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hopelessly clumsy and inadequate on the mathematical and
scientific sides. 2 Besides this, languages are instruments of
communication, and it will be to the interest of South Africa
not to perpetuate another language. For the present, however,
instruction in the vernacular will be necessary for those who
intend to become teachers, and the use of the vernacular as a
medium will be necessary where the children come from Bantu-
speaking homes. As a working rule it is suggested that the
vernacular be the chief medium of instruction for the first two
years, that it share with English or Dutch the position of
medium for the next three, but that after that English or Dutch
become the medium.

1 The Dutch almost invariably address their Native servant in
Dutch, while the majority of the English people use a " kitchen Kafir,"
a feeble mixture of Kafir and English.

8 Even strong advocates of the Kafir medium admit its clumsiness
in arithmetic. It is certainly cumbersome to have to express 555 by
" amakulu, amahlanu anamashumi amahlanu anesihlanu," while it is
not possible to express in Zulu large numbers, such as a hundred
thousand, or low fractions.



234 THE EDUCATION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE

This rule should, however, be subject to change where the
teacher is especially competent in English, and where the
children have considerable opportunity (e.g. in towns) of
speaking English or Dutch.

PART IV. AGRICULTURE AS A NATIVE INDUSTRY

In our consideration of the present system of industrial
education in the Native schools of South Africa we showed
that, in spite of the unanimous opinion that the education of
the Natives should be largely industrial, a very small percentage
of the Natives were, as a matter of fact, receiving industrial
training. The reasons for this were the high cost of the
necessary equipment, the opposition of the White industrial
classes, and the apathetic and even hostile attitude of some
missionaries and the Natives themselves towards the subject.
It was there pointed out that only the first two objections
could be regarded as worthy of serious consideration, and that,
after all, the fear of competition evinced by the Europeans was
to a large extent unfounded. The valid objections towards a
general system of industrial training are therefore founded on
the cost of the necessary equipment and the limited demand
for skilled labour. Both these objections fall to the ground,
however, if we extend the term " industrial training " to
include instruction in agriculture and the Native arts and
crafts.

As far as we can at present foresee, agriculture must become
the chief industry of South Africa. Our mineral wealth must,
in the course of time, become exhausted, and the isolation of
South Africa must prevent it for many years from becoming a
great manufacturing and industrial country in the sense in
which Great Britain, Germany, and the United States are
industrial countries. On the other hand, South Africa's
opportunities in agriculture and stock-raising are very great.
The country's farming resources are only now becoming known,
and, with the discovery of remedies for the numerous plagues
and diseases which periodically ravage the country, the
agricultural prospects of South Africa are very bright. If, how-
ever, these prospects are to be fully realised, the four million
Native rural inhabitants must be taught to be good farmers.



THE BASES OF RECONSTRUCTION 235

In the past the Native has made little use of the land. So
long as he could obtain sufficient grazing for his cattle, and a
small patch of land for cultivation, he was content. As a
stock-farmer the Native has not been very successful, and he is
probably the worst agriculturist in the world. Although agri-
culture is the hereditary occupation of the people, it has never
been practised on a large scale. On the contrary, each " raw "
Native produces just enough to satisfy the needs of his family.
Agriculture is followed as a means of sustenance and nothing
more. Indeed, since the coming of the White man the Native
does not produce even enough to satisfy his own wants, but
buys mealies from the White storekeeper. He rarely looks
beyond the immediate present. His wives cultivate just
enough land to bear the amount of food required. If anything
occurs to spoil the crop, be it drought or a visitation by locusts,
there will not be enough food. Then if our Native does
not succeed in begging food from his neighbours, he will have
recourse to the natural roots and fruits of the bush. If these
fail, he faces starvation. Some primitive methods, to be sure,
are taken to store the crops when reaped, but the Native rarely
plants enough to allow for a bad year. Even to-day the supply
of Native labour for the mines, the farms, the stores, and
domestic service varies with the goodness or badness of the
harvest, for in bad years the Native is compelled to leave home
to work for food for himself and his family, whereas in a good
3^ear he can bask in the sunshine at home.

It would be difficult to imagine a more haphazard and waste-
ful method of cultivation than that practised by the Natives.
On the slopes of the hill, on which the Native kraal stands,
small irregular pieces of land are turned over by the hoe, or in
a few cases thinly ploughed up. Here the seeds are sown, and
the natural fertility of the land produces a fair crop. This
same plot of land is cultivated in succeeding years, and as no
system of fertilising is practised, it soon becomes worn out and
will grow nothing but weeds. Then another piece of virgin land
is selected, and the same process is repeated. Since the bush
land is generally the most fertile because of the accumulation
of leaf-mould, which acts as a natural fertiliser, the bush is often
fired, and small plots of land there cultivated in the same way.
No attempt at irrigation is made, though this would often be



236 THE EDUCATION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE

possible ; and no attempt is ever made to restore fertility to
the soil. The adherence to these wasteful ancestral methods
of cultivation in the face of European example is astonishingly
strong. A Native will work for years with a European farmer ;
will become so thoroughly conversant with the White man's
method of farming that he can safely be left to till the land
and sow the crops in his master's absence ; he will see that on
the European plan four times as much grain can be obtained ;
yet when he goes back to his kraal, he will still practise his
old methods of agriculture. If he is reminded of the example
of the White man, and asked why he does not follow it, he will
reply simply, " That is the White man's way : I am a Native."
This improvidence, this being satisfied merely to meet the
requirements of to-day, is so deep-rooted in the Native, that
it is almost hopeless to expect to improve the present genera-
tion. There are signs, however, that an improvement in his
methods of agriculture must come. The wants of the Natives
are increasing, and the amount of land available for them is
hardly sufficient to support them with their present primitive
methods of agriculture. The Native will be compelled by
economic pressure to adjust himself to a new and better method
of agriculture ; it is in the interests of both races that he should
become a better producer, so that it is clearly the duty of school
authorities to prepare the coming generation for the new order
of things.

To enable the schools to induce the educated Natives to
return to the land, an improvement in the system of Native
land tenure is necessary. The " raw " Native clings tenaciously
to his tribalism with its communal occupation of land ; but
one of the first effects of education is to make the Native
individualistic, and with individualism comes greater industry,
enterprise, and progress.

Industry, enterprise, and progress in agriculture depend on
a reasonable security of land tenure, and until the educated
Native can be convinced that he will be freed from the more
or less arbitrary decisions of a raw Native chief, and that he
will be able to lead the new life which has been opened out
to him by education, it will be difficult to induce him to
turn to agriculture as a permanent means of earning a
livelihood.



THE BASES OF RECONSTRUCTION



237



Four systems of Native land tenure exist in South Africa /

(a) Communal occupation of public land reserved for

Natives in locations and mission reserves.

(b) Squatting on public lands.

(c) Purchase and leasing of private lands.

(d) Individual tenure of public land reserved for Natives,

as in the Transkei. 1

An adequate treatment of the history and merits of these
systems is outside the scope of the present work. 2 It is
sufficient to point out here that under the first two systems
there is not sufficient security of tenure to induce educated
Natives to take up agriculture as a permanent vocation. Of
the two latter systems, that of permitting Natives to acquire
land from individuals by purchase or lease presents such social,
economic, and administrative difficulties as to make it un-
desirable except in areas defined by Government, and under
conditions which prevent communal occupation. 3

We are left, then, with the form of land tenure which in their
present state of development is most suitable for the Natives
and most desirable from the European's point of view the
allocation by the Government of small plots of ground to indi-
vidual Natives to be held subject to good behaviour, and the
payment of an annual rental. This system, under the name of
the Glen Grey Act, has been in operation in a part of the Cape

1 The distribution of Natives as regards the nature of their land
tenure is as follows :







Townships






Province.


Locations.


and


Private


Crown


Mission.






municipal


lands.


lands.


reserve.






areas.








Cape proper
Cape Transkei .


343,756
846,994


102,970
8,620


190,487
41,893


13,902


16,565
5,251


Natal and Zululand .


426,936


27,339


486,098


81,810 ; 27,026


Transvaal


299,658


25,445


550,318


59,140 17,458


Orange Free State


14,600


53,585


211,951




i,537



(South African Bluebook on Native Affairs, 1910, p. 360.)

2 For a full account see the Report of the South African Native Affairs
Commission, 1903-5, sections 75-210.

3 See sections 191-193 of the Report.



238 THE EDUCATION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE

Province since 1894, and has proved very successful. 1 In 1910
a Government Commission was appointed to inquire into the
general working of the system of individual land tenure. The
report is distinctly favourable, and concludes on the following
optimistic note : " Generally the Native people are rising in
the scale of civilisation ; they are advancing intellectually, and
by their loyalty, their obedience to the law, their large share
in the industrial life of the country and their direct and indirect
contributions to the public revenue, they are responding
worthily to the generous policy of this colony in the administra-
tion of Native affairs." 2

The trend of competent opinion in South Africa is to-day
in the direction of extending cautiously, but surely, the system
of individual ownership. 3 Without it we shall not succeed in
inducing the Native to take up farming, the occupation most
in keeping with his nature and view of life, and one that he
can pursue without entering into competition with the
European.

1 The principles involved in the Glen Grey Act are :

(1) Individual title to land.

(2) Recognition of law of primogeniture.

(3) Local self-government.

(4) Power to levy taxes and vote expenditure.

2 Quoted by Evans, Black and While in South-East Africa, p. 255.

3 For example, the South African Native Affairs Commission, 1903-5,
passed the following resolution : " Recognising the attachment of the
Natives to, and the present advantages of, their own communal or
tribal system of land tenure, the Commission does not advise any
general compulsory measure of subdivision and individual holding
of the lands now set apart for their occupation ; but recommends
that movement in that direction be encouraged, and that, where the
Natives exhibit in sufficient numbers a desire to secure and a capacity
to hold and enjoy individual rights to arable plots and residential
sites on such lands, provision should be made accordingly under well-
defined conditions " (section 147).



CHAPTER XII
THE FINANCING OF NATIVE EDUCATION

IN the last analysis provision for education resolves itself into
a question of finance. Education costs money, and as more
and greater responsibilities devolve upon the school an increas-
ing amount of financial support is necessary. Before the
matter of education became a State function, its financial
support was derived from private, Church, or State charities,
but nowadays the funds for education are derived from public
taxation. These are generally obtained by a form of direct
taxation for educational purposes, as in the case of England,
Germany, the United States, and most other countries enjoying
local self-government. In South Africa, however, almost all
the funds for education are derived from the general revenue of
the Union, but are expended by the Provincial Councils. 1 This
is not the place to enter into a general discussion of the relative
merits of the two forms of obtaining financial support for educa-
tion ; but when dealing with a people like the Natives, who
cannot be expected to understand the principles involved in
taxation, it would seem to be desirable to let the Native know
as clearly as possible why he is being taxed. If we can point
out to the Native the material benefits in the form of schools,
roads, bridges, etc., which he as an individual enjoys as the
result of taxation, we shall appeal to something which he can
understand and appreciate more than if we attempt to explain
the principles of State taxation. The most progressive Natives
in South Africa are those of the Transkei, where a form of
local self-government, with local taxation for educational and
other specific services for the benefit of the Native, obtains.

1 In the Cape Province each School Board is empowered to levy
a rate not to exceed one-eighth of a penny in the pound for school
purposes, and in parts of the Native Territories and in Basutoland
the Natives tax themselves directly for educational purposes.

239



240 THE EDUCATION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE

The system of local self-government, however, is but in its
infancy, and for many years to come the funds for Native
education must be derived from the general revenue of the
Union. In the past and at present Native education is sup-
ported by special grants-in-aid. The system was derived from
that in vogue in England when the elementary schools were
being conducted by religious and philanthropic agencies. If
there was any principle underlying the system, it was that the
education of the masses was primarily the function of the
Churches. Even when the State began to recognise its duty
in the matter of public education, it was felt that the Churches
were the best agencies for carrying it out.

In the following pages we have attempted first to summarise
the systems of State aid to Native education in the several
provinces and Basutoland, and then to examine the other
sources of revenue for Native education. We have then tried
to demonstrate that Native education is not receiving the share
of financial support to which it is entitled ; finally, a basis for
the furnishing of Government support to Native education
has been proposed, and a system of grants-in-aid suggested.

Section i. The Present System of Government
Grants-in-Aid

The basis on which Government grants in aid of Native
education are paid in the several provinces and in Basutoland
are as follows :

(A) CAPE PROVINCE
The following grants may be paid : *

I. Mission Schools 2

i. A grant not to exceed 75 per annum for the principal
teacher, and not to exceed 45 per annum for each assistant

1 All grants are contingent on the money being voted by the
Legislature.

2 A distinction is made between the grants paid to Mission Schools
and to Aborigines' Schools. Mission Schools are schools for the Coloured
people of the province proper, and Aborigines' Schools are schools
for the Native population of the Transkeian Territories. The Mission
Schools are attended by "Coloured" (mulatto) children as well as by
Natives.



THE FINANCING OF NATIVE EDUCATION 24!

teacher. This grant is solely in aid of teachers' salaries, and
must be supplemented by a local contribution of zos. for every
i of grant.

2. A grant not exceeding 50 per annum may be made
towards maintaining an industrial class in connection with a
mission school.

3. A grant in aid of rent.

II. Aborigines' Schools 1

1. An annual grant in aid of the salary of the teacher,
varying from a maximum of 100 for the principal and 40
for the assistant teacher in an institution to a maximum of
40 for the head teacher and a lesser grant for the assistant
in an ordinary school. In those parts of the Transkeian
Territories which fall under the Glen Grey Act, these grants
are supplemented by grants from the Transkeian General
Council, to the extent of 50 per cent, in the case of assistants,
and 75 per cent, in the case of principal teachers.

2. A grant in aid of the apprenticeship of boys and girls who
enter into an agreement with the authorities of the institution
with which they are connected to serve in certain trades. 2
These maintenance grants, as they are called, are 15 per annum
for boys and 10 per annum for girls.

3. A grant of 10 or 12 per annum in the case of boarders
other than apprentices. 2

4. A grant not exceeding 120 per annum in aid of the salary
of the trade instructor of apprentices. As a rule, not more
than two departments in a school may receive this grant, and
there must be fifteen apprentices in each trade department
receiving the grant.

1 A distinction is made between the grants paid to Mission Schools
and to Aborigines' Schools. Mission Schools are schools for the Coloured
people of the province proper, and Aborigines' Schools are schools
for the Native population of the Transkeian Territories. The Mission
Schools are attended by " Coloured " (mulatto) children as well as by
Natives.

- The number of apprentices and boarders for whom grants are
available is strictly limited. The regulations require that the whole
number of boarders and apprentices in a school should consider-
ably exceed that of those to whom maintenance grants are paid.
(Reg. No. 51.)

16



242 THE EDUCATION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE

5. A grant not exceeding 30 in aid of purchase of tools,
fittings, and materials for the trade departments.

6. An annual allowance of 50 for the expenses of an indus-
trial department not in receipt of the foregoing allowances, or
attached to a Native day school.

7. A grant in aid of rent to training schools and industrial
institutions in the case of new buildings erected in accordance
with plans approved by the Department, vested to the satis-
faction of the Department, and used in perpetuity for educa-
tional purposes only.

(B) NATAL PROVINCE
The following grants-in-aid may be paid :

I. Training Schools for Teachers

1. Half the amount of the salaries of the necessary teaching
staff, provided that the amount payable by the Government
under this clause shall not exceed 300 per annum.

2. 3 per student per annum calculated on the average
attendance.

3. 2 for every student who obtains a teacher's certificate
at the end of the year.

II. Boarding Schools

1. Class A (containing only pupils above Standard IV.).
Half the amount of the salaries of the necessary teaching staff,
provided that the amount payable by the Government under
this clause shall not exceed 200.

3 per pupil per annum calculated on the average daily
attendance.

2. Class B (boarders only).

2os. per annum for pupils up to Standard I., calculated

on average attendance.
305. per annum for pupils in Standards II. and III.,

calculated on average attendance.
405. per annum for pupils in Standard IV., calculated

on average attendance.
6os. per annum for pupils over Standard IV., calculated

on average attendance.



THE FINANCING OF NATIVE EDUCATION 243

3. Class C (boarders and day pupils).

25s. 1 per annum for every pupil below Standard I., on

average daily attendance.
305. 1 per annum for every pupil in Standards I. and II.,

on average daily attendance.
40s. 1 per annum for every pupil above Standard II., on

average daily attendance.

In all boarding schools a special grant not to exceed 2 per
pupil per annum for approved industrial work, for not less than
ten hours per week.

III. Day Schools

1. 175. per pupil, subject to reduction if an uncertificated
teacher is employed.

2. A bonus of 4 to the principal, 2 to each certificated
teacher assistant, and i to each uncertificated assistant if the
school is graded " excellent."

3. An industrial grant of 3d. per annum will be allowed for
every pupil on the roll who pays 3d. per year into the " Indus-
trial Training Fund " at the school.

(C) TRANSVAAL 2

The following grants may be made :

I. Training Institutions

1. An initial grant not exceeding 300 for equipment.

2. Grants, to be expended only on salaries for teachers, on
the pound-for-pound system as follows :

(a) A grant not exceeding 100 for the officer in charge

of the boarding establishment.
(6) A grant not exceeding 250 on behalf of the chief

officer of the institution or department thereof.

To obtain a grant for the chief officer, at least

one other instructor must be employed.

1 Grants will be reduced by 53. each if uncertificated teachers are
employed. Similar reduction if accommodation and equipment are
not as required.

1 For new scale of grant proposed see Appendix F.



244 THE EDUCATION OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE

(c) A grant not exceeding 200 on behalf of each

assistant instructor. To obtain a grant for two
instructors there must be more than thirty
students, for three instructors there must be
more than sixty students, and for more than
one hundred students, or separate departments
for men and women.

(d) A grant not exceeding 100 for each manual-

training instructor, the number of instructors
to be limited as above.

(e) Bursaries at a rate not exceeding 10 for each

Native student who signs an agreement to teach
for three years in a Government-aided institution.

II. Industrial Schools. (" To train boys for crafts and

occupations connected with farming, and to train girls
and boys for household work and domestic occupations
generally." Regulations, section 8.)

1. A maintenance grant of 10 per annum for each approved
and indentured pupil, who must have passed Standards III.
(if a boy) and II. (if a girl).

2. Grants in aid of salaries of teachers.

(a) Not exceeding 50 per annum for each qualified

male teacher,

(b) Not exceeding 30 per annum for each qualified

female teacher.

(c) Not exceeding 150 per annum for each European

teacher.

3. An initial grant not exceeding 100 for equipment for
approved institutions.

III. Ordinary Native Schools. (" In no case shall the full
grant be payable unless industrial education of a satis-
factory character is given.")

i. Grants in aid of salaries of teachers

(a) Not exceeding 20 per annum for every uncertifi-

cated teacher.

(b) Not exceeding 40 per annum for provisionally

certificated teacher.



THE FINANCING OF NATIVE EDUCATION 245

(c) Not exceeding 50 per annum for full certificated

teacher.

(d) Not exceeding 70 per annum for European

teacher.

(e) Not exceeding 20 per annum for industrial

teacher.

(N.B. The number of teachers for whom grants will
be paid is one for every thirty pupils, " provided that the
number enrolled exceeds any multiple of thirty by not less
than ten, grants may be paid in respect of an additional
teacher.")

IV. Special Instruction Courses for Teachers l

1. A grant not exceeding 36 in all, or 93. per hour for each
competent instructor.

2. Payment at the rate of 93. per hour for approved com-
petent instructors in industrial work.

3. A grant at the rate of 305. per caput as subsistence
allowance for each teacher in regular attendance.

4. A grant not exceeding 20 for every thirty teachers in
attendance, for books and other school material needed in
the course.

(D) ORANGE FREE STATE

The annual vote of 4000 for Native education is allocated



Online LibraryC. T. (Charles Templeman) LoramThe education of the South African native → online text (page 21 of 29)