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great abilities in his profession. By this time he was nine
years of age, and our young musician was not only able to
oificiate at the organ, but began to study composition ;
and at this early period of his life is said to have composed
a service every week, for voices and instruments, during
three successive years.

In 1 698 he went to Berlin, under the protection of the
king of Prussia. From Berlin he went to Hamburgh,

82.



and became composer to the Opera House there, and
produced his first opera " Almeira," when he was not much
more than fourteen years of age. The success of it was so
great that it run for thirty successive nights.

Soon after, he went to Italy, and when at Florence, he
produced his opera of ** Rodricjo ;" for which he was
presented with 100 sequins and a service of plate. From
Florence, be went to Venice, and finished his opera of
" Agrippina' in three weeks, which was performed for 27
nights successively, and with which the audience were so
enchanted that they all seemed to be distracted.

He now resolved to return to his native country, and
stopped at Hanover, where George I. then only Elector
of Hanover, offered him a pension of 1,500 crowns per
annum, as an inducement to stay ; but Handel excused
himself by saying he had promised to visit the court of the
Elector Palatine, and to pass over to England. When at
Dusseldorf, the Elector was highly pleased with him ; and
at parting, made him a present of a fine set of wrought
plate for a dessert. From Dusseldorf, he made the best
of his way through Holland ; and, embarking for England,
arrived in London in the winter of 1710. He was intro-
duced to the king and nobility, who became impatient for
an opera from him ; accordingly, he composed " i?inaWo,"
in which the famous Nicolini sang : its success was great ;
and it was a general regret that he was obliged to return
to Hanover to complete his engagements ; whither he
hastened ; but, in 1712, he obtained leave of the Elector
to make a second visit to England ; where he was em-
ployed by the nobility to compose for the Opera House ;
and the queen, as an encouragement, settled on him an
annuity of 200/. per annum. All this made Handel forget
his obligations to return to Hanover ; so that when the
Elector came over, on the death of queen Anne, in 1704,
Handel durst not appear at court ; but bj' a stratagem of
Lord Kilmanseck, and others of the nobility, the king
pardoned him, and was pleased to add a pension for life of
200/. a year to that before given him by queen Anne.
Handel was now settled in England, and well provided



for. The first three years he was chiefly at the Earl of
Burliugton's, where he frequentiy met Pope. The poet one
day asked his frieud Arbuthnot, what was his real opinion
of Handel as a composer, who replied " Conceive the
highest you can of his abilities, and they are very much
beyond what you can conceive." Pope, nevertheless,
declared that Handel's finest things, so untoward was his
ears, gave him no more pleasure than the airs of a common
ballad. While he was here, a project was formed by the
nobility, for erecting an academy in the Haymarket, the in-
tention of which was to secure a constant supply of operas,
to be composed by Handel, and performed under his di-
rection. For this purpose a large sum was raised, the king
subscribing 1,000/. and the nobility 4,000/. and Handel
went to Dresden in quest of singers, Avhence he brought
Senesino and Duristanti. The academy being now firmly
established, and Handel appointed composer to it, all things
went on prosperously for the course of ten years. Handel
maintained an absolute authority over the singers and the
band, or rather kept them in total subjection. The very
simple and well known air, " Verdi prati," in " Alcina"
which was constantly encored, was at first sent back to
Handel by Carestini, as too trifling for him to sing ; upon
which, he went in a great rage to his lodgings, and, with a
tone in which few composers, except Handel, ever ventured
to accost a. first-rate singer, exclaimed, in his usual curious
dialect, and with his accustomed impetuosity, " You tog,
don't I know better as yourseluf vaat is pest for you to
sing? U yoa vill not sing all de song vaat I give you, I
vill not pay you ein stiver."

On a similar occasion, upon Cuzzoni insolently refusing
to sing his admirable air, " Falsa imagine," in " Otho,"
he told her that he always knew she was a very devil, but
that he should now let her know, in her turn, that he was
Beelzebub, the prince of devils ; and then taking her up
by the waist, swore, if she did not immediately obey his
orders, he would throw her out of the window.

This may serve to shew what a spirit he possessed, and
how well "the company were governed. But, however.



what they had regaided, hitherto, as legal governiuent, at
length appeared to be downright tyranny ; upon which a
rebellion commenced, with Seuesino at the head of it, and
all became tumult and civil war. The merits of the quarrel
are not known — the nobility were not Avilling to part with
Senesino, and Handel had resolved to have no further
concerns with him ; and thus the academy was at once
dissolved.

Handel still continued at the Haymarlcet, but his
audiences gradually sunk away ; so that he was obliged to
repair to Italy in search of new singers, and returned to
London, where he embarked on a new bottom. He car-
ried it on for three or four years, but it did not answer, on
account of some of the nobility patronising Farinelli : in
short, the opposition to him was so strong, that, with all
bis splendid talents, his atiairs declined. His fortune was
not more impaired than his health : his right arm was
become useless to him from a stroke of the palsy ; and his
senses were greatly disordered at intervals for a short time.
In this unhappy state he repaired to the vapour balls at
Aix-la-Chapelle, and there he received a wonderful cure.

Soon after his return to London, in 1736, his " Alex-
ander's Feast" was performed at Covent Garden, and
applauded. The Italian party was, however, too strong
for him ; and he was obliged, in 1741, to go to Dublin,
where he was well received. He returned to London in
1742, when the minds of most men were disposed in his
favour, and the aera of his prosperity returned. He
immediately began his oratorios in Covent Garden, which
he continued, with uninterrupted success and unrivalled
glory, till within eight days of his death. The last was
performed on the 6th, and he expired on the 14th of
April, 1759.

Handel, in his person, was large, and rather corpulent ;
ungraceful in his gait, which was ever sauntering, and had
somewhat of that rocking motion which distinguishes those
whose legs are bowed. His features were finely marked,
and the genera! cast of his countenance placid, bespeaking
dignity attempered with benevolence, and e^ery quality of



i



the heart which has a tendency to beget conlidence and
ensure esteem.

Though he was impetuous, rough, and peremptory in
his manners and conversation, yet he was totally devoid
of ill-nature or malevolence ; indeed, there was an original
humour and pleasantry in his most lively sallies of auger
and impatience, which, united with his broken English,
rendered him rather the cause of merriment than uneasi-
ness. His natural proj^ensity to wit and humour, and a
happy manner of relating common occurrences in an
uncommon way, enabled him to throw persons and things
into very ridiculous attitudes.

Dr. Warren, who attended him in his last sickness,
said that he was perfectly sensible of his approaching
dissolution ; and, having been always impressed with a
profound reverence for the doctrines and duties of the
Christian religion, that he had most seriously and devoutly
wished, for several days before his death, that he might
breathe his last, as actually happened, on Good Friday,
in hopes, he said, of meeting his good God, his sweet
Lord and Saviour, on the day of his resurrection ; meaning
the third day, or Easter Sunday following.

The loss of sight was an awful warning, which wrought
a great change in his temper and general behaviour.
Throughout life he was a man of blameless morals, and
manifested a deep and rational sense of religion. In
conversation he would frequently declare the pleasure he
felt in setting the Scriptures to music, and how much
contemplation of the many sublime passages in the Psalms
had contributed to his edification ; and now that he found
himself near his end, these sentiments were improved into
solid and rational piety, attended with a calm and even
temper of mind.

For the last two or three years of his life, he constantly
attended Divine Service in his own parish church of St.
George, Hanover-square, where his looks and gesticula-
tions indicated the utmost fervour ofunaliecled devotion.
He was buried in Westminster Abbey, the Dean, Dr.
Peaice, Bishop of Rochester, assisted by the choir.



HANl^EL.

performing the funeral solemuitj. Over the place of ith
interment is a moausnent, designed and executed by ^
Roubilliac, representing him in full length, in an erect
posture, with a music paper in his hand, inscribed, " I
know that my Redeemer liveth," with the notes to which
these words are so admirably set in his " Messiah."

Those who are but little acquainted with Handel are
unable to characterise him otherwise than by his excel-
lencies in his art, and certain foibles in his nature, which
he was never studious to conceal. Accordingly, we are
told that he had an enormous appetite, that he preferred
Burgundy to Port, and that, when provoked, he would
break out into profane expressions.

Dr. Kitchener, in his Housekeeper's Ledger, 1824,
says — " Our incomparable and inspired composer, Handel,
required uncommonly large and frequent supplies of food.
Among other stories told of this great musician, it is said,
that whenever he dined, he always ordered ' dinner
FOR THREE,' — and on receiving for answer to his question
— * Is the dinner retty V — *As soon as the company come' —
he said ' con strepito ' Den pring up te tinner * prestissimo*

I AM DE GOMBANY."

Handel, late in life, like the greatest of poets. Homer
and Milton, was afflicted with blindness, which, however
it might dispirit or embarrass him at other times, had no
effect on his nerves or intellects in public ; as he conti-
nued to play concertos and voluntaries between the parts
of his oratorios to the last, with the same vigour of thought
and touch for which he was ever so justly renowned. To
see him, however, led to the organ, after this calamity, at
upwards of seventy years of age, and then conducted to-
wards the audience to make his accustomed obeisance,
was a sight so truly afflicting and deplorable to persons of
sensibility, as greatly diminished their pleasure on heai'ing
him perform.



ifeS





gens, a^ffiig l^k(§^aws®g3ia



SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH, IM. P.



In council and in conduct wise and stay'd ;
In conversation, modest as a maid ;
Plain and sincere, observant of the right.
In mien and manners an accomplisli'd knight.

Ciiaucer traiisla'ed.



THIS distinguished senator was born in the oLsctire parish
of Dorish, in the shire of Inverness, on the 24th of
October, \76S. The Mackintoshes, or rather M' Kin-
toshes, of which his family constituted a branch, Avas one
of the most ancient, although not one of the most powerful
clans in the north. They could at one time, however,
bring five or six hundred fighting men into the field ; but
Iheir chieftain was at length eclipsed by more potent
neighbours, and they themselves were obliged to recur to
policy, in order to preserve their political and civil exis-
tence. In the rebellion of 1715, we believe they were
unanimous, but iu 1745, they temporised, one portion
having joined the Pretender under the banners of a high-
minded female. Lady MaekintONh, while the remainder
prudently kept aloof from the contest.

The father of the subject of this memoir, like mbst, if
not all his progenitors, was bred to arms, and having ob •
tained a commission in the British troops, spent some years
in the service ; during v/hich period, he was stationed wilh
his regiment for a considerable time in the garrison of
Gibraltar. It was in consequence perhaps of this service,
that the care of his eldest son, Avas entrusted to a grand-
mother. To the instruction cf this old ladv, Jame.-? r,'."S'

83.



SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.

confided, until he had attained that, age, when boys are
usually rescued from the thraldom of female tuition. He
received the first rudiments of his education in the village
of Fortrose ; vvliere his talents having been witnessed by
a Mr. Stalker, that gentleman advised young Mackintosh's
friends to send him to a neighbouring university : accor-
dingly he repabed to King's College, Old Aberdeen ; after
remaining here the regular time, he left the university, and
■went to Edinburgh to study medicine. He had now an op-
portunity of hearing the lectures of Dr. William Culler, at
that time Professor of Practical Medicine, and author of
the First Lines of Physic, as well as a work on the Ma-
teria Piledica. The well known celebrity of this able
physician attracted a crowd of students to the capital of
Scotland, and Mr. Mackintosh, as is to often the case
with young men of a sprightly turn, and sanguine temper-
aments participated alike in the instruction and dissipation
of that city. The gay, young, and volatile Highlander,
now let loose from restraint, opened his eyes with delight
on the scene around him. Hitherto accustomed only to the
simple scenes and manners of his native " heath-cov^ered
mountains," he became suddenly initiated in the delights of
a capital ; and his appetite for sensual pleasures bore an
exact proportion, perhaps, to his former abstinence from
them. Notv/ithstanding this occasional dissipation, of the
folly of which no one was more sensible than himself, he
already began to be distinguished by those men famous for
their attainments. Adam Smith, the celebrated author of
the Wealth of Nations, proferred him his friendship ; and
the Earl of Buchan, an accomplished nobleman honoured
him by the proposal of WTitiug a life of Fletcher of Saltoun,
the Scottish patriot, in conjunction with himself. At
length in 1787 he received his degree from the university
as Doctor of Physic. Dr. Mackintosh now hastened to
the metropolis, where, instead of following his profession,
he commeuced author, and sent forth to the world a pamph-
let in favour of an unlimitted and unfettered regency of
the Prince of Wales. Foiled in his attempts in politics,
he repaired to the continent to study medicine, but returned



SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.

to England at the memorable epoch of the French revolu-
tion, and entered binjself as a student of Lincoln's-iim :
he was called to the bar by that society in 1792, and
began to practise.

In 1789, he married Miss Stuart, of Gerrard-stveet,
Soho, by whom be has had iive children. Aboat I79'i,
he had the misfortune to lose this lady.

In Edinburgh, he had, of course, acquired the friend-
ship, and excited the admiration, of the greatest wits of
the time. The present Lords Gillies and Eidon, and the
all-accomplished Dean of Faculty (Cranstoun), were of
the number. In the capital he naturally obtained a fa-
vourable introduction to " the man of the people," not less
celebrated for wit and refined taste, than for eloquence in
debate and liberality in political principles. The impres-
sion which he made upon the illustrious circle of which
Mr. Fox was the head and ornament, may be inferred from
the unanimous selection of " the stripling" to encounter
" the Goliah" of the Alarmists. The Vindicice Gallkai
was written immediately after the publication of" Burke's
Reflections, &c." for the purpose of vindicating the fond
admirers of a revolution in France against the imputations
and charges so unsparingly and so eloquently cast upon
them. The events of 1789, 1790, and 1791, were not too
frightful to be defended. The caprices, cruelties and
oppressions of the old regime were fresh in remembrance,
and heartily condemned by all Englishmen ; and the
revolutionary movements had not yet threatened all Kings
and kingly governments with destruction. The Essay
analyzed, exposed, and refuted the declamations of Burke
with great skill ; set forth the general principles of political
amelioration with the utmost precision and force, and
advocated the conduct of those who wished for success to
the attempt to substitute law for caprice, with a tone of
humanity and enlightened regard to the state of society,
which rises to the very highest eloquence. The temper
with which he treated his venerable opponent was univer-
sally admired, and led to a visit at Beaconsfield, which
yielded mutual gratification.



SIR JAMEJ MACKINTOSTf.

Foreign politics bad takeu a disastrons course, nud the
fondest admirers of the dawn became the most chagrined
bj the dark overcasting of the horizon. Mr. iMackiutosli
applied to the benchers of Lincoln's-inn for permission to
deliver lectures in their Hall upon the laws of nations.
Some zealots wished him to be restricted from any political
allusions, but that restriction, which would have amounted
to a complete refusal, was liberally and etlectually re-
sisted by Mr. Pitt, himself a bencher. The lectures
obtained unconjmou eclat. Statesmen and politicians, and
lawyers of all parties and gradations, attended and admired.
From that he took the station which he has since held at
the head of the international lawyers of Europe.

In 1798, he married one of the daughters of Captain.
Allen, of Cressella in Pembrokeshire, by whom he has
had several children.

In the year 1802, a singular prosecation was undertaken
in this country at the instigation of our ally, the First Consul
of the French Republic. Mr. Perceval, the Attorney-
General, conducted the prosecution ; the present Lord
Chief Justice of the King's Bench Avas what is technically
called the Attorney-Generars devil. Mr. Mackintosh
defended Peltier, and gave expression to his indignant
regret for the defeat of early hopes fiom the French
Revolution ; for the flagrant outrages perpetrated by the
Lords of the Ascendant in that dreadful career, and for the
abused success and despotic purposes of Napoleon Buona-
parte, with a splendour and force of eloquence which
electrified the whole British empire. He had previously
been introduced to the First Consul. Soon after this he
accepted of the office of recorder of Bombay, which he
discharged for ten years with the utmost dignity, ijnpar-
tiality, and satisfaction. On his return, in 1812, he
found Mr. Perceval Premier, and might easily take office
at home with the highest prospects which ambition could
desire ; but he chose rather to sacrifice his ambition to
his principles.

In 1814, he took his seat in Parliament for the county
of Nairn, and very judiciously made his maiden speech ia



SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.

belialf of the little republics and independent States which
had formerly adorned the siiores of the Adriatic, the
Mediterranean, and the German Ocean. On aiich aji
occasion he was Ave'l ahie to expound the laws of nations
and the principles of public liberty. Some country
Member, who required the assistance of the Holy Alliance
to understand such refinements, expressed his disappoint-
ment. His first great eil'orts in Parliament were directed
to the mitigation of the Criuiinal Code, a bequest left him
by Sir Samuel Romilly. His eloquence proved eminently
powerful and successful in this cause. The House pledged
themselves to revision, and many deformities have since
been repealed. In 1819, he engaged in a memorable
conflict with Mr. Canning, his early and constant friend,
respecting the new restrictions then imposed on the Press.
Both displayed extraordinary acquirements, address, and
eloquence ; and if Sir James was the ntoie powerful in
argument aud illustration, his cause v/as decidedly the
more just as well as the more liberal. In the cause of
Naples and of Spain his exertions were strenuous and
irresistible in England, but Austrian and French bayonets
were on the other side.

" Victrix causa Deis placuit, sed victa Catoni."

The last labours of his eloquence have been devoted to
South America, with belter auspices and more propitious
fortanes. " The gods" of the Holy Alliance cannot send
their " victorious arms" to the other side of the Atlantic,
and there " Cato's principles" are destined to triumph.

The composition of Sir James Mackintosh's speeches is
by far the most perfect that has adorned the British senate.
It is ornate, without aliectation or feebleness. It fully
satisfies the ear, and yet every word is necessary and
effective. The delivery is particularly energetic. In the
very highest bursts, when the cheers of Members vie
with the orator's voice, the tones become harsh and
somewhat painful. Here is his greatest defect ; for in
this he is greatly surpassed by Messrs. Canning and



SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.

Brougham, Sir James is dignified and commanding in
his personal appearance, and his action gracefal and manly.
He still cannot rank as the best debater. It is the
lecturer, the moral reasoner, and not the partizan who
addresses the House. He will not run riot with false but
fashionable and favored declamation ; he takes no unfair
advantage of his opponent ; he conceals and withholds
nothing in order to gain a temporary victory. His speeche;>
are lessons of political wisdom, not party or personal
invectives —

" Calm as the fields of heaven his sapient eye."

This philosophic habit of contemplation and reasoning
may be regarded as a happy qiialihcation for the historian
of England, in a period peculiarly distracted by party
contests. The Whigs ruled from the Revolution of
England to the Revolution of France, with some slight
exceptions. The historian of the great events of those
times ought, perhaps, to be friendly to that dethroned
party ; but he ought to be free from the dominion of
prejudice, animosity, and bigotry. Mr. Hume is justly
charged with a violent Tory bias ; his successor cannot
reasonably be suspected of any violent bias.




'^mr^^sms) ^^rn^rn.



^/W' (P.^y<>u/^/4/'r..-<i



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U'



EDWARD ALLEYN.



If he be Jiot fellow with the best king-,

Thou Shalt lind him the best king of good fellows,

Henry V



Alleyn was one of the earliest of our celebrated English
Comedians, having attained the summit of his professioa
before the year 1592, when the famous poet, Christopher
Marlow, died ; in whose play of Th.& Jew of Malta, Hej-
wood informs us that " the part of the Jew [Barabas] was
performed by so inimitable an actor as Mr. Alleyn ;" and
in the prologue, at the revival of this play at the Cock-pit,
after Alleyn's death, he says :

" We know not how our play may pass this stage,

Bat by the best of poets * in that age,

The Malta Jew had being, and was made ;

And he, then by the best of actors f play'd.

In Hero and Leander once did gain

A lasting memory ■, in Tamerlane,

This Jev>^, with others many, th' other won

The attribute o^ peerless ; being a man

Whom we may rank with (doing no one wrong)

Px'oteus for shapes, and Roscius for a tongue :

So could he speak, so vary."

The character of Barabas, the Jew of ?/Ia}ta, is a capi-
tal one ; and to liav6 gained the addition of peerless by
the perforniance of it, the actor must have been gifteil
with super-eminent powers. — Ben Jonson, who was sel-

* Marlow. t Allovn.

81.



EDWARD ALLEYi^.

dom lavish of his praises, thus speaks of Alleyo, in his
89th epigram.

" If Rome so great, and in her wisest age,
Fear'd not to boast the glories of her stage.
As skilful Roscius, and grave ^sop, men
Yet crown'd with honours, as with riches then j
Who had no less a trumpet of their name
Than Cicero, whose ev'ry breath was fame :
How can so great example die in me,
That, Allen, I should pause to publish thee ?
Who both their graces in thyself hast more
Outstript, than they did all that went before :
And present worth in all dost so contract,
As others speak, but only thou dost act.
Wear, this renown, 'tis just, that who did give
So many poets life, by one should live."

From a memorandum in his o^vn hand-writing now ex-
lant, it appears, that Alleyn was born September 1, 1566,
near Devonshire House, in the parish of St. Botolph,
without Bishopsgate : he roust therefore have applied
liimself very early to the Drama, to have reached the


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