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Xe'/eiv 7.T£.

2) Bibliotb. p. 63 ed. Becker.

*) S. dagegen Duncker, Gescbichte des Alterthums 11 S. 531.

Alpliabetisclies Verzeichniss

d e r b e s p r ch en en z ei t b e gr i f f 1 i ch en Synonyma.

I. Hebraische nnd

n-i-inx 14.

■,n'iN 93 f. ih^s tes 45 ; 94 ; 108.

ION, "(axs 43 Anm. 2; 95.

■jSK 38f.

ip3 60.

i-^a 35.

-m 34 f.; 100.

11 chald. 34.

mn 64.

■,at Yb. 55. chald. 54. Subst. 22; 51

Anm. 3; 56; 58 f. '
irnn 60.

-ibn 41 f; 44 f. b'^iin ^sa 45; 107.
11 51 Anm. 3.
D1% biai 50; 52 f; 59. chald. xal'',

xaai 60.
ni'i 60.

)S^, njys chald. 18.
isia 46 S. 48.
njo 51 Anm. 3.
ina 91.

ns3 95 £f. chald. 96. insi 85.
Ejib 14 Anm. 1.
n^JO 84 Anm. 1.
135>, "132)13 14 Anm. 1.
-IDS 64.

135)123^ 14 Anm. 1.
13> 17; 86ffj 92; 97; 98.
Dil5» 54.
p3 chald. 53.

chaldaisclie Wiirter.

113) 30 ff.

dIjis* 69 ff; 88; 92; 94; 97 f; 109.

Plur. 8 1 ; 83. ntn b^w, K3n — 82.

Na^j) chald. 84. ^ailS 85.
lasi 5.
ais 60.
ns 17; 18 ff; 47 ff; 58 f. Plur. 50;

51. (nsa 52.)
nns 19; 50.
"TJS 57 Anm. 1.
iins> 64.

pns, pins (chald.) 23; 102.
biJB 15 Anm. 1.
b"S 51 Anm. 3.
bsrs 29.
are 29.
bip 14; 76.
niffis"! 14 Anm. 1.
bsi 51 Anm. 3.
nsB, biJUJ 50 Anm. 1 ; 52; 60. chald,

60 Anm. 3.
nsm 24 ff.; 61. chald. 25.
!!tiiin chald. 40.
nin 37 Anm. 1.
n^nn 14 Anm. 1.
fibrr.Db ibid.
iian 9 I ff.
Nlian chald. 92.
n&ipn 32 f.


^1, ,_*io1 etc. 95.
5? 34 f.

^1 22; 54; 56 £
^T 22; 54.

Syrische Wiirter.
j^::.- 42 f.

.sj^, li-^oj-^io 27.
I^CL^, Iw.j 60.
wKjJ 96.


Alphabetisohes Verzeicimiss.

Ur^ 47.

p^ 25.


li-*- 14 Anm. 1.

>QiiJi etc. 84; 86.


Araliische Worter.

jjl 89 f.

hyo 51 Anm. 3.

^\i\, yjlil 21 f.

li)S3 51 Anm. 3.

Ja-I 21; 49; 55 f.

jjs*, ,iUc 23 f.

J)'. J)' 63-

J*, ^Jll« 53; sic 54.

,U.I 46.

yas 40.

i-aJI 15 Anni. 1.

^, file 69 Anm. 3; 85.

Ul, .UT ] 8.

^^ 31.

J iS.

jiU, j5jc 31 Anm. 1; 107

«;U 37; 51 Anm. 3.

f.U 40.

Jt^ 35.

iiJ 21.

^U 64.

jj, j^s-^ 14; 64.

..S-. 101.

^j3, f,iji 76.


^U5 41.


»yr 51 Anm. 3.

»^ 27.

xlx 24 Anm. 1; 62 Anm.

Sjki 51 Anm. 3.

,vlC 42 ff.

^ 87 f; »;- 51 Anm. 3.

jjli 85 Anm. 4,

^^, jiU 64.

ixjj 27; 51 Anm. 3.

Uo, «)JLo etc. 24.

ybj 40 ; 62 Anm. 2; 83 Anm. 1


)^i 59 f.

iLb 27.

5,0, l)j\j> 34; 36; jlj-i


iJjj 36 f.

^1*5 22 f; 56 f.

j-jb 107.

4eU 25.

^.Cj, JXyO, Jl*:^ 46.

jJm» 15 Anm. 1.

jJ, SFi.^j 48; 51; 57.

^ 6 Anm. 1.


C>\a^ 47 Anm. 1; 48.


ische AVorter.


^(^: 40.

*;?■(?=': 7 6.

UCD-;?-: 33 Anm. 1.

4>i?ll^: 27 Anm. 3.

HAZ.: 87 Anm. 5.


°?cra'^: 90 Anm. 1.

^A<?=: 85.

m: 20; 51.

Euchdruckerei von W. Drugulin in Leipzig.


PIIEfeS. ^- " ' '

Whatever dates "may 'tie assigned to tlie varioiis IdooKs of
tie Old Testament, there can be no doiibt tKat tbe narrative
parts of it contain many old reminiscences, and if so, we miy
take it for granted tliat tEe Ilelirews fifom the earliest time
-of tlieir settlement in tte promised land made use of musical
instruments, aiid' coiisequenily of some kind 6f singing. We
do not intend to lay great stress upon the^passage* in which
a writer seieks to trace the invention of musical instruments
to T'uhal-Cain. But music was generally used in cases of
rejoicing, private as well as public. Isaiah exclaimed^ : ■ And"
the harp "and the lute, the tattfetand the pipe, and wine are
in their feasts ; ' and in "another passage we read' : ' The
mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the noise of tbeia that rejoice erideth,
tbe joy of the harp ceasfeth.' An earlier prophet says* : ' tbat
sing idle songs to the sound of the viol ; that devise for
themselves instruinents of inu^c, like David.' Hete'we see
tfiat the iearly propbet of the kingdom of the Ten Tribes
ascribes to David® tbe Mghest perfection in Using "mvisieal
instruinents ; this statement probably gave rise to the idea
that the great king was the unlimited author of the Psalms.
.One of the l^reat losses with 'the destruction' of tlie first
Temple is said to be, that ' the elders have cieased from the

' Gen. iv. 21. ' v. I J. ' xsiv. 8. ' Ainos vi. 5.

' Unless this name refers to a myt^olbgy^ e.g. iVod.

i Notes on the Authorship

gate. The young men from their music ^.' On the other
hand, one of the delights of the author of Ecclesiastes (a work
without doubt written after the return of the captivity) was,
as he says^ : ' I gat me men singers and women singers.' Of
course the use of musical instruments was not confined to the
Hebrews only. It is mentioned by a prophet, writing during
the exile, in connection with the Babylonians, when he says of
their proud king * ; ' Thy pomp is brought down to hell, and
the noise of thy viols.' In the book of Daniel * also musical
instruments are mentioned on the occasion of public per-
formances in Babylon : ' To you it is commanded, O peoples,
nations, and languages, that at what time ye hear the sound
of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer, and all
kinds of music, ye will fall down and worship the golden
image.' For public occasions with the Hebrews, we may
refer to the consecration of Solomon as the successor of David,
where it is said * : 'And all the people came up after him, and
the people piped with pipes, and rejoiced with great joy.'
And when Jehoshaphat returned from a successful war against
the Moabites and the Ammonites, we find, at least in the
Chronicles, the following statement * : ' And they came to
Jerusalem with psalteries and harps and trumpets unto the
house of the Lord.' The prophets recited their visions under
the influence of music'', and this art was also employed to
cure depression of spirit'. It would seem that in the earliest
period the performances of ^^usic, together with dances, were
given mostly by women, such as was the case with Miryam',
the daughter of Jephthah^", and the women who came to
greet David^^. The same was the case in Phoenecia ^2, as well
as in Greece and Italy". Perhaps the earliest prophecies were
spoken by women, as might be concluded from the names of

' Lam. V. 14. ' Eool. ii. 8. ' Isaiah xiv. 11.

* iii. 5, 15. * I Kings i. 40. • 2 Chron. xi. 28.
' 1 Sam. X. 5 ; 2 Kings iii. 15. « i Sam. xvi. 16.

• Exod. XV. 20. "• Judg. xi. 34. '• i Sam. xviii. 6.
" Isaiah xxiii. 16.

" Winer, Sihl. Sealwortertvch, art. ' muaik.'

tLn-d on the Supers£ripiions of the Psalms. 3

Miiyam, of Deborah, and in later times of Huldah, whose
influence must have been great, even «,t tiie time when the
new book of the Law was found*.

Whether musical instruments w-ere employed in the service
off the first Temple, we have no authentic evidence. The
ohronieler^ informs us that David introduced a regular service
in the Temple, in which the various classes of the Levites
took part with different instruments at the occasion of the
various sacrifices*. But the statements of the author of Chro-
nicles, writing about 300 B. c, are scarcely an authority for
the period earlier than that of the Temple buHt by Zerubabel.
However, with the spirit of conservatism amongst the Jews,
it would not be too hazardous to suppose that the service
of the Temple of Zerubabel was in a certain respect modelled
on that used in the Temple of Solomon. If it were certain
that the word 'song' (nits'), in the words of the 137th Psalm,
'' Sing us one of the songs of Zion,' means a Psalm, which is
possible and even probable, since many of the Psalms are
headed by the word ' Song,' one might conclude that the
captives were required to sing, accompanied with the harp,
one of the Psalms used in the Temple of ZioQ. To speak
with certainty concerning the litra-gies in the Temple, it can
only be said that Talmudic traditions mention a number of
Psalms which were recited during the service of the Herodia^
"Temple. It is true that these traditions were collected after
the destruction of this Temple, nevertheless a great part of
them were preserved orally from doctors who witnessed the
service of the Temple ; moreover, these traditions ^contain also
information concerning other parts of the Temple service
besides the use of the Psalms, information which agrees
with the data of Josephus, who wrbte as an eye-witness, and
therefore the Talmud traditions may be taken as authentic
Adding to these arguments the conservatism proper to the

' 2 Kings udi. 14; Cheyne, Jeremiah,, his Life and Times, p. 53,

' I Chroii. xvi. 4; xxv. I.

J 2 Chron. v. 12 ; vii. 6 ; xxix. 25 ; m. 21 ; xxiv, 15.

B 2

4 Notes on the Authorship

Jewish nation, one may conclude that in the pre-Herodian
Temple Psalms were already sung with an accompaniment of
music '. Josephus indeed speaks^ of the Levites vjuvmSoi,
and according to. the Talmud the singing of the Levites
formed a vital part, of the various services. T^us it is said
in the Mishnah * : ' The moment they gave to the priest the
wine of outpouring, the Began * stood in the corner (near the
priest) with two flags in his hands ; two priests, standing near
the table where the fat was lying, with two silver trumpets
in their .hands, were blowing a loud ala,rm with the, trum-
;pets'. Theythen dr^w near^to Ben Arza', one; on each side.
When the priest bowed down, to pour out the wine, the Segan
gave a sign with the^flags, Ben Arza beat with the cymbal,
and the Levites, reeifced, the Song, "^hen they, came to the
end of the Song (Psajm) the priests blew the trumpet, and
the people fell, upon their faces., .This was done, for each
pause during the service of the daily sacrifice.' The next
Mishnah enumerates, the Psalms, used during the week in
the Temple, viz. Sundays, Ps. xx^v ; Mondays, xlviii ; Tues-
days, IxTxii ; Wednesdays, xciv ; Thursdays^ Ixxxi ; Fridays,
xciii ; and on the Sabbath, xeii. Indeed the Greel^ trans-
lation of the Ps3,lm? has in, the superscriptions most qf these
indications of the days''; tl\e Hebrew text has only .the one
for the Sabbathj viz. Ps. xcii, , Whether the other superscriptions
were omitted purposely, as Dr. Graetz thinks*, or whether the
omissions are the wojk. of a careless copyist, must be left an
open question. We believe th^, last to be , the case^ for no
reason whatever can be given for an intentional omissiop,
unless we accept an hypothesis which will be found later on'.
In another Mishnah*" it is said on the occasion of the feast of

' Graetz, Kritischer Commenfar zu den Psalmen (1883), p. 53.

' Ant. XX. ix. 6. _ ' Thamid vii. 3. • The locum tenens.

' I. e. TariouB tunes of the trumpets.

' One of the most skilful mueicians.

' Viz. 48 (47) ; 94 (93) ; 93 (92) ; 91 (90). ' 1. „. (note l),'p.- 5.

• See p. 5. >" Sukkah v. 4.

and on the Superscriptions of the Psalms. 5

•■■' ;'■•■ >. .,-' ■ ., ' <

Waterpouring^ : 'The pioas and men of good deeds ^ were
dancing before the spectators, holding torches iii their
hands and reciting' 'songs' and praises. "The Levites, with,'
harps, riabta, cymbals, trumpet's, and other instruments were
■wifHout h'uinber on the fifteen steps which lead "from the halt
of Israel to the hall of tKe women, reciting songs.' Again, for'
the service of the Paschal lamb, it is said in the Mishhah*.
that 'batches of men one after another followed with" thieir
sacrifice, and before going out they recited the Mallel^'PsahnB
(cxiii to exvii).' In another Mishnah* the minimum'and
maximum of the sounds of trumpets and of instruments
used for the service ot" the sacrifilees are given. SimUar
instructions are" given in other Mishnahs*. Single Psaliiis'
were used on new-moon "days®, on the feast of Dedication'',
and even" for the occasion "when Jerusalem was enlarged *.
One might have expected to find superscriptions mentioning
these vaMous' occasions, Ifut they were probably omitted be^
caiise all the levites knew the Psalms which were used ';
however, in" some copies "they may have stood ^ for teachi'hg
purposes, and "such a' copy the Greek' translators may have
had hefofe them in a Ibreigh countryj where the service was
not ' so well known as in Palestine," and more especially iri
■Jerusalem. Unfortunately our Massoretic text is made from
copies which had not aU Siiperscriptions, as far as I can judge
froin the earliest Jewish traiislators and commentators'. " ':"
Other headings have reference undoubtedly to instruments
used for accompanyiDg the singers, rriany of which are difficult
to explain. A certain number of headings give a kind of
historical introduction to show on' what occasion the Psalms
•in question were composed. Such are Psalms iii, vii (?J, xviii,

' John vii. 37. ' The meaning of the words Trayo 'ie:« is not certain.

= Pesahiin v. '7. •■ '' ' •■'■"; ■' ' " •'■• - ■ • '' ' Erakhin'ii. 3.'

' Sosh hafh-Shanah iv. i, 9.

" B. T.. Snkkah, fol. 54 b. 104 and 105 according to Mas. Sopherim xvii.
1 1 (Dr. J. Miiller's note, 40, p. 247). ' " ' "

' Ps. 31, according to Mas. Sopherim xviii. 2, which is most likely meant
by the heading of this Psalm.

' Gr&eiz; Psalmen etc., p. 60.

6, Notes on the Authorship

xlii lii, Ivi, Ivii, lix, Is, Ixiii, and cxlii. How far back the
headings date is not our objeet to investigate here. They
are certainly added by the compiler, and before the Greek
translation, which is much later than that of the Pentateuch^
These translators, however, were not then acquainted with the
exact meaning of them.

But before proceeding to the exposition of the titles, as
given by Rabbinical and Karaitical authors, it will perhaps be
worth while to state their opinipn concerning the authorship
of the Psalms.

We possess no early Midrash on the Psalms ; the Mid];ash
Tilim is- the earliest, of the end of the tenth century^, and
even there we find nothing concerning the authorship of the
book of the Psalms. The earliest passage concerning it is the
famous one in the Babylonian Talmud*, relating to the order
of the Old Testament and to the authors of the various books.
Here it is said that David wrote Tilim with the help' of ten
elders, viz. Adam, Melchi-zedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman,
Jeduthnn, Asaph, and the three sons of Korah. On the
question made why Ethan is not mentioned, Rab (who Uved
in the third century) replied that Ethan was identical with
Abraham ; this is explained by Agadical analogy. Another
question was asked to the effect that Moses and Heman axe
identical according to the Agadah ; Rab, however, stated the

In the Midrash on the Canticles* we find the following
statement: 'Ten men said the Psalms, viz. Adam, Abraham,
Moses, David, Solomo, to these five all agree. For the other
five, Rab says, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, the three sons
of Korah (who make one author), and Ezra. R. Johanan
said : Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (who make one), the

' Znnz, Die gottesdienstUchen Vortrage, p. 266 sqq. A new critical edition
is expected from the skilful hand of Herr S. Buber.

' Baba Bathra, fol. 14 b.

' The exact meaning of 'T ^s is not certain here. See below, p. 28.

' IV. 4. Belongs probably to the end of the ninth century. Zunz, G. V,
(note l), p. 64.

and on the Superscriptions of the Psalms. f

three sons of Korah, and Ezra. Elsewhiere we find the opinion
of Rab attributed to Johanan and vice versa^, which is of no
importance for our purpose. R. Hoona, in the name of R.
Aha, speaks as follows : ' Although ten men said Tilim, they
were not reported in their names, but only in David's name.
This resembles the case of a band of singers who intended to
address hymns to a king, and to whom the king answered,
" You are all sweet, all pious men, all worthy to sing hymns
before me, but this man will say them for you, because his
voice is so sweet." Thus, when these ten pious men sought
to recite Tilim, God said, " You are sweet, pious, and worthy
to say hymns before me, but David will recite them for you
all, for his voice is sweeter, as it is said, And the sweet
psalmist of Israel"." '

Concerning the postscript of Psalm Ixxii, ' The prayers of
David the son of Jesse are ended,' R. Meir (who lived in the
second century) says': 'All songs and praises found in the
book of Tilim were said by David, as it is written, " Then
ended the prayers of David." Do not read '73 " ended," but
i?N"P3 * " all these " are the prayers of David.'

That David said some Psalms, or all of them, by the Holy
Spirit, is not distinctly stated in the Talmudic literature, so
far as we know, but it may be taken as implied in thie con-
tinuation of the passage just mentioned, which is as follows' :
' R. Eliezer (who lived at the end of the first century) said,
David said all the Psalms on his account ; R. Joshuah said,
on the account of the congregation ; the wise men, i.e. the
majority of the school, made a compromise, saying, some of
them are said on account of himself, and others on account of
the congregation, viz. those Psalms in which the singular
form is employed David said on account of himself, and
•where the plural form is to be found he said on account of

' See the Commentary with the title of Maihnoth Xehunah.

' 2 Sam. xxiii. I. ' B. T. Pesahim, fol. n? a.

* Perhaps ibji, the N disappearing in the pronunciation.

• B. T. Pesahim, fol. 117 a.

tli§ CQiig;regaibi[)iL; ^^ea tl^ie wpj^^ nXJ and }13J occur, the
!i^salm refei& to the fnturg ; p'^a'p nieans recited by an inter-
^]^el^^ ;, "yssp^ IW? ™^&??g, tli^l' *^^. ^^J- "^W^^. T^.^: r^e.sting
H.ppn Kini wl?,en he. said the s^i^.; in?, ilOTD means that
D9.Tid first said the Psalm and then the Holy Spirit rested
upqn himV The, Holy Spirit is e:q)lMjied by the word n3^:ffif.
Thegpspelp a^lso imply the belief that thg iioth^ Psalm was
said by, Dayid m, the. Holy. Spii;i<j*, "^e shall find that
mediseval, Jewish commentators iii agreement, with the rabbis
attiibut^. the Psalms, to David speaking under the influence
of the Holy Spirit-

For completeness sake we shall just state that in the
same Talmudic passage ten clashes of Psalms are spoken
of. They are introduced, it is there sgid, with ten ex-
-prepsions, rmi, pi'<3, h'':>isro, ^lDtD, T'C, ne's, n^sn, n?nn, nsnin,
aad iT'vPnr This last is the most important, because these
Psalms contain both song and prpse. Let ns state at once-
tha1( no real help is to be derived in the interpretations
pf the titles of the Psalms from. Talmudic and Midrashie
sources ; these contain nothing but Agadic or legendary
explanations, which are quite arbitrary, and we shall see the
same, method followed in the Syriac translation * of the
Psalms. The Talmudic doctors were not exegetes in a strict
sense. They torture a scripture text for casuistical deduc-
tions, but they are much more reckless and unphilologica,l
in their Agadic expositions, which may be compared to a
kind of sermon. One. of the completest collections of their
interpreta,tion of the Psalms in general is the Yalqoot of
Makhir ben Abba Man, proba;bly of the fourteenth century,
which embodies all the sayings of the two Talmuds and
the Midrashim concerning the Psalms. It exists in a

• With later conunentators the order of these two words makes no difference.
See, for instance, Yephet to Ps. and Ibn Ezra to Ps.

' Matt. ixii. 43, where the words 'ry 'A7ia! are omitted but found in
Mark xii. 36. In Luke xi. 42, as well as in Acts ii. 34, the Holy Spirit does
not occur at all. W^^ H because it was a pure Judaic belief?.

» Seep. .

and on the Superscriplions of the Psalms. 9

uni(jue MS. in the Bodleian Library ', and deserves to be

The earliest sources for our object are the Greek trans-
lations of the LXX, of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus,
which we, include for complpteness sake, and because they
must be counted as Jewish documents^. The Syriac version,
called Peshitto, made probably as early as the end of the
second century (in the fourth century it is already con-
sidered as canonical), although made with the help of a
Jew from the Hebrew text, and therefore for critical pur-
poses important, has no value for the superscriptions, which
are arbitrary. These are twofold, partly historical, partly
exegetical, and are most likely, as Profs. Nestle^ and
Bafithgen * have shown convincingly, by Theodorus of
Mopsueste, who, accepting some from Eusebius and Origen,
made many additions of his own. In fact, Dr. Isaac Prager °,
who aimed %o show, by the analogy of. Agadic passages with
the contents of the Syriac, that they are of Jewish origin,
is evidently wrong. For, as Prof. Nestle rightly says, the
Agadic passages have no kind of superscription ; to which
it may be added that the Tirqe de R. Eliezer, the Midrash
TiHm, the Talqoot, and even the Thanhuma, on which Dr.
Prager bases his arguments, are of a later date than Theodore
of Mopsueste, and^ if there has beeii borrowing on either side,
it will be thei Midrash that has borrowed and not Theodore.
The Itala and the Vulgate, although made by Christians,
may be considered, by the help derived from Jews, as be-
longing to Jewish interpretation, and are therefore given
here. The Aramaic Targum is paraphrastic like Jonathan,
and made probably by a Jew, who had some knowledge of

' No. 167 of the catalogue of 1886. On Makhir's Talqoot on other Biblical
books, see JJeime des Etudes Juives, t. xivj p. 95 sqq.

* These are given according to Field's excellent edition of the Eexapla.
' Theologische JAtterafurxeiiung, i%'j6,'co\. tS^.

* Zeiischrifl far alliestdmeniliche Wissenscha/t (Stade), 1885, p. 66 sqq.

' De veterU Testamenti versione syHaca quam Peachiltho vacant, part I,
Goettingae, 1875, pp. 52-56.

lo Notes on the Authorship

Greek \ in the fourth century. It is certainly not based upon
a Syrjac translation as the Targum of Proverbs is. In the
Talmud^ the Targums on the Hagiographa are attributed,
without any plausible ground, to R. Josepli (died 323 A. d.).
Anyhow the Targum on the Psalms represents Jewish in-
tei-pretation, and we give it with an English translation.

Between this Targum and the commentary of R. S'adyah ^
Gaon (died 940) there is a blank. That there were earlier
commeiitaries than Saadyah's may be seen from his con-
temporary Karaitic author, Salmon son of Yeroham, who
gives interpretations of predecessors besides Saadyah, but
without mentioning their names *. So does Yepheth *. No
doubt many quotations in these authors may be taken from
lexicons ". But Abraham ibn Ezra quotes opinions of
Jeshuah '', who is earlier, if not much earlier, than Saadyah '.
Indeed, with the Karaites, exegesis in its strict sense begins,
and we know that Benjamin of Nehawend (beginning of
the ninth century) wrote commentaries on Biblical books ',
but they arc all lost at present. Thus we must take as
the earliest commentary we possess that of Saadyah, of
which we give the translation of the titles according to
the MS. in the Bodleian Library ^*'. It seems that there
were two editions of this commentary, a shorter and a longer,
or a first and a second ^', of which the Bodleian MS. con-
tains the shorter, to judge from the Munich MS., which
comprises two prefaces, a longer and a shorter, as well as
a longer commentary on the first three Psalms ^^. The shorter
has nothing on the titles or authorship of the Psalms ;
this is to be found in the longer preface, of which we give

' He has Dlip for God, KiJpios, Pe. liii. 2 Zunz, G. V., p. 65.

' Strictly S'adyah. See Cat. Oif., No. 1 438. ' See p. 39.

' See p. 40. « See p. 34. ' Ps. Ixxxviii. See p. .

« See Aug. der Pet Bihl, p. . » Ibidem, p. 6. " Cat. No. 104.

" See the Bibliography of Saadyah's works at the end of this essay.

" See Dr. J. Cohn's essay with the title of Saadia'a Einleitung zu seinem
Pealmencommentar in the Magazin fiir die WiesenscAnft des Judenlhums,
viii. pp. 1-19 and 61-91.

and ott the Superscriptions of the Psalms. 1 1

a translation according to the Munich MS.^ That this
preface is indeed by Saadj'^ah has not only been proved
from the agreement with his philosophic-theological book ^,
but his Kai'aitic contemporary Salmon actually quotes a
passage agreeing with it, and refutes Saadyah's opinion con-
tained in it*.

After having remarked that God leads man to perfection

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