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CUMBERLAND'S LIVES AND PORTRAITS



public C^arsrters.



CONTENTS OF VOL. III.



Rev. Mr. Prince
The Duke of Kent
James Watt, Esq.
Alexander Pope
Oliver Goldsmith
The Duke of Sussex
Dr. Johnson
Queen Elizabeth
Thomas Dermody
Dr. Herschel
Louis XVIII.
Michael Drayton
Sir Isaac Newton
Laurence Sterne



Voltaire

Cardinal Wolsey
The Marquis of Worcester
Thomas Gray
Frederick Duke of York
Henry Kirke White
George Frederick Handel
Sir J. Mackintosh
Edward Alleyn
William Shenstone
Villiers D.of Buckingham
Sir Walter Ralegh
Captain Cook
William Hogarth



Vol. III.— 1.




HEl/^ JTOMH FH2NCE.



THE REV. JOHN PRINCE.

IT has been very generally acknowledged, that althoogh
mankind be astonished by the perusal of the lives of
heroes and of kings, it is, in the mass, little benefited
by the record of what are commonly denominated great
actions ; and it is a doabt if a stronger interest be excited
by an attention to them than by the unaftected narrative
of the events which have attended the steps of those
whose lot it has been to tread in a more beaten path.
Few are born to wear a crown, and fewer to receive the
laurel on their brows, and to have their names registered
in the somewhat imperishable annals of fame ; but mil-
lions pass their days in toil, both corporeal and mental,
for their subsistence, or in the more quiet pursuit of
literary enjoyments or tasteful occupations, and have yet
all the temptations to err, and the difficulties to encounter,
which beset those on whose conduct even nations depend.

John Prince, the subject of this memoir, was born
of respectable, though not wealthy, parents, in Al-
dersgate-street, London, 1753, where bis father car-
ried on the business of a lapidary, a trade now well
nigh extinct. Being a boy of bright parts, it was
resolved that he should be brought up to a profession,
and a friend having oftered Mr. Prince a presentation for
the grammar-school of Christ Church, he accepted it
for his son, and accordingly sent him thither about 1760 ;
from which he passed with great credit to Oriel College,
Oxford, in 1772. He took holy orders in 1775, being
ordained deacon by the celebrated and excellent Bishop
Lowth, who, on that occasion, passed many encomiums
on his reading, the justice' of which will be admitted by
all who have since heard Mr. Prince officiate in the desk
of the Magdalen Chapel .

59.



REV. JOHN PRINCE.

While on tlie subject of Mr. Prince's reading, we
must not omit the testimony of David Garrick, whom
Johnson allows to have been the most judicious speaker
of his day, and who one day at Mr. Whalley's house made
trial of his powers, to the great admiration of Mr.
Townley, author of " High Life below stairs,"' who was
of the party. Garrick, in return for our young divine's
acquiescence, displayed his own inimitable powers ; and
practised before him his celebrated scene of the mother
dropping her child from the window ; in which the tran-
sition from a face of ghastly horror on missing tlie infant,
to a countenance of extreme and almost supernatural joy,
on perceiving the babe in safety, from its clothes having
been caught by a projecting nail in the wall, was allowed
by all who ever witnessed the exhibition, to be most
surprising.

On quitting the University, Mr. Prince took the curacy
of the united parishes of St. V^edast, Foster, and St.
Michael le Quern, London, the rector being Mr. Francis
Wollaston, afterwards notorious for his opposition to
clerical subscription to the thirty-nine articles, at the
Feathers Tavern. Two men more opposite in opinion on
matters of church discipline could not have come in
collision ; yet were the sentiments of our divine so truly
liberal, in the best sense of the term, that not the slightest
disagreement ever took place between the parties, but,
on the contrary, Mr. Wollaston's esteem for Mr. Prince
was much enhanced during their long acquaintance.
That gentleman, in his own life, thus alludes to Mr.
Prince. On finding his curacy vacant, he observes, he
rejoiced more especially " because it made an opening to
Mr. Prince, than whom he could not have had an assistant
more completely to his mind, and whom he was sorry to
lose, when, after ten years diligent attention to the
parishes, he could not but bear due testimony to his
merit on his being proposed for the chaplaincy of the
Magdalen Hospital, to which he has indeed since proved
himself a treasure."

On the death of Mr. Dobie, the chaplain of the Mag-



REV. JOHN PRINCE.

ilalen, in 1789, Mr. Prince was unanimously elected tfj
the vacant oflice ; and Mr. Winterbottom, the Secretary,
deceasing in a few years after that period, that post was
added to the chaplaincy. In 1784 he had been instituted
to the vicarage of Grays Thurrock, Essex, by his friend
and relation, John Button, Esq ; but this he resigned on
being appointed to Enford, Wilts, by the governors of
Christ Church, in 1793, which last benefice had formerly
been in tlie possession and gift of a branch of his own
family.

It would be inconsistent with the limits of our little
work, and wholly unnecessary with such readers as may
know the subject of this memoir (and there are few resi-
dent in London who have not that gratification), to expa-
tiate on the good that has been done by this estimable
man in that station of life (and more especially in the
scene of his London duties) in which it has pleased
Providence to place him. The Magdalen Charity has
indeed cause to boast of his paternal and unremitting
services ; and numerous are the hearts which, in every
prayer to heaven, mingle the remembrance of him who
first drew them from the dominion of vice, and encou-
raged t?hem in the great work of repentance. We may
indeed say of him with the poet —

At his controul.
Despair and anguish fled the struggling soul.
And comfort came the trembling wretch to raise.

At Enford, Mr. Prince, in the year 1800, established
a sunday-school ; and the charch having been destroyed
by a thunder-storm in 1817', he has, with a degree of
public spirit that reflects great credit upon him as a
minister of the established church, raised a private
subscription among his friends for the purpose of re-
building the edifice, of which the first stone will be laid,
it is expected, in the present year, under the direction
of Philip Hardwick, Esq.

Mr. Prince, for some years, held the olfice of librarian



REV. JOHN PRINCE.

to Sion College, the great divinity coUectiou of works in
tlie metropolis ; and it may not be here inappropriate to
introduce an anecdote of him relative to that institution.
On the late king's recovery from his dangerous illness, in
the year 1789, the directors were at a loss what device or
motto to select, in illuminating the building ; when the
subject of our memoir made the following happy selection
from the Book of Psalms : " Sionheard of it and rejoiced."

As an author, Mr. Prince has only ventured forth
some single sermons, though, in the early part of his
life, he was a frequent contributor to the Anti-Jacobin
Review, and other periodical works. He also edited
the " Gradus ad Parnassnm," and his edition, in which
are several examples of his own composition, has been
considered by far the most correct, and has accordingly
been adopted by both the English and Scotch Universi-
ties. He took great pains to collect matter for a life
of Bishop Jewel, but never published the result of his
labours ; and he restored, at his own expence, the inscrip-
tion on the monument of that prelate in Salisbury Cathe-
dral. He also carried through the press an edition of
the works of Bishop Home, and of Jones of Nayland,
with both of whom he had been well acquainted.

It would be impossible to enumerate in this brief
sketch the distinguished persons with whom it has been
the lot of our divine, at various periods of his life, t&
fall into friendship ; but if any one be mentioned, it must
be Peter Waldo, Esq. of Mitcham, the excellent author
of the Commentary on the Liturgy, with whom he formed
a close intimacy and a most affectionate acquaintance,
which only ceased with the life of Mr. Waldo, and whose
works he has published. William Stevens, Esq. the
celebrated Hebraist and theologian, (whose life has been
written by Judge Park) was his frequent companion :
and when he founded " Nobody's Club," Mr. Prince was
chosen its chaplain. This was in 1800 ; and though the
venerable bead be no more, the association still exists
under the title of " Nobody's Friends," and includes some
of the first personages in the church and law among its



REV. JOHN PRINCE.

members. The late Lord Chief Baron Richards sacceeded
his friend the Founder in the chair : and the subject of
this memoir is still the chaplain.

Mr. Prince married, in 1778, Miss Gray, a Shropshire
ladj, by whom he has had several children, one of
whom, Thomas, was educated at Wadham College,
Oxford, of which he is a fellow, and where he has taken
the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was preceptor to
the present Duke of Brunswick and his brother, and is
now chaplain to the British Residents at Brussels. He
is author of" Lectures on the Beatitudes," and of several
single sermons.

Mr. Prince, in the late king's time, used to frequent
the concerts at the Hanover Rooms, then so constantly
patronised by the royal family ; and his critiques on those
musical celebrations, and on the oratorios of that day,
appeared in all the public prints, and were generally
applauded by the Handel School. Indeed his love of
music, especially of the old masters, has never forsaken
liim, and has frequently been a source of great gratifica-
tion to his friends.

We could relate various anecdotes of the amiable
subject of this memoir ; of his piety, his benevolent
heart, his charitable and christian spirit, his humane
disposition, his happy temper, his mild manners, his
eloquence in the pulpit, his attachment to his friends, his
kindness to all ; but we have room only for one, which
will shew that the seeds which have produced all this
goodly fruit, were early sown, and have been duly tended
from their first spring to their maturity.

A relation, who had retired from business with a
handsome property when our divine had just entered the
church, being anxious to serve him, proposed to him to
purchase for him the advowson of a living, then become
vacant, upon the proviso, that half the revenue of the
benefice (which was a very excellent one) should be
appropriated by the purchaser. To this Mr. Prince at
once objected as a simoniacal contract, and in direct
violation of his ordination vow. Such a refusal, coming



REV . JOHN PRINCE.

from a man so yoang, and whose prospect of rising in lils
profession was by no means flattering, cannot be too
highly appreciated; and all whose happiness it has been
to know Mr. Prince, will admit, that he would thus nobly
and disinterestedly have conducted himself at any period
of his life.




Mww.Amn jmnmm of mi



'. jf (fe^. ^' Svorpe S^riJiCton.. 3 OldJiaiiey.



EDWARD AUGUSTUS DUKE OF KENT,
K. G. G. C. B. K. S. P. &c. &c. &c.

HIS Rojal Highness, fourth son of George III. was
born Movember 2, 1767. At the age of seventeen, he
was sent to the Continent to complete his education ;
and his first abode was at Lunenburg, where he remained
nearly a twelve-month. Thence he removed to Hanover,
where he continued till the month of October, 1787, in
the command of the Guards of the Electorate, in which
corps he was appointed Colonel on the 30th of May, 1786.
He next proceeded to Geneva, and during the period of
his staj there, he was appointed (April, 1789) Colonel
of the 7th Foot, or Royal Fusileers. Early in 1790, His
Royal Highness returned to England.

Ten days were scarcely allowed the Prince to remain
with his illustrious family, when, in obedience to tha
commands of his royal father, he proceeded to Gibraltar.
His Royal Highness remained on the Rock till June,
1791, when he sailed with his corps for Quebec, the
capital of Canada.

In October, 1793, Prince Edward attained the rank
of Major General ; and, in the December following, had
orders to join the late Earl, then Sir C. Grey, who was
on the point of proceeding to attack the French West
India settlements.

His Royal Highness arrived just at the commencement
of the seige of Fort Bourbon in the Island of Martinique ;
and, as a compliment to the gallantry he displayed on
that occasion, the lower Fort, then called Fort-royal, has
subsequently been aamed Fort Edward.



DUKE OF KEM.

His Royal Highness was then placed in Ihe command
of the detached camp of La Coste, and had under his
orders the late gallant General, Thomas Dandas. During
the seige, the Prince's soldier-like and spirited conduct,
was the admiration of the whole army, and, at the storm-
ing of Fort-royal, as well as the attack in the month of
March, his life, was frequently exposed to the most
eminent peril. One of his Aides-de-camp, Captain, now
Lieutenant-General Wetherall, was severely wounded
while executing the orders of the Prince.

After the capture of Martinique, the Kritish army
proceeded to St. Lucia, where his Royal Highness was
again entrusted with the command of the grenadier bri-
gade, which, in conjunction with that of the Light Infao-
try, under General Dundas, formed the storming party,
and carried Morne Fortunee, since named Fort Charlotte.
The army next moved to Gaudaloupe, where his Royal
Highness, in conjunction with General Dundas, snc-
ceeded in occupying several of the enemy's posts. Upon
the reduction of the French islands in this quarter, his
Royal Highness, whose health was considerably impaired
by fatigue, and the usual effects of the climate, received
orders to return to North America ; and shortly after his
arrival at Halifax, he was appointed Commander of the
Forces in Nova Scotia and its dependencies. On the 12th
of January, 1796, His Royal Highness was promoted to
the rank of Lieutenant-General.

In consequence of a severe injury he received in his
left thigh, from a horse, which fell under, and rolled over
him, his Royal Highness, in compliance with the advice
and wishes of his friends, returned to England for surgi-
cal assistance, where, on his arrival, he was greeted with
the most flattering marks of attention for his conduct
abroad.

In April, 1799, having then attained his thirty-second
year, bis Royal Highness was called to the House of
Peers, (ten lears after the Duke of Clarence, who was
only two years his senior, had attained the same distinc-
tion) by the style and titles of Duke of Kent and Strath-



DUKE or KENT.

earn in Great Britain, and Earl of Dablin in Ireland.
}n May of the same year, his health being re-established,
the Duke of Kent was appointed General and Commander-
in-Chief of all the Forces in British North America, to
which country he sailed soon after. His horses, equi-
page, &c. were embarked, on his leaving England, on
board a transport, which the government had expressly
provided for that purpose ; and owing to the tempestaous
weather, it was wrecked on State Island, and all on
board perished.

The loss of this transport was of the utmost magnitude
to his Royal Highness. It contained his library', maps,
papers, wines, furniture, carriages, horses, and every
equipment necessary. Although it is usual in such cases
of loss or service, for the country to reimburse the losers,
his Royal Highness never could obtain any remuneration.

The intense application of the Duke of Kent to tbe
various duties of his high command, so materially injured
his health, that in the course of a twelve-month, he was
under the necessity of soliciting permission to pass the
ensuing winter in England. As a public testimony to
Lis Royal Highness's conduct in North America, the
Legislative Assembly unanimously voted live hundred
guineas, for the purchase of a diamond star, to be
presented to the Duke of Kent, as a mark of tiieir
affection, and their respect for his person and character.

His Royal Highness arrived in England in August,
1800. On the 24th of which month, he was appointed
to the Colonelcy of the Royal Scots Regiment of Infantry
(the 1st.); and, in 1803, Governor of Gibraltar, where
he arrived on the 10th of May in that year. When the
Duke assumed his command, he devoted all the energies
of his mind to the duties of the important trust reposed
in him ; his Royal Highness observed with sad regret,
the slovenliness of the privates of the army — the total
absence of uniformity in their dress and appointments —
the inaccuracy of their movements — and the frequency of
drunkenness among the troops : he soon found that the
caase of such insubordination, was the wine-houses that



bUKK OE IvliNT.

were in the vicinity of the barracks ; and be removed all
ihese, only retaining such as v/ere in tbe public streets.
He required the presence and sobriety of every man at
meal-hours ; and a report, after second evening gun, of
every man being present in the barracks : he established
a roll-call at sun-rise, a dress parade in the middle of the
day, and one in undress at sun-set ; and in a short
period of time, the garrison of Gibraltar became a
pattern for discipline, sobriety, and every other quality
which constitutes the perfection of the military character.
Unfortunately the suppression of the wine-houses created
the Duke many enemies, and they were joined by some
of tlie troops, and the consequence was, that on the 24th
of December, 1802, a mutiny took place, which was
soon quelled, as was also a tumult two days afterwards,
between the Royal Scots (the Duke's own regiment) ami
the 25lh Foot.

Misrepresentations of the ferments and the general
orders of the Duke were sent to this country, and he
was re-called.

On the 5th of September, 1805, his Royal Highness was
promoted to the rank of Field Marshal. Here ends then
his military-life ; a far nobler and better career was now
to commence.

It would occupy more room than we have to spare in
this brief memoir, to point out the great advantages he
conferred on this country, by his large and benevolent
views, and indefatigable exertions to amend the condition
of the poorer classes. The poor and unfortunate, never
had, possibly never will have, so zealous, so munificent,
so active, or so universal, a patron and benefactor as the
late Duke of Kent. In fine, it may be safely said, that no
individual of his exalted rank ever set a higher example
of public virtue, or displayed more constancy, wisdom,
and zeal, for the protection, education, maintenance, and
relief, of the poor of these realms, than, in the course of
his but too short life, did his Royal Highness.

In 1806, during the absence of the Duke of Kent, a
meeting was held in London, at which it was unanimously



DUKE OF KENT.

resolved to annually celebrate the natal daj of so illustrious
a character as his Rojal Highness ; and on the 2d of
November of the same year, the first meeting took place.

On the 29th of May, 1818, his Royal Highness was
united in marriage, at Cobourg, with her Serene Highness
Victoria Maria Louisa, youngest daughter of Francis
Frederic Anthony, reigning Duke of Saxe Cobourg, of
Saalfield, and sister to Prince Leopold; which marriage
was again solemnized at Kew, on the 11th of the follow-
ing July.

The issue of this marriage was a daughter, named
Alexandrina Victoria, Avho was born at Kensington-palace
on the 24th of May, 1819.

His Royal Highness at the latter end of the year 1819,
retired with his family to Sidmouth in Devonshiie; and
having caught cold from sitting in wet boots, he un-
fortunately neglected it; this brought on an inflamation of
the lungs, which complaint suddenly terminated his
valuable life, on Sunday morning, January 23, 1820.

His Royal Highness was tall in stature, of a manly and
noble presence. His manners were afiable, condescend-
ing, dignified, and engaging; bis conversation animated ;
his information varied and copious ; his memory exact and
retentive ; he resembled the King his father, in many of
his tastes and propensities ; he was an early riser ; a strict
economist of his time ; temperate in eating ; indifferent to
•wine, though a lover of society ; a kind master, a punctual
and courteous correspondent, a steady friend, and an af-
fectionate brother.

The death of the Duke of Kent caused an unfeigned
sorrow all over the nation ; and the mourning was general.

The remains of his Royal highness were deposited in
St. George's Chapel, Windsor. The procession marched
slowly up the center aisle, and every part of it was im-
posing and well arranged. The Duke of York as chief
mourner, sat at the head of the corpse, his supporters on
either side, and the bearers of the canopy. The closing
style and titles of the lamented Prince were proclaimed
in form by Sir Isaac Heard.



DUKE OF KENT.

Soon after the decease of the Duke of Kent, a meeting
was called, to consider of the expediency of raising a
Subscription for defraying the expenses of a Statue as
a tribute to his public and private virtues : in a short
time, a sufficiency was collected. Mr. Gahagan was
chosen as the artist ; and in January, 1824, it was erected
in Park Crescent, Portland Place. The statue is seven
feet two inches high, is executed in bronze, and weighs
two tons. It represents his Royal Highness arrayed in
a full dress Field Marshal's uniform, and over it his
ducal dress and collar of the garter : the pedestal is
composed of granite from the Hey tor Quarries, in Devon-
shire, in three parts ; the plinth is formed of two stones
of the Heytor granite, seven feet six inches square, and
two feet one inch thick ; each stone weighing about five
tons. The shaft, which is of one solid stone, weighs
upwards of seven tons ; it is fo\ir feet ten inches square,
and three feet one inch high. The cap on which the
statue rests, is five feel five inches square, and one foot
five inches thick. It is of one stone, and weighs three
tons.




j&^ IE S^<^^JD)JE K. IP® ]P]S .



ALEXANDER POPE,

WAS born in Lombard Street, London, on tbe 22d of
May, 1688 ; his father who was a Linen-draper in the
Strand, and grew rich bj trade, was, according to Pope's
account, who it has been observed, was more willing to
shew what his father was not, than what he was, of a
family of which the Earl of Doune was tlie head ; and
his mother was the daughter of William Turner, Esq*
of York. Both parents were papists.

Pope was, from his birth, of a constitution tender and
delicate ; but is said to have shewn remarkable sweetness
of disposition. His weakness was so great, that he
certainly wore stays. His voice, when he was young,
was so pleasing, that he was called in fondness, " the
little Nightingale."

Being not early sent to school, he was taught to read
by an aunt ; and when he was seven or eight years of age
became a lover of books, and took a great delight in
drawing ; and afterwards, having had masters for that
purpose, soon made a tolerable good progress.

When he was about eight, he was placed in Hamp;
shire, under Taverner, a Romish priest, who, by a
method very rarely practised, taught him the Latin and
Greek rudiments together. From the care of Taverner,
under whom his proficiency was considerable, he was
removed to a school at Twyford, near Winchester, and
again to another school near Hyde Park Corner; from
which he used sometimes to stroll to the play-house; and
was so delighted at theatrical exhibitions, that he formed
a kind of play from " Ogilby's Iliad," with some verses
of his own intermixed, which he persuaded his school-
fellows to act, with the addition of his master's gardener,
who personated Ajax.
63.



ALEXA>DER POPE.

About the time of the Revolution, his father quitted
his trade, and retired to Biiifield in Windsor Forest,
with a fortune of about £20,000, whither Pope was
called when he was about 12 years old ; and there he had
for a few months the assistance of one Deane, another
priest, of whom he learnt onlj to construe a little of
" Tullj's OfBces."

In his perusal of the English Poets, he soon distin-
guished the versification of Dryden, which he considered


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