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have removed him the next day. He was buried in
Lewish.am church-yard; the two friends before nienlioned



TilOMAS DERMODV.

performed the last satl office of humariit}^ Ijy attenJint;
inm to his t^rave, and by their care a handsome tomb has
been erected to his memory, with the following inscrip-
tion, selected from his works.

" No titled birth had he to boast,
Son of the Desart ! Fortune's child !

Yet, not by frowning Fortune crost,
The Muses on his cradle smil'd.

" Now a cold tenant dust thou lie

Of this dark cell ; — all hush the songf.
While Friendship bends his streaming eye,
As by thy grave he wends along.
" On thy cold clay lets fall the holy tear.
And cries — " Though mute, there is^a poet here !"

The misfortunes of Dermody, and his early death, were
not, like Chattarton's, produced by the miseries of want,
or the dearth of patronage. As his genius was of the first
order, so were his friends liberal to him beyond example.
The Literary Fund, as a body, often relieved him, and
its members, individually, were his best supporters. Sir
James Bland Burgess, Mr. Bragge, Lord Carlisle, Lord
Kilwarden, Baron Smith, Hely Addington.Mr. Boscawen,
Mr. Pye, and Mr. Addington, the Right Honourable
Chancellor of the Exchequer, gave him large sums ; and,
even a few days before bis death, a society of gentlemen
associating at a tavern in the neighbourhood of Covent-
Carden, on Dcrmody's situation being represented to
them by a distinguished literary character, voted, with-
out hesitation, an immediate supply, part ofv.hich was
administered to him on the following day.

For so young a man, Dermody has written much. Tn
addition to the various volumes of poems published with
his name, he was the author of More Wonders, an Heroic
Epistle, addressed to M. G. Lewis, Esq ; Battle of the
Bards, in two Cantos, occasioned by the dispute between
liifibrd and Peter Pinder ; Ode to Peace, addressed to



THOMAS DEUMODY,

■Mr. Aldington ; Ocle on tin Death oj Gaw) al Ahercromby ;
Histrionade, a Satire on tl>.e Thcaliic.il Performers, after
tlie manner of Clinrfluir.s Kosciad.

In the estimalioii of those friends to whom Dcrmody
was best known, the following picture is allowed to be
admirably drawn, and truly characteiistic of the poet
himself, for and by whom it was written, and publislicd
in bis last volume.

MY OWN CHARACTER.

This once I will alter my old-fas hion'd style,
For the rosy reward of a sensible smile,
And betiay the wild sketches of Passion, imprest
By Nature's own seal, on that tablet, my breast,
Whicb, too oft, as 'tis sway'd by the whim of the brain,
A rude Chaos of blunder is fo; c"d to contain,
Piojections absurd, prepossessions unjust,
Tho' friendship has still found it true to its truest.
And it, still, when such blots are expung'd, may be fit
For the splei«Ior of sense, or the sparkle of wit.
Then, first, I confess, least you kindly mistake,
I'm a compound extreme of the Sage and the Rake ;
Abstracted, licentious, affected, heroic,
A Poet, a soldier, a coxcomb, a stoic ;
Thismcment, ab.^temious as Faquir or Bramin ;
The next, Aristippus-like, swinishly cramming;
Now, full of devotion, and loyal dispute ;■
A demociat, now, and a deist to boot ;
Now, a frown on my front, and a leer in my eye ;
Now, heaving unfcign'd sensibility's sigh ;
Now, weighing with care each elaborate word ;
Now, the jest of a tavern, as drunk as a lord ;
By imminent woes, now, unmov'd as a stone ;
And, now, tenderly thrill'd by a grief not my own.
Of Love shall I speak? who my bosom still bare
To the arrows, discharg'd from the glance of the fair,
A target, whose verge many shafts may receive.
But whose centre, as yet, is untouch'd, I believe;
For who to one damsel could, meanly, confine
That heart, which is ever devoted to nine?
Shall I speak of Politeness? ah f there I am mute,
For tho' honest in thought, I'm in manners — a brute;
IMy virtues, indeed, are too shy to be seen,
Tho' my follies are not quite so bashful, I ween.
Nut e'en to a lady a fine thing I say.
As blunt as the hero of Wycherly's plav.



THOMAS DERMOUY.

Tiio'liuli&s, good faith, Jave been never my game,

For I guess tlie whole sex arc, in secret, the same ;

Smooth Ihitt'ry may lilt tliedeaJ nymph in the sky;

But her teeliny:s will certainly give It the lie ;

And in cases which I, and, most probably, you know.

She had rather be Jane, than Diana, or Juno.

Shall I make to grave dowager Prudence, a claim ?

Alas! I haveslightedher much, tomyshame,

Secur'd no snug office, scrap'd up no estate,

Nay, scarce own a Garret to shelter my pute :

So have nought to consign, when I've tinish'd my mirth.

But mv book to the critics, my body to earth.

Thro' life's chequer'd changes, in every state.

Hypocrisy, always, has mot with my hate.

For, tho' iocs maybe blinded, or friends may be bam'd,

I very well know, 1 may chance — to be damn'd.

Should you seek, in my mere conversation, to find

Those sprightly conceits, that illumine my mind,

Your seareii will be vain, for I candidly vow,

I can ne'er make a compliment; seldom, a bow;

Yet, when Venus appears, at gay Bacchus'scall,

I can coax her with ever a b!o.>d of them ail.

Tho' youth's florid blush on my cheek is decay'd

(Such blooms will soon wither in study's pale shade,)

Remembrance still pensively hangs on each scene.

That rais'd the sweet raptures of careless nineteen;

Then, to transport's tine touch evei7 pulse was alive.

Now I droop, in the year of my age— twenty-five !

This, you'll instantly cry, is a wonderful thing :

But my summer of genius arriv'd ere its spring.

The orange-tree thus, prematurely, we're told,

Bears its blossoms of green, and its fruitage of gold.

And these talents of mine, now entirely forgotten,

Like tiie a>ed!ar, soon ripe, were, I fear, as soon rotten.




■■■



'MM





B? i££i^mg©:Ei^iL,



SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL, L.L.D. F. R.S.

This eminent astronomer was born at Hanover, on the
15th of November, 1738, and was the second of four
sons. At the age of fourteen he was placed in the band
of the Hanoverian regiment of guards. About the year
1758 he proceeded with a detachment of his regiment to
England, accompanied bv his father, who, after a short
stay, returned to his native country, leaving his son in
England. It was young Herschel's good luck to gain
the notice of the Earl of Darlington, who engaged him to
superintend and instruct a military band then forming for
the militia of the county of Durham. At the termination
of his engagement, he gave instructions in music to
private pupils in the principal towns of the West Riding
of Yorkshire ; where he also officiated as leader in the
oratorios and public concert^. The leisure hours he
could spare he employed in perfecting himself in the
English and Italian languages : he also made some
progress in the Greek and Latin.

Towards the close of the year 1765 he was appointed,
through the interest and friendship of Mr. Joah Bates,
to the situation of organist at Halifax.

In the year 1766, the late Mr. Linley engaged him
and his elder brother for the pump-room band at Bath :
he was a distinguished performer on the oboe, and his
brother on the violincello. He was not long in this city
before he was appointed organist to the octagon chapel ;
on attaining this distinguished situation, he resigned that
of Halifax ; but this accession of business only increased
his propensity to study ; and, frequently after a fatiguing
day of fourteen or sixteen hours occupied in his profes-
sional avocations, he would seek relaxation, if such it might
be called, in extending his knowledge of the mathematics.

70.



SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL.

Having, in the course of his extensive reading, made
some discoveries which awakened his curiosity, he
applied himself to the study of astronomy and the science
of optics, and obtained, from a neighbour in Bath, the
loan of a two-feet telescope, in order that he might
observe those wonders of which he had read ; which
delighted and astonished him so much, that he commis-
sioned a friend in London to procure him one of larger
dimensions ; but the price being much too great for him,
he resolved on attempting to construct one himself.
After innumerable disappointments, which tended only to
stimulate his exertions, he, in the yeaf'.1774, had the
gratification of beholding the planet SAturn through a
five-feet Newtonian reflector made by himself. Tlie
success of his first attempt emboldened him to fresh
efibrts, and in a short time he completed telescopes from
seven to twenty feet. As a proof how indefatigable was
his perseverance, that in perfecting the parabolic figure
of the seven-feet reflector, he finished no fewer than two
hundred specula before he produced one that satisfactorily
answered his purpose.

As he found himself becoming hourly more attached to
the study of astronomy, he lessened his professional
engagements, as also the number of his pupils. Towards
the latter end of the year 1779, he commenced a regular
review of the heavens, star by star ; and in the course of
eighteen months' observations, he fortunately remarked
that a star, which had been recorded by Bode as a fixed
star, was progressively changing its position ; and, after
much attention to it, he was enabled to ascertain that it
•was an undiscovered planet. He communicated the
particulars to the Royal Society, who elected him a
fellow, and decreed him their annual gold medal. This
great and important discovery he made on the 13th of
March, 1781, and bestowed on the planet the name of
Georgium Sidus, in compliment to our late king, George
the Third.

Herschel, from this splendid result of his labours,
not only established his fame in the scientific world, bst



SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL.

was enablefl, by the donation of a handsome salary from
his late Majesty, to relinquish his professional labours,
and devote the remainder of his life wholly lo astronomy.

Ill consequence of this munificent act of the king's,
which must ever be mentioned to his honour as a patron
of science, he quitted Bath, and fixed his residence, first
at Datchet, and afterwards at Slough, near Windsor.
" It was here," says the Annual IJiography and Obituary
for 1823, from which truly excellent work this sketch is
chiefly taken — " in the hope of facilitating and extending
his researches, he undertook to construct a telescope of
forty feet, which was completed in 1787 ; but this
stupendous insi:?ument failed to answer all the purposes
intended, being too ponderous to retain a true figure, so
that comparatively few observations could be made with
it, and those for a very short period. It was oftener by
the aid of more manageable instruments that he perused
the great volume of the heavens, and derived from it
new contributions, to enrich the records of astronomical
science. In these researches, and in the laborious cal-
culations to which they led, he was assisted by his
excellent sister, Miss Caroline Herschel, whose indefa-
tigable and unhesitating devotion in the performance of a
task usually considered incompatible with female habits,
excited equal surprise and admiration.

"In 1783 he announced the discovery of a volcanic
mountain in the moon ; and four years afterwards com-
municated an account of two other volcanoes in that orb,
which appeared to be in a state of eruption."

In a paper in the Philosophical Transactions for the
year 1790, he says, " In hopes of great success with my
forty-feet speculum, I deferred the attack upon Saturn
until that should be finished ; and having taken an early
opportunity of directing it to Saturn, the very first
moment I saw that planet, which was on the 28th of last
August, I was presented with a viev/ of six of the satel-
lites, in such a situation, and so bright, as rendered it
impossible to mistake them. The retrograde motion of
Saturn amounted to four millions and a half per day.



SIR WILLIAiM iJERSCHEL.

wliicli made it very easy to ascertain whether the stars I
took to be satellites really were so ; and in about two
hoars and a half i had the pleasure of finding that the
planet had visibly carried them all away from their places."

There is a more decisive testimony to the merits of this
telescope in the Philosophical Transactions for 1790.
In a paper relating to the planet Saturn, he says — " It
may appear remarkable, that these satellites should have
remained so long unknown to us, when, for a century
and a half past, the planet to which they belong has been
tlie object of almost every astronomer's curiosity, on ac-
count of the singular phenomenon of the ring. But it
will be seen from the situation and size of the satellites,
that we could hardly expect to discover them till a teles-
cope of t!ie dimensions and aperture of my forty feet re-
flector should be constructed."

In the Transactions for 1800, there is the following ex-
tract from his Journal — " October 10, 1791. I saw the
fouith satellite, and the ring of Saturn, in the forty feet
speculum wiihout an eye-glass. The magnifying power,
on that occasion, could not exceed sixty or seventy ; but
the greater penetratins; power made full amends for the
lowness of the former. Among other instances of the
superior effects of penetration into space, I should men-
tion the discovery of an additional sixth satellite ofSaturn,
on the 28th of August, 1789, and of a seventh on the
11th of September of the same year, which were first
pointed cut by this instrument."

The Obituary for 1823, says—

" In 1802, Dr. Herschel laid before the Royal Society
a catalogue of five thousand new nebulae, nebulous stars,
planetary nebulae, and clusters of stars, which he had
discovered. By these and other scientific labours he
established his title to rank among the most eminent as-
tronomers of the age, and to be placed in the roll of those
whom this produced, only second to the immortal Newton.
The high sense entertained of his well applied talents
was testified by the marks of respect which he received
from various public bodies, and in particular by thehono-



SIR WILLIAM IIEKSCIIEL.

raiy degree of Doctor of Laws conferred on him bj tlie
University' of Oxford. He also enjojed the constant
palronage of his venerable sovereign; and in 1816, his
present majestj^, then prince regent, v^as pleased, on the
behalf of his rojal father, to bestow on hira the appropriate
and well earned distinction of the Hanoverian and Guelphic
order of Knighthood.

" He was distinguished for great amenitj of temper ;
and for that modesty which is the becoming accompani-
ment of great abilities. Another amiable trait in his
character was the good humour with which be bore the
occasional intrusions of inquisitive country-people in bis
neighbouihood, in whom his astronomical studies created
a notion that he held mysterious converse with the stars.
A pleasant instance of his conduct on these occasions has
been often related. One rainy summer a farmer waited
upon him, to solicit his advice as to the proper time for
cutting hay. The doctor pointed through a window to an
adjoining meadow, in which lay a crop of grass utterly
swamped: "Look at that field," said he, " and when I
tell yon it is mine, I think yon will not need another
proof to convince you that I am no more weather wise,
than yourself, or the rest of my neighbours."

"Dr. Herschel married Mary, the widow of John
Pitt, Esq ; by whom he had one son, who was some
time since a member of the University of Cambridge.

" Sir William did not relinquish bis astronomical ob-
servations until within a few years of his death, which
took place on the 23d cf August, 1822, at the age of 82.
He expired in the fullness of years, honoured with the
applause of the world ; and, what was far dearer to him,
the veneration of his family, and the esteem and love of
all who knew him. On the 7th of September, his re-
mains were interred in the parish church of Upton Berks,,
in which parish he had for many years resided.

" His will, dated the 17th of December, 1818, has,
been proved in the Prerogative Court. The personal
effects were svyorn under £6,000. The copyhold and
atber lands and tenements at Upton-cum-Chalvey, and at



SIR WILLIAM HERSCHtL.

Slough, he devised to his son, with £.25,000 in the
three per cent, reduced annuities. To his brother,
Johan Dietrich, he bequeathed two thousand pounds ;
annuities of one hundred pounds each to his brother
Johan Alexander, and his sister Caroline ; and twenty
pounds each to nephews and nieces : the residue, with the
exception of astronomical instruments, observations, &c.
given to his son, for the prosecution of his studies, was
left solelj to Lady Herschel."

Sir William Herschel was Knight of the Guelphic
Order; President of the Astronomical Society; Astrono-
mer Royal ; &c. &c.




3i®W2§ S^^^.



LOUIS XVIII.

Louis Stanislaus Xavier de France, Count de Pro-
VUNCK, second son of the Dauphin, the son of Louis
XV. was born at Versailles, November 17, 1755. From
his earliest years he manifested a timid and reserved
disposition. Stud^f became his predominnnt passion,
and his preceptor never remarked iti him any of those
displays of passion or warmth of affection which are often
the sign of a noble mind. Educated wit!i his two bro-
thers, the Duke de Berry (afterwards Louis XVL), and
the Count d'Artois, he always displayed a g;reater reserve
towards his elder, than his younger brother. At tlie
accession of Louis XVI. to the throne, Monsieur, wlio
had a sort of reputation as a man of talents, on account
of his Roman literature, which he was fond of quoting in
conversation, wished to take part in the affairs of go-
vernment. He even put a small pamphlet into the hands
of the King, entitled •' Mes Penseis" Louis XVL
meeting him next day in the gallery at Versailles, said
to him, coarsely enough, but according to the manner to
which he was inclined by his character, •' Hrother,
henceforward keep your thoughts to yourself." This
debut did not discourage him. and profiting by the first
appearance of confusion, he began in form to intrigue
against Louis XVI. and Maria Antoinette.

At the Assembly of the Notables his Bureau was in
open opposition to all the others. This Prince had
calculated long before the means of at least procuring
himself to be nominated Regent of the kingdom. He
varied in his projects. The last which he atlopted was
that of reviving the system of Grand Feudatories, and
hence he acquired considerable property in every pro-

71.



LOt'IS THE EIGHTEENTH.

vince, in order to have a sovereignty in all. It was lie
who had, bj means of the Duke of Fit/james, the papers
laid before the parliament of Paris which were to prove
the bastardj of the children of Louis XVT. who was
known to be impotent. This it was which gave rise to
the saying of the Count d'Artois at the baptism of
Madame, now the Duchess of Angouleme : — Pour celle
la elle nest pas de Sire (Cire). Louis XVIIL may be
regarded ag one of the most ardent promoters of the
Revolution. The business of the Marquess de Farras,
who was to carry off the King to Perouse, was the work
of Monsieur, who was then to have been proclaimed
Regent. During tlje execution of the unfortunate Farras,
it is known that this Prince displayed the greatest
uneasiness, fearing that his agent would reveal all he
knew. He sent every minute to know what was going
forward, and waited in the dining-rocm. At length one
of his people arrived, out of breath, and exclaimed,
" Monsieur, the Marquess is hanged." Monsieur im-
mediately recovered his serenity, and said, *« Let us
dine then."

When the course of events indicated pretty clearly
th^ danger to which the royal family was exposed.
Monsieur was one of those who emigrated. He left
Paris in June, 1791, and went to Austrian Flanders.
He has left us a description of this Hegira, dedicated to
the companion of his flight, d'Avaray, a very fit Omar
for such a Mahomet. It was this running away that M.
de Talleyrand described so wittily, as " the journey of
Harlequin, who is always afraid, and always * hungty.' "
From Brussels, Monsieur went to Coblentz. He there
organized the system of emigration, and by his intrigues
in the interior, accelerated the progress of the revolu-
tion, and took an active part in all its violence. His
project then was, by promoting the emigration of the
Nobles, the Clergy, and the opulent Citizens, to form a
party in the country, composed of their relations and
friends ; and being able by their means to controul
public opinion, to procure the Regency for himself, to



LOUIS THE EIGHTEENTH.

make liis brother abdicate, to degrade the Queen, and
tarn the papers he had submitted to the parliament of
Paris to the prejudice of their children. Immediately
after he left France, he sent accredited agents, in his own
name, to all the Princes of Europe. He corrupted
Dumourier, and his intrigues against the Queen became
so flagrant, that the court of Vienna directed him to
disband his arm}-. The publication of a multitude of
official facts has proved that Monsieur had direct and
constant communications with Robespierre. Even at
this very time his sister has a pension from the privy
purse of the King. All the members of the parliament
of Paris who were so unfortunate as to have any know-
ledge of the pajiers laid before that body by the Duke of
Fit'/james, were guillotined. The virtuous Malesheibes
was also executed, because to him was confided the
secret codicil made by Louis XV'I.

Banished from Cologne by the Elector, repulsed from
Vienna by the Emperor, Monsieur, then known by the
title of Count de Lille, went first to Poland and after-
wards to Mittau. It was at this last place his great love
of writing induced him to compose his celebrated letter
to Napoleon, then Consul, which began thus: — " I have
never confounded M. Buonaparte with, &c. &c." In
spite of this display of fine sentimenst, the King, for
Louis the Seventeenth was then dead, always laboured
for his re-establishment, and the conspiracies of Georges,
Cadoudal, of Pichegru, of Moreau, and of the Machine
Iiifernale, shew what sort of means of success appeared
proper to him. Those who entertain any doubt on this
subject may see in the Bulletin des Luis of 1814, the
letters of nobility granted to the family of Cadoudal, and
the ordinances prescribing the erection of statues to
Moreau and Pichegru.

The Peace of Tilsit comducted all the Bourbons to
England. It is useless to enter into details of the
residence of Louis XVIIl. at Hartwell. It is enough to
notice, en passant, the gratitude which this Piince has
displayed for the services performed for him by the



LOUIS THE EIGHTEENTH.

English Government. The faJl of Napoleon having esta-
lilished Louis XVIII. on the throne of France, he go-
verned it in 1814 with all the folly of concealed liatred.
He deserved the character that " he had forgotten nothing
and learnt nothing." The return of Buonaparte from the
island of Elba made the Monarch and Conrl vanish in the
twinkling of an eye, and the Bourbons were forced to
beg in foreign countries for the second time. On his
return after the battle of Waterloo, under the protection
of English and Prussian bayonets, Louis XVsII. gave
himself up to all his natural cruelty. No longer afraid,
he indulged in his desire of vengeance without restraint.
T>iey and Labedoyere preceded numerous other illustrious
victims in their descent to (he tomb. The famous poet,
Chenier, said of Louis XVIil. that he was Tiberius
without his courage; and the 20th of March, and the
vengeance of 1815, have demonstrated the correctness
of this judgment.

A trait in the character of this Prince, which also
belongs to the family of the Hourbons, is, that he had
always a favourite, such as M. M. d'Avaray, de Jaucourt,
de Blacas, de Caze. The latter, however, should not
be included altogether among the favourites, for his rise
was the consequence of an event which deserves to be
recorded. When Courtoir, the Conventionalist, died in
1818, M. de Caze, who knew that this man possessed
on autograph correspondence of Louis X^TII. with
Robe.spierre, repaired to his house and took possession
of it in his capacity of Minister of Police. He acquired
by this a claim on the gratitude of the King, and a means
of keeping him in dependence. This is the true cause of
the elevation of this parveiui, who was not worthy, either
by his talents or the services he has performed, of the
high oflices he tilled.


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