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Green Harbour Court, Old Bailey.

Goldsmith's first works were The Bee, a weekly publi-
cation ; and An Enquiry into the present stale of Polite
Learniuf] in Europe. The late Mr. Newberry introduced
him as one of the writers in the Public Ledger, in which



OLIVER GOLDSMITH.

8pi,)cnred llie Citizen of the World, under the title of
" Chinese Letters."

Tliroiigh the friendship of Mr. Newberry he shifted his
lodgings from Green Harbour Court, to Wine Office Court
in Fleet-street, where he put t!ie finishing touch to his
Vicar of Wakefield. Here he obtained the esteem of Dr.
Johnson, who gave so j-trong a recommendation to Gold-
smith's novel, that the author obtained sixty pounds for
the copy.

Among many other persons of distinction who were
desirous to know our author, was the Duke of Northum-
berland ; and the circumstance that attended his intro-
duction to that nobleman is worthy of being recorded, in
order to shew a striking trait in his character.*

In 1765, the poem of The Traveller appeared ; and in
the same year he published a Collection of Essays.

Goldsmith's finances augmented with his fame, and
enabled him to live in a superior style : he changed his
lodgings in Wine Office Court for a set of Chambers in
the Inner Temple : and, in conjunction with a literary
friend, took a country house near to the six-mile stone
on the Edgeware Road. In this rural retirement he wrote
his History of England, in a series of Letters from a No-
bleman to his So?i.

In 1768, he produced his Good Natnred Man. The
production of this comedy, from the profits of the three
nights, and the sale of the copy, produced him five
hundred pounds, by which, and the additional sum he
had received out of the product of a Roman History, in

* " I was invited," said the Doctor, " by my friend Percy, to
wait upon the Duke. They shewed me into an anti-chamber,
where, after waiting some time, a gentleman very elegantly
dressed, made his appearance. Taking liim for the Duke, I
delivered all the fine things I had composed, when, to my utter
astonishment, he told nie I had mistaken him for bis master,
who would see me immediately. At that instant, the Duke came
into the apartment; and I was so confounded on the occasion,
that I wanted words barely sufficient to express the sense I
entertained of the Duke's politeness; I went away exceedingly
chagrined at the blunder I had committed.



OLIVER GOLDSMITH.

8 vols. 8vo. and a History of Eugland, 4 vols. Bvo. he
was enabled to descend from the attic story in the Inner
Temple, and take possession of a spacious suit of
chambers in Brook Court, Middle Temple, which he
purchased at no less a sum than four hundred pounds.

Shortly after, he produced that beautiful poem. The
Besetted Village. The bookseller gave him a note for
one hundred guineas for the copy, which Goldsmith
returned, saying " it was too much : it is more than the
honest bookseller can aflbrd, or the piece is worth ;" *
but the sale was so rapid, that the bookseller, with the
greatest pleasure, soon paid him the one hundred guineas,
M'iih acknowledgment for the generosity he had evinced
upon the occasion.

The next comedy the Doctor produced was in the year
1772 ; it was called She Stoops to Conquer, which proved
very successful, the profits amounting to eight hundred
pounds.

* This is not the only trait pf high honour and justice in an
Author ; for I have the great pleasure of recording two instances
that have come under my own cognizance. Some years ago, I
employed Harry Lenmine to compile me a six;-*nny pamphlet,
and when he had finished it, I asked him the price." Just what
you please, Sir," said the eccentric genius. I offered him £2.
"No," said he, "that is far too much — 10*. is plenty." I could
not induce him to receive more; till sometime after, when in
sad distress, he accepted of the 30s. as a boon, but not for
compiling the pamphlet.

The other instance also relates to a transaction between myself
and the dramatist, Mr. Moncvieff, author of Monsieur Toiison,
Giovanni in London, &c. &c. This gentleman produced a piece
at the Strand Theatre, called " The Fancy's Opera;" and I pur-
chased, for ten pounds, the copy-right of the songs, but the piece
proving oiwuccessful, in two days after, Mr. M., highly indeed
to his honour, sent me the following letter: —

" Dear Smeeton, Adelphi, June 28, 1823.

" It is certain the reception of the Fancy's
" Opera is not such as to render it adviseable to perform it after
" this week. Under these circumstances, though you bought the
" songs of liie piece on a risk, I have thought it will be better for
" me to lose than you who have a family — I therefore return you
" the ten pounds you gave me for the songs ; and shall be happy
" if you will look in here the first opportujiity.

\ ours ever truly,

W. T. MONCRIEFF."



OLIVER GOLDSMITH.

Iliough Goldsmith was indiscreet, lie was industrious :
he had previously written Histories of England, Greece,
ntid Rome ; and afterwards finished his History of the
Earth and Animated Nature.

A short time before he paid the debt of nature, he had
formed a plan of compiling an Universal Dictionary of
Arts and Sciences ; but as he received very little encou-
ragement, he desisted, though much against his will.

The delighted poet now approached the period of his
dissolution : he had been repeatedly attacked for some
years with a strangury, and the embarrassed state of his
affairs aggravated the violence of the disorder, which,
with the agitation of his mind, brought on a nervous
fever. Findiiig his disorder rapidly increase, he sent for
his friends Dr. Fcrdyce and Mr. Hawes, to whom he
related the symptoms of his malady. He told them he had
taken two ounces of ipecacuanha wine as an emetic ; and
expressed a great desire of making trial of Dr. James's
fever powders. His medical friends represented to him
the impropriety of taking medicine at that time ; but no
argument could prevail with him to relinquish his inten-
tion. Finding the dangerous symptoms of his disorder
increasing, he was attended by Dr. Turton ; and they
continued every day till the disorder put a period to the
existence of their patient on the 4th day of April, 1774,
in the 45th year of his age.

His remains were privately deposited in the Temple
burial ground, on Saturday, the 9th of April.

A subscription was afterwards raised to defray the
expense of a marble mausoleum, which was placed in
Westminster Abbey, between those of Gay and the
Duke of Argyll, in the Poet's Corner, with an elegant
latin inscription by Dr. Johnson.

Miss Hawkins, in her late work, which she calls
" Memoirs, Anecdotes, Facts, and Opinions," but
which, in truth, is full of the vilest slander, gross per-
sonalities, and virulent ill-nature, relates two anecdotes
of Goldsmith — one of his procuring, by lies and deceit,
a portrait by Vandyke, at an insignificant price, from a



OLIVER GOLDSMITH.

countr}- inn ; — the other, of his going to Mr. Cade!?,
of the Strand, shortly after he had contracted with
the booksellers for his History of EngLind, for which he
was to be paid five hundred guineas, and telling hiin that
he was in fear of being arrested by his baker or butcher,
and was in great distress. Mr. C. immediately summoned
the other proprietors, and they agreed to give the veedy
author the whole of the sum ; although he was not en-
titled to any part of it until a twelve -month after the
publication of his work ; accordingly Goldsmith received
it under pretence of satisfying his creditors. Mr. C.
she says, to discover the truth of his pretext, watched
whither he weut, and after following him to IJyde
Park Corner, saw him get into a post-chaise, in which
a woman of the town was waiting for him, and with
whom, as it afterwards appeared, he went to Bath to
dissipate what he had thus fraudulently obtained."

Now, vyith every respect for this Miss, (for, we be-
lieve, she lives in a state of" single blessedness") we look
upon these fads as very doubtful. Is it probable that such
a strict tradesman as Alderman Cadeil was, or, in fact,
any other bookseller, would take the trouble to call a
meeting of his fellow subscribers, and request them to
advance their money to a man whom he imagined intended
to misapply it? The idea is preposterous. That he
would obtain five hundred guineas for Goldsmith, and
the instant he paid the money, a fresh light should break
in upon him, and that he should follow the needy author
to Hyde I'ark Corner, and there see him get in a post
chaise with a. <}irl of the town, and proceed to Bath with
the money which Miss H. says he fiaudulently obtained.
As to fraud, there was none in it; even admitting the
story to be tnte. Goldsmith only received his money
before the time agreed on. There could be no fraud!
for he had given full value for the sum he had received :
he asked a favour, and they granted it. But enough
oC this venom !




TWIS, ©WEJE (IMF SWi



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKli OF SUSSEX,

K. G. &C. &C.



Learn this-



Aiid thou shall prove a shelter to thy friends ;
A hoop of gold, to bind thy brothers in ;
That the united vessel of their blood.
Mingled with venom of suggestion,
(As, force perforce, the age will pour it in)
Shall never leak, tnough it do work so strong
As acouitum, or rash gun-powder."

Hennj IV. Part



THIS beaulifii! pvissage from our immortal bard will
bring to our recoUeotion a most important scene ; and,
while it inculcates a moral lessot;, sbew in a very amiable
light the excellent Prince to whom it was addressed.
Without meaning further to advert to the play of which
we have been speaking, and which is a drama truly
English, let us observe, that we have, this week, the
honour to present our readers with the portrait of a
Prince, equally amiable in his manners, equally bene-
volent in his heart; and in his talents, classical learning,
and attic eloquence, greatly superior.

His Royal Highness AUGUSTUS Fredf.IUCK, the sixth
son of cur late venerable Sovereign, was born at the
Queen's Palace, on Vf ednesday, January 1^7, 1773, and
baptized by the Archbishop ol' Canterbury on Thursday,
the 25th of February following,

66.



DUKE OF SUSSEX.

After receiving the rudiments of education under the
care of instructors appointed by His Majesty, the Prince,
Slaving been created a Knight of the Garter, June 2, 1786,
^vas sent to the University of Gottingen, and, with his
royal brothers Ernest and Adolphus Frederick (now
Dukes of Cumberland and Cambridge), was entered
there July 6 ; each of these illustrious brothers being
accompanied by a governor, a preceptor, and a gentleman.
The expenses of their table were fixed at 600 crowns per
week, including two grand institution dinners, to which
the professors and some students were invited. The
Princes were here taught the German language by Pro-
fesser Mayer, Latin by the celebrated Heyne, Religion
by the Ecclesiastical Counsellor Less, and Morality by
the Counseller Feder ; each of which masters was re-
warded by an extraordinary appointment of 1000 crowns
per annum.

Having finished his education in this celebrated semi-
nary of learning, his Royal Highness, with an attend-
ance suited to his high rank, commenced his travels by
a tour through Germany ;, after whicli he visited Italy,
and resided four years at Rome, where he lived in habits
of great intimacy with Pope Pius Vlth ; and in which
city he married, on the 3d of April, 1793, Lady Augusta
Murray, daughter of John, Earl of Diinmore ; to whom
he was re-married in London, at the parish church of St.
George, Hanover Square, on the 5th of December, 1793 ;
and by whom he had a son, born January 13, 1794 ;
wiiich child was, we think, followed by a daughter.
This marriage, however, was, in Angust, 1794, de-
clared null and void, as being in violation of statute 12,
Geo. in. c. 11, which enacts, that no descendant of the
body of King George II. (other than tlie issue of Prin-
cesses married into foreign countries) is capable of
contracting matrimony without the previous consent of
the King, signified under the Great Seal.

His Royal Highness afterwards visited the other
principal courts of Italy : as Naples, Venice, Turin, &c.
aud then went tu Switzerland, where he made a stay of



DUKE OF SUSSEX.

considerable length. From that countr_y lie proceeded to
Beilin, where he resided about two years, during which
time he received the most marked attentions from tho
Prussian Court.

His Rojal High'uess now returned to England, whence,
however, after a short stay, he embarked for Lisbon in
1800, where he resided about four years ; and here we
may consider him as having commenced his public life ;
for, not only had he to contend with political intrigue at
that court, and to take a very active part in public affairs
of importance, particularly against the French Ambas-
sador, General Lasnes ; but it was during the early part
ofhis residence at Lisbon (?. e. on tlie 7th of November,
1801) that he was created a Peer of the Realm, by the
style and titles of Baron of Arklow in Ireland, Earl of
Inverness in North Britain, ond Duke of Sussex.

To us, who are wholly out of the reach of state secrets,
it may appear unaccountable, that the Duke of Sussex is
the only one of the Royal Brothers that is wholly unpro-
vided for, except by the national allowance granted to all
the Princes. The King was (when only Prince of Wales)
Colonel of the 10t!» regiment of Dragoons; the Duke of
York, a Field Marshal, Commander-in-chief of all the
Land Forces, Colonel of the 1st regiment of Foot Guards,
Colonel-iti-cliief of the 6th (or Royal American) regiment,
aad of the Royid Dublin regiment of Infantry, Lord
Warden of Windsor Forest and Great Park, Warden
and Keeper of Nev/ Forest, Hampshire, &c. &c. ; the
Duke of Clarence, Admiral of the Fleet, and Ranger of
Bushy Park; t'.ie late Duke of Kent, a Field IMarshal,
Colonel of the Ist regiment of Foot, Governor of Gibral-
tar, and Keeper of Hampton Court Park ; the Duke of
Cumberland, a General in ibe Arniy, President of the
Board of General Ollicers, and Colonel of the loth
regiment of Dragoons ; and the Duke of (Cambridge, a
General in the Army, Colonel of tiie '2d, or Coldstream
rfjgiment of Foot Guards, and Colonel-in-chief of the
Gerjnan Legion.



DUKE OF SUSSEX.

It certainly is not for us to inqaire, whj the illustriou.«
subject of this article should alone have been neglected
by ministers in the distribution of employments or emolu-
nienls, civil or military ; but that it appears to us a
pccwliar hardship we shall shew, by stating that the
same law which annulled his Koyal Highaess's marriage,
bound him to the maintenance of his espoused lady, and
to the payment of her debts ; which we have heard, out
of the national allowance of £ 18,000 per annum, is a
clear deduction of £4,000.

That his Royal Highness possesses strength and de-
cision of mind, and is not deficient in talents that might
adorn public life, may be fairly inferred, from Ihs cir-
cumstance of his having, on certain great occasions,
highly distinguished himself as a parliamentary speaker;
more particularly in two orations delivered by his Royal
Highness in the House of Lords, on the Regency Ques-
tion, December !^7th 1810, and January 28th 1811 ;
which eisLciled much attention throughout the country,
as strongly demonstrative of the sound constitutional
knowled^^e of this illustrious member of the house of
Brunswick.

In 1812, in the case of the Catholics, his Royal High-
ness took a part no less decided. He seconded the Earl
of Donoughmore's motion, for referring the petitions of
the Catholics to a Committee ; and enforced his opinion
ill a speech wliich evinced such a profound acquaint-
ance with the subject, s'.icli a depth of reading in the
decrees of the various cosiiicils in diflerent ages of
the world, as much astonish persons who may have been
led to suppose, because the i3uke of Sussex has no
public or specific employment, that, therefore, his life
is spent in ease and apathy. The truth is, that his
Royal Highness is of a studious turn ; to which, per-
haps, he may be particularly induced by the misfortune
of a most distressing asthmatic habit, to which he thus
alluded in the speech last mentioned : —

" These sentiments are the consequence of long and
serious inquiries, and have been greatly influenced by



nUKE OF SUSSEX.

deep and religious meditations. Since the last time 1
ventured to intrude injself upon the attention of this
House, domestic calamities and serious indisposition Lave
almost constantly visited me : it is in such moments as
those, my Lords, when it appears as if a few instants
would separate me for ever from ihis mortal life, and
the hopes of a better console me in the hour of anguish
and sorrow, that all prejudices cease, and that man views
human events, unbiassed by prepossessions, in their
true light, inspired with Christian charity, and calmed
by a conlident reliance on the rnercy of the Omnipotent :
at those times, when one may be said almost to stand
face to face with one's Creator, I have frequently asked
myself, what preference I could urge in my favour to
my Redeemer, over my fellow-creatures, in whose sight
all well-intentioned and well-inclined men have an equal
claim to his mercy. The answer of my conscience always
was — follow the directions of your Divine Master, love
one another, and do not to others what you would not
h?ve them do unto you. And upon this doctrine I am
acting. The present life cannot be the boundary of our
destination. It is but the first stage : the infancy of our
existence : it is a minority, during which we are to
prepare for more noble occupations ; and the more
iaillifully we discharge our duties here below, the more
exalted will be the degree of protection and felicity that
we may hope to attain hereafter. How should I feel, if
I were excluded from those civil rights which are denied
my fellow-creatures ? This is a question that, in my
opinion, can be answered but in one way ; especially,
convinced as I am, that civil immunities, guarded by
mild and secure boundaries, cannot endanger either
Church or State."

His Royal Highness v.'as some years since elected to,
and graciously accepted, the command of a volunteer
corps, called the Loyal North Britons.

His Royal Highness, while at Berlin, formed a valu-
able connexion between the Royal York Lodge, in that
city, and the Grand Lodge of England ; and, upon every



DUKt OF SUSSEX.

occasion, used his utmost exertions in promoting and
dillusing the benefits of that truly benevolent associatioa.
During his stay at Lisbon, the Grand LoJge of Paris
had sent several deputies, oflicers of the frigate La
Topaze, to assemble the Portuguese Free Masons in
Lisbon, and grant them warrants to form Lodges. The
Duke of Sussex, however, advised them, rather than do
that, to form Lodges of themselves, and send a repre-
sentative to the Grand Lodge of England, to be acknovv-
ledi^ed by that body; in which case, the political in-
dependence of the country could not be biassed by the
masonic connexion of the Portuguese Lodges with the
Grand Lodge of France.

The sedulous attention paid by the Royal Duke to
the character and interests, the honour and happiness
of the Free and Accepted Masons, is very apparent in
the pre-eminent station which he now holds in the Fra-
ternity. Nor dill his Royal Highness's well-known zeal
and ability, as a mason, escape the notice of his Royal
Brother, when Prince Regent; who, on the demise
of the venerable Admiral Sir Peter Parker, appointed
the Duke of Sussex, Di:i'UTY GRA^D Master oi'

UiNGLAi^i).




m^^®m^^®m.



DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON.



From his cradle



" He v/as a scholar; and a ripe and a good one:

" And to add greater honours to his age

" Than man could give him, he died fearing heaven."



This eminent Scholar was born at Licbtield, in Stafford-
shire, on the IStli of September, N. S. 1709, and baptized
in St. Mary's Church, in that city, on tlie same day.
His father, Michael Johnson, was a native of Derbyshire,
of obscure extraction, who settled in Lichfield as a Book-
seller and Stationer ; where he died in 1731, at the age of
seventy-six.

Dr. Johnson was first taught to road English by Dame
Oliver, who kept a school for young children, in Lichfield.
He began to learn Latin wiih Mr. Hawkins, usher of
Lichfield School, and afterwards with the master, Mr.
Hunter. Johnson, on being asked how he had acquired
so accurate a knowledge of th e Latin language, said,
" My master whipt me very well. Without that, Sir, I
should have done nothing." At the age of fifteen, he
removed to the school of Stourbridge, in Worcestershire,
where he remained little more than a year, and then
returned home, Avhere be loitered for two years, in a
state unworthy of his great abilities.

On the 3l5t of October, 1728, he waS entered a Com-
moner of Pembroke College, Oxford ; while here, he
had to baffle with the most galling poverty; his debts
soon increased ; and his scanty remittances from Lich-
field, which had all along been made with great difficulty,
could be supnlied no longer, his father having fallen into

67.



DK. SAMUEL JOHNSON.

a stale of insolvency. He was compelled, by liresi-stible
necessity, to leave the college in 1731, without a degree,
having been a member of it little more than three years :
and he returned to his native city, not knowing how he
should gain even a decent livelihood. In December of
this year, his father died.

In the forlorn state of his circumstances, he accepted
an offer to be employed as usher in the school of Market-
Bosworth, in Leicestershire ; but this situation of painful
drudgery, which all his life he recollected with the
strongest aversion, he soon relinquished. He now re-
tired to Birmingham, where he hired lodgings ; bat he
had no settled plan of life, and very scanty means of
subsistence. While here, he translated Lobo's Voyage
to Abyssinia, which was published in 1735. For this
work, he had from Mr. Warren, only the sum of £5.

In the year 1734 he became the fervent admirer of
Mrs. Porter, a lady of good understanding, and great
sensibility, but double the age of Johnson.* Miss Porter
said, •' that when he was first introduced to her mother,
his appearance was very forbidding : he was then lean
and lank, so that his immense structure of bones was
hideously striking to the eye, and the scars of the
scrophula were deeply visible. He also wore his hair,
which was straight and stiff, and separated behind : and
he had often, seemingly, convulsive starts and odd
gesticulations, which tended to excite at once surprise
and ridicule.'*

He was married to Mrs. Porter, at Derby, on the 9th
July 1736 ; and in the same year he set up a private aca-
demy, at Edial, near Lichfield, for young gentlemen ; but
the only pupils that were put under his care, were the ce-
lebrated David Garrick and his brother George, and a Mr.
Offely. Johnson soou relinquished this employment ; and

• Garrick used to exhibit her, by Ills exquisite talents of mi-
micry, so as to excite the heartiest bursts of laughter : he
described her as very fat, with a bosom of more than ordinary
protuberance, with swelled cheeks, of a iloiid red, produced by
thick painting, and increased by the liberal use of cordials;
ttarinj^ and fantastic in her dress, and affected both in her
•p«ech and her general behaviour.



DR. SAMUEL JOHNSOiX.

next luiued liis thoughts of trying his fortune in London,
where he anived in 1737, in company with his pupil»
David Garrick. It is pretty certain that Mr. Cave, the
publisher of the Gentleman's Magazine, was the first
person that employed Johnson as a writer iu London.*

Johnson first lodged, in London, at the house of Mr.
Norris, a stay-maker, in Exeter-street, Strand.t

In 1737, he returned to Lichfield, where he had left
Mrs. Johnson, and there he finished his tragedy oi Irene.
He again visited the metropolis, in company with Mrs.
Johnson and her daughter. His first performance in the
Gentleman's Magazine was a copy of latin verses, in
March, 1738 : in this year, also, appeared his London, a
Poem; in imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal ; which
was offered to several hooksellers, none of whom would
purchase it : at length, the worthy Dodsley saw it,
who instantly gave ten guineas for the copy.

From 1738 to 1747, Johnson employed himself chiefly
in writing, for the Gentleman's Magazine, some Epitaphs,
the Life of Savage the Poet, and a few Essays. But


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