cabbage-worms 159

California Chestnuts 187, 209

California Ferns 359

California Flower Season 235

California Pears, a Bunch of 338

California Seedling Pears 277

California Shad 31

California Wild Flowers, (Illustrated) 167

Camellia Culture; Use of Lime Water. .... 100

Camellia Japonica, Cultivation of 175

Campanula turbinata elegans 355

Camphor 274

Camphor-wood 86

Caoutchouc, or India-rubber 239

Carnations, Rooting Cuttings of 355

Catalogues, etc. 25, 60, 90, 123, 155, 249, 317 378
Centennial Commission U. S., Address by. 22

Charcoal as a Purifier 36

Charcoal on Flowers 220

Cherry-trees 185

Chiccory 221

Choice Grapes; Cultivation of under Glass, 153

Cinchona Cultivation 138

Cinchona in Bengal 76

Cinchona Tree 185

Cinchona Tree 340

Cinnamon 163

Cissus discolor 292

Cocksipur Thorn 268

Coffee 225

Coffee-making 224

Colletia Bictonensis 23

Colorado Desert as an Inland Sea 45

Compost Heaps 222

Cork Oak 96

Corn, Prolific Joint 337

Correspondence 30, 66, 99, 128, 286

Cranberry Culture 226

Crops 38

Cut-flowers, Arrangement of 44, 67

Cucumber, Hints about Growing 309

Cultivating Flowers 74

Cure for Kheumatism 189

Cut-flowers, to Freshen 332


Cnttingfi, How I Strike them 25G

Cuttiiiys, to Manage 159


Dcciduons Flowering Shrubs, Pruning of. . 10

Deodorizer, a Sini])le 11)5

Desirable IMants of lleceut Introduction. . '230

Diudem Pinks G7

Discoveries, llecent French, in Horticulture 49

Dried Fruit, The Aldeu Process 283


Eastern Quail 19

Editorial Gleanings, 31, GG, 99, 129, 159, 189

220, 250, 288, 323, 352.

Editorial Portfolio, 21, 55, 87, 119, 151, 178, 215

El EspirJtu Santo 298

Ericas, Cultivation of 112

Eyes in Deep-sea Creatures 290

Exchange Table, Our. .24, 59, 90, 122. 318, 379

247, 280, 3U9, 340.

Faded Flowers, To Eestoro 13

Fairs and Exhibitions. ..59, 89, 121, 151, 250

282, 309, 340.

Farm, the Largest in England 258

Favors Received, 25, 61, 91, 154, 186, 249, 317

344, 379.

FecuiKlity of Fishes 323

Female Flowers, Double Fertilization of. . . 288

Ferns and Fern Culture 17

Fern Culture ] G5

Fern-pressing .^■^. . , ^ . , ,^ 279

Ficus repens ,.,, ^-.'.l-.X-vf.t- • • 290

Filberts 225

Filters and Filtering 286

Fish, Cultivation of in Ditches and Ponds, 337

Fish Culture 177

Fishes, Cross-breeding of G8

Fishing, Influence of on Character 114

Flavoring with Ltsaves 174

Flax, Antiquity of 324

Flux-seed, New Use for 211

Flora of California 124

Floral and Vegetable Essences for Perfume, 195

Floral Curiosity G7

Floral Prizes for the Poor 354

Flowering Bulbs, Our Favorite 1

Flowers in Beds, Arrangement of 20

Flower Borders, Preparation of 107

Flowers, Preserving in Alcohol 124

Flowers, Season of ]29

Floriculture 131, 2li2

Flower Talk 105

Flower-talk — Honeysuckles, (Poetry) 149

Flowers and the Flower-trade IGl

Flowering Plants, Old 53

Flowering Shrubs, Choice, for the Garden, 37

Flowering Shrubs 3G8

Flowers, Odors of 2G9

Foliage Plants 372

Forest Planting a Source of Wealth 50

Forests, The Way they Go 132


Forest Trees 221

Forest Extermination, llesult of 223

Forest Leaves, Value of 225

Forest-tree Culture 235

Forests and Rain-fall 240

Forests and Freshets 306

Forests, Indian and German 3G9

French Idea, a Good one 292

Frnit, Pules for Preserving of 34

Fniit, Thinning of 35

Fruits, Drying of 79

Fruit-growing, Alden Process 199

Fruit in our Rooms 242

Fruit-drying Process, a New One 271

Fruit Trees at Planting Time 328

Fruit, Rotting of 339

Funeral Flowers in New York 35

Fnchsia, How it Acquired Celebrity 66

Fuchsias from Seed 163


Gamboge 239

Garden, The Parlor, (Illustrated) 374

Garden, How to Make 149

Garden Adornments 279

Garden Stakes, To Preserve 260

Garrya elliptica 346

Geraniums 105

Gladiolus, How to Grow It 295

Glass Houses, Shade for 204

Glass, Substitute for 260

Golden Morning Glory, (Illustrated) 229

Grass, When to Cut It 323

Grafting Geraniums 65

Grafting Wax 226

Grain of Mustard, A. (Poetry) 46

Greenhouses, Simple Method of Warming, 130

Greenhouse Plants, Cultivation of 141

Green Fly, Snuff for 196

Grouping of Plants 283

Grouping Trees, etc r 301

Guano Islands 224

Gum Plants 239

Gunpowder for Tent Caterpillars 22

Gutta Percha 239

Gutta Percha Cement 299


Hanging Baskets 293, 331

Hard and Soft Water 230

Hard Lime Floors 290

llardhaek 256

llazel, (Illustrated) 237

Heaths, Cultivation of 112

Hedges 172, 267

Hedges, Native 7

Honey-locust Hedge, How to Plant It, etc. 367

Horse-radish, To Get Tender 232

Horticulturist 21

Horticultural Meeting 33

H(jrticultural Spring Exhibition 151

Horticulture as a Profession for Ladies. . . 170

Horticulture, Discovery in 194

Hoteia (Spirita) Japonica 348

House Plants, Culture of 16, 197

How to Make a Garden 112


Hyacinths, Troameut of, after Flowering . IIJO
Hyacinths in Sponge H


Indian Wine 330

India-rubber 226

lulluouce of Forests on Climate 88

luseL-ts on House Plants 116

Insects in Gardens, to Exterminate 239

Insects in Orchards 246

Interesting News for Ladies 322

Irish Bogs 36

Irrigation 55, 272

Irrigation in the Great San Joaquin Valley,

(Illustrated) 180

Ivy for Drawing-rooms 46

Jerseys,. The 258

Kangaroo Vine of Australia 331

Knots on Plum-trees 199


Landscape, Upon the Term "Natural" as

Applied to 373

Landscape Gardening 278

Laughing Plant 190

Leaf, The, What it Does U6

Leaves, Importance of ,\[ 132

Leguminous Crops 131

Lilium Washingtonianum 124, 153

Lily of the Valley, (Convaliaria) .' 262

Lime, The 304

Madrona Tree, (Illustrated) 47

Magnolia grandiflora " ' " ' 282

Manure and Water 344

Medical Botany of California 33

Mesqiiite Gum * " ' 223

Meteorological Kecord, 161, 196, 228 260 324
356, 384.

Mildew on Vines, Eemedy for 259

Milk under the Microscope . .' . ' . . " .' .' .' ' 291

Millet as a Forage Plant . . . . 242

Monarch of the West Strawberry! . . . . . . . 322

Moss, Clearing of from Fruit Trees 158

Mulching 246

Mushrooms, How to Cook 86

Mushrooms, Cultivation of '. '. '. ', ". '. . 2loj 244


Native Hedges 7

Neglected Flowers ...'..'.'.."."'" 41

Neglected Source of Food 162

Neglected Plants 189

New Fodder . _ 260

New and Kare Plants, 25, ei, 91, 123. 148 155

251, 345.
New Fruits and Vegetables, 27, 62, 93, 123, 346

Notice of Books 25, 60, 122,' 154

Nudibranchiates, Kemarks on (Illustrated) 208


Obnoxious Postal Law, Kepeal of 22

Olive Oil, Testing of .'.".' 291

Olives, Old Avenue of, (Illustrated) .....'. 335

Olive Culture 117

Oranges, Collection of ,] 291

Orchid, The Best '.'.'.".'.. 291

Orchard Grass, Permanence of 252

Ornamental and Forest Trees for Fanii's'.*". 336

Osage Orange 194 228

Ostrich Feathers, '.".". . . .' 307

Outhne and Form of Certaiti Old Trees. '. '. 265

Oxalic Acid, Effect on Seed 228


Pampas Grass 131

Pansy, New Style of [ 252

Peach Fungus 271

Pears, Kipening of 324

Peppermint, (Mentha Piperita) 365

Perfumes , 227

Petunias, Training of .' 328

Pine Leaves 291

Phosphorescent Light of Several Plants.' 12

Plant Trees 204 226

Plants, Odors of ... . .' 104

Plants, How to Water ' .' 252

Plants for Vas^s 43

Plants for Parlor or Conservatory 33

Plants for Hanging Baskets 334

Plants as Doctors ." 353

Plants in the Sleeping Koom .. 353

Plantain, The ' 355

Planting Slips ' " " ' 3^4

Poison Oak ' ' 3g

Poisonous Plant 152

Pond Lily, The, (Poetry). . ...........'..'. 105

Pond Lilies, How to Grow 262

Potentilla fruticosa ' " 256

Primula Japonica, Germination of. .... . . . 100

Progressive Agriculture 43

Pruning Eoses 300


Eain-fall in San Francisco, 1849 to 1873,

(Illustrated) 104

Rain-fall of San Francisco 205, 248

Eamie and Jute ' 32

Eeport of Fruit Market, 29, 04, 97, 136 157

187, 218, 254, 284, 319, 349, 381.
Eeports of Societies, 24, 58, 89, 121, 154, 179

Eefuse of Tanneries 191

Eose Hedge, English 140

Eoots as Manure 289

Eoots, Mode of Life of 372

Eose Insects 292

Eose, The, and its Legends 308



Koses ill Englfind 196

Roses, Good List of 238

Kosos, Among the 275

Enral Adornment 160

llural Homes of California, (Illustrated), 39
G9, 101, 147.

Kough Cork for Rustic Work 99

Rust, To Prevent 177

Russian River, Changes in 35


Sea Kale 308

Select Plants .^,.. . . .8, 83

Shade Trees for Nothing. . . ..j^^... ._f,. 131

Sheej) in Orchards '.^J. »,,.»... .. 35G

Sheep in Vineyards ..f « ? • .j. •,♦* f 'i., • 192

Shellac 207

Siam, Fruits of 327

Silica and the Vegetable liingdom 118

Simple Floral Ornament 186

Siphon, Facts about 304

Skeleton Leaves, Preparation of 20

Sowing Seeds 233

Sponge on the San Diego Coast 166

Sponge Fishing 75

Sponges on Coast of Florida 171

State Agricultural Society's Fair 313

Straw for Feed, Value of 12

Struggle for Life among Plants 323

Sulphur to Kill Vermin 222

Summer-flowering Biilbs 133

Sumac, Venetian, (Rhus Cotinus) l^iO

Sumac, and How it is Cured 333

Surface Soil, Management of 240


Tamarind Tree, 151

Tea 345

Tea of Great Value 192

Thermometer, The 258

Timber Lands around Lake Tahoe 245

Timely Hint 68

Tomatoes Growing from Cuttings 194

Torrey, Dr. John, Botanist, Obituary of . . 110

Transportation of Milk 356

Tree Lemon Verbena 283

Tree Transplantation 160

Tree Seeds, Sowing of 214

Trees and Rain 214

Trees in Home Grounds 273

Trees, Make them Branch Low 195

Trees, to Protect 227

Trenching 245

Trout-breeding on Long Island 354


United States Centennial Commission, Ad-
dress by 22



Variety in Our Flower Gardens, More of it, 325

Vase of Flowers for the Shah 339

Vases and Vase Plants 104

Vegetables and Salads, English View of. . . 52

Vegetable Perfumes, Efl'ect on Health 250

Vegetable Instincts 289

Verbenas, Culture of 94

Victorian Trees 109

Viola, Perpetual Yellow 211

Vine-disease Spreading in Portugal 244

Virtues of Borax 193


Warm Water for Plants 32

Waste Places, Restoring of 132

Watering 42

Water Rights 129

Watermelon Vinegar 270

Water Cress 202

Weeds 203, 236, 263, 303

Weeds in Lawns 228

Weigela Rosea 120

Wheat Yield 248

Wild Rice in Minnesota 258

Wilder, Marshall Pinckney, f Illustrated) . . 296

Wines and Brandies, How to Age 223

Wisteria versus Flies 100

Wood, Durability of 153

Wood, Hardness of 34

Woods, Hard and Ornamental of Pacific

Coast.. 81, 115

Woodward s Gardens, 24, 58, 120, 154, 185, 215

249. 317, 344, 378.
Work for the Mouth, 27. 62, 95, 125, 155, 186

216, 253, 318, 347, 379.

Xylophagous Marine Animals, Remarks on,

(Illustrated) 142


Yew, Flowering in Winter 352

Young Trees, Butchering of 68

Yuccas as Ornamental Plants -. 305

Zanthoxylon frccineum for Hedges 94

Zinc Labels 193



Vol. til

JA:N^UAPvY, 1873.

m. 1.




Year by year our people sboAv a gro"U'-
ing appreciation of iioweriug bulbs; and
although the simple treatment needed
by many of these favorites is as yet a
mystery to some,, it is gratifying to see
that others have met vrith marked suc-
cess. I have seen in some collections
(particularly in those of oui' lady ama-
teur-gardeners), magnificent spikes of
Hyacinths, beautiful clusters of Narcis-
sus, Cyclamens covered with their nod-
ding gems of white or purple, and
Lilies, Amaryllis, Tulips, Eanunculus,
Anemones, Gladiolus, Dielytras, Glox-
inias, Tigridias, etc., all grown with re-
markable success, and worthy objects
for the admiration of their lady friends,
who doubtless determine to follow the
example by adding some of these gems
to their own collections of plants, which
without some of the varieties above
named, are certainly very incomplete.

But a few years since, our florists and
seedsmen imj^orted flowering bulbs in
large quantities, but could not find a
ready sale for them, and the business
of importing bulbs proved very un-
profitable. This could not be expected
to be otherwise, when it is taken into

Vol. III.— -2.

consideration that in a new and really
undeveloped country, floriculture, as
■with all industries and p)ursuits, must
go through the various stages of devel-
opment. Flowers, although dearly
loved by both old and young, as our
surroundings will now testify, are yet
considered by many of our wealthy men
as very unnecessary luxuries, and are
planted and paid for in many instances
merely for apjDearance sake. It is not
surprising that to such men a pine, a
sunflower or a pojDpy seems more valu-
able than a hyacinth, a snowdrop or a
lily of the valley. It is the size of the
thing, the show that it makes, the quan-
tit}' for the small amount of money in-
vested, that has hitherto been the j^rin-
cipal consideration with our moneyed
men. Thanks, however, to the ladies,
who have gradually inaugurated a new
order of things, and who have them-
selves begun to realize the pleasures
and delights to be derived from the care
of plants, which offer new and varied
delights through the different seasons
of the year — in the garden, the con-
servatory or in the window.

Bulbous-rooted plants vaiy as much
as all other plants in their time of
flowering ; while some may be had in
bloom during the winter months in the


conservatory or iu tlie window, others
will not flower until late iu the autumn.

The bulbs which maybe planted now,
iu order to have them iu bloom during
the earl}^ part of the coming year, are:

Hyacinths, very full instructions for
treatment of which were published in
the Horticulturist in the Januar}- num-
ber of 1871. Hyacinths may now be
planted iu the open ground, and may
be expected to floAver in March and
April. Before planting, the soil should
be manured and well worked over ;
plant one and a half to two inches be-
low the surface, and keep clean from
weeds. Hyacinths are perfectly hardy.
If planted iu pots, for the purpose of
having them flower early, the bulbs
should be planted so as to be just
covered bj^ the soil. After planting,
the pots should be set in a dark but
moderately warm place, where roots will
be formed before the leaves develop
themselves. Under ordinarv circum-
stances, from three to four weeks in a
dark room will be sufficient. When
bringing them into the light, place
them iu a w^arm situation, and give a
liberal supply of water, and iu thirty
days after removing them into the light,
they may be expected to flower. I pre-
fer covering the pots, containing the
bulbs, to the depth of at least six inches
iu sand or leaf-mould, for about thirty
days, in order to bring foliage and the
flowerstocks to perfection at the same

If Hyacinths are grown iu glasses,
good strong bulbs should be selected,
the water should be changed at least
once a week, and it will prove advan-
tageous to keep them in a dark and
moderately warm room for at least two

I prefer single Hyacinths to the
double varieties ; their flowers will gen-
erally come out more perfect, and the

spikes fuller and more compact; the
single varieties are also more fragrant.

Tulips come into flower later than
Hyacinths, and require more warmth
and less moisture. They are not so
well adapted for pot culture, although
I have seen very fine specimens grown
iu pots, under ordinary treatment ; the
pots for Tulips should be of greater
depth, and the bulb should be planted
deeper, say, from three to four inches
below the surface. They should be
planted in a warm situation. Tulips do
not require much manure, but the soil
should be worked to greater de^ith
even than for H^'acinths.

The Cyclamen is one of my favorite
bulbs, but it is only adapted for the
conservatory or the window, where it
will always be found blooming from
November until May, and even later,
after which time it should be allowed to
rest, receiving only sufficient moisture
to keep it from shrinking. During the
time of flowering a liberal supply of
water should be given, and partial shade
is beneficial. One-third of the bulb within the soil, and two-thirds
of it above. I have a good number of
varieties in bloom now, tl^^ best of which
I have raised from seed, which was
planted a year ago. The young bulbs
are now producing an abundance of
charming blossoms of various colors,
highly valuable for fine bouquets and
baskets of flowers.

The Narcissus family is grown here
without any difficulty, to great perfec-
tion, both iu the house and iu the open
ground ; some of them are highly per-
fumed and are particularly attractive.
If planted now, we may have them
iu bloom in February in the house,
and iu March iu the open ground.
Some of the varieties are popularly
known as Jonquils ; others as Daft'o-
dils ; double and single, white and yel-


low, some having wliite flowers with a
red cup- like centre; they present a great
diversity, and are both effective and
pleasing in groups and as single plants,
wherever they grow.

Anemones are not as frequently met
with as could he desired, yet they are a
most intei^sting and valuable class of
plants, and as easily cultivated in pots as
in the ground. We may have them in
flower here from March until July. The
flowers are showj% and among the
various colors we find blue, white, red,
violet, rose, yellow and strij)ed, both
double and single. The bulbs should
now be phanted two inches deep in well
prei)ared soil.

The Eaj^unculus, also, is another
valuable bulbous-rooted plant, which
should be planted now, in order to have
it bloom early. The treatment is the
same as that required for the Anemone.

There are many other bulbs which
should not be withheld from our gar-
dens and conservatories as early and
charming flowerers, but I shall postpone
their description to some future time.



D uring the twenty-four hours last past,
two gentlemen of the press — no wise in
communication — have inquired, ' ' What
pative shrub would be most suitable for
a hedge ? " Taking this timely query
as i^erhaps indicative of a public desire
for information, we pen our answer,
given on the spur of the moment. The
most feasible for general purj^oses ap-
pears to be the White Thorn, (Cea-
nothus incanus), for the following reas-
ons: It is a stout, robust and rapid
grower, very tough and of rigid resist-
ance, somewhat thorny, as the popular
name indicates ; bears cutting back to

thicken, half hacking and weaving, and
trims well ; is not apt to die out, singly
or in patches, its vitality being most_
remarkable — cut even with the ground,
it springs up speedily, and repairs it-
self in two or three years, having such
firm hold of roots upon the ground, as
to require bonfires to exterminate them.
Managed with ordinary care, it can be
relied upon to turn both large and
small cattle. In its native state, it
grows from five to ten feet, and in some
localities fifteen. This shrub has a
wide range, from the coast, in this
vicinity, south, to 7,000 or 8,000 feet on
the Sierra Nevada Mountains; hence,
well suited for very general use.

For many years we have collected the
seed for culture, as an ornamental
shrub. A word or so of detailed de-
scrijDtion may be allowed in addition :
The stem or trunk is pale white, with
greenish tinge ; smooth bark ; twigs
numerous, almost as white as snow ;
leaves crowded, egg-shaped, blunt, and
slightly heart-shaped at the base, light
green above, with a soft velvety bloom
most pleasing to the eye ; whiter be-
neath, thick and leathery; flowers white,
in clustered bolls or heads, from thick
spurs, lateral or terminal, but not re-
markable for fragrance. The seed is
soniewhat triangular, minutely worty
and sub -three-horned; ripens from first
to last of September. It has also a desir-
able disposition to spread its branches,
and naturally arches off and interlaces.
This species, unlike many Geanothi, is
never browsed on by cattle, and, there-
fore, needs no protection in its incipient
growth. Found on dry mountain knolls
and in alluvial lands of creeks, etc. It
would seem to suit well the river and
valley lands. Should any choose a
trim, erect grower, this evergreen might
give place to others equally ornamental,
but less useful.



{Exdimve of Timber Trees) readili/ cligHh for
Victorian Industrial Ctdture, icith Indications
of their Native Countries and some of their
Uses — an Enumeration offered

[Continued from page 354 of November number.]

BoEHMERiA NivEA, Gaudiehnud* — The
Ramee or Rlieea. Soiitlieru Asia, as
far east as Japan. Tins bush furnishes
the strong and beautiful fibre woven in-
to the fabric which inappropriately is
called grass-cloth. The bark is soft-
ened by hot water or steam, and then
separated into its tender fibres. The
best is obtained from the young shoots;
it is glossy, tough and lasting, combin-
ing to some extent the appearance of
silk with the strength of flax. The
ordinary market value of the fibre is
about £40 per ton; but Dr. Royle men-
tions that it has realized, at times, £120.
The seeds are sown on manured or
otherwise rich and friable soil. In the
third year, or under veiy favorable cir-
cumstances even earlier, it yields its
crops, as many as three annually. The
produce of an acre has been estimated
at two tons of fibre. This latter, since
Kaempfer's time, has been known to be
extensively used for ropes and cordage
in Japan. Our rich and warmest forest
valle3-s seem best adapted for the
Ramee, as occasional irrigation can be
also there applied. In the open grounds
of Victoria it suifers from the night
frosts, although this does not material-
ly injure the plant, which sends up
fresh shoots, fit for fibre, during the
hot season. The plant has been culti-
vated and distributed since 1854, in the
Botanic Garden of Melbourne, where it
is readily propagated from cuttings, the
seeds ripening rarely there. Cordage
of this Boehmeria is three times as
strong as that of hemp. Other species
require to be tested, among them the

Online LibraryC StephensThe California horticulturist and floral magazine (Volume v.3-5 (1873-75)) → online text (page 1 of 127)