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The King's reign has lasted ten years, during the
greater part of which time there have not been ajy re-
markable events, and France has remained in a state of
political abjectness, which places it in the third rank
among tlie povV-ers of Europe. This period has all been


occupied by miserable Court iutrigues ; and even the
expedition to Spain was a sort of jugglery that moves
our pity.

An irrefragable proof of the feebleness of mind of
Louis XVIII. is to bo found in the hatred which he
always cherished against the weakest of his enemies.
Arnault, the Poet, ihe author of" Marias etMinturnus,"
a tragedy, was formerly a Member of his Household,
when he was only Monsieur. He joined the party of
the Revolutionists with zeal, and for this Louis XVIIT.
never forgave him. At the first restoration he caused
Arnault to be erased from the Institute, contrary to all
the precedents and customs of the French Academy ;
and at the second he included him in one of the two lists
ofProscriplionsofJuly24, 1815.

This Sovereign was, in his natural disposition, full of
vanity and ostentation. He liked to pass for a man of
erudition, which exposed him several times to disagree-
able circumstances, particularly once at Hartwell, where
lie quoted, with great emphasis, a verse of Persius, and

attributed it to Juvenal. The Marquess of S y, an

emigrant and an elegant latin scholar, pointed out the
mistake of the well-beloved Monarch, and the next day
brought a Persius to confirm the assertion he had made.
The anger of Louis, and his hatred for the too correct
Marquess, may be easily imagined. Louis was not
famous for his courage, and though he constantly made
B great parade with the names of Louis XIV. and Henry
IV. there is no instance on record of his ever exposing
himself to danger.

Being as yet only Mcnskur, the late King was anxious
to obtain the palm for dramatic composition : he wrote
the " Marriage Secret," a comedy of three acts, in verse ;
and in 1814, several political articles, which were in-
serted in the Journal de Paris, but they were feeble, and
without effect.

Louis XVni. was, for a long period, a prey to serious
infirmities. A dry erisypelas on both his legs deprived
him of the power of locomotion. The attention of the


most skilful pliysicians prolonged his life beyond the
period which seemed indicated by his disease. During
all this time, the King had the greatest confidence in
medicine. The enormous appetite he possessed was an
extraordinary circumstance. He ate with voracity, and
without suffering inconvenience from it, which often
gave rise to some laughable stories. He was known to
have had three mistresses, or, at least, there have been
three ladies who have enjoyed this title. Before the
Revolution, Madame de Balby ; since the Restoration,
Madame Princetot, M. Decaze's sister ; and, finally,
the celebrated Madam du Cayla, the daughter of M.
Talon, Presidenla Mortier of the parliament of Paris,
Avho possessed the papers of Maria Antoinette ; part of
these she sold to Buonaparte in 1812, and which ap-
peared in the iVfo?«fc«r of that year. The remainder she
took care of, and sold to Louis XVIII. who, in return,
overwhelmed her with favours.

The decomposition of the blood, and an asdematons
state brought on a paralysis of the lower extremities,
which were struck with death. The disease made a
rapid progress, and the King expired on the morning of
Thursday, September 16, 1824, in his 69th year. He
carried with him to the tomb the reputation of being
timid and insincere. All his proceedings bear the
character of weakness and vanity. He married in 1771,
Marie Josephine, of Savoy, born September 2, 1752.
She died at London, in 1810, Queen of France. She
was three years older than himself, and by her he had
no children.



When we have named Chaucer, Spenser, Shakspeare,
Jonson, Fletcher, Milton, Dryden, and Pope, it is ge-
nerally imagined that all our first-rate deceased Poets
have been enumerated. This is a mistake : Drayton
should, undoubtedly, be inserted, chronologically, be-
tween Spenser and Shakspeare ; both of whom he, in
some instances, excels.

He was descended from an ancient and worthy family,
originally of the town of Drayton, in Leicestershire,
which gave name to his ancestors ; but his parents
removing into the bordering county, he was born at the
village of Harshull, or Hartshill, in the parish of Ather-
ston in Warwickshire, in the year 1563.

He gave such early tokens of genius, and was of so
engaging an aspect, sweet a temper, and graceful a
deportment, as not only to render him the delight of his
instructors, but also to be the means of his preferment ;
for, before he was ten years of age, as he himself informs
us, he appears to have been page to some person of
distinction ; to have " marveiVd" at the idea of, and
vehemently to have desired to be, a Poet.

" fi'om my cradle • 1

Was still inclined to noble Poesie,
And when that once Pueriles I had read.
And newly had my Cato construed.
In my small selfe I greatly marveil'd then,
Amongst all other, what strraigekind of men
These Poets were ; and iileascd with the jjame.
To my niilde Tutor merrily I came,
(For I was then a proper goodly page.
Much like a Pigmy, scarce ten yearee of age;


Clasping my slender armos about his thigh,
O my deare master ! cannot you (quoth I)
Make me a Poet ; doe it, if you can,
And you ehall see, I'll quickly be a man."

Elhgibs, Foliol627.

From some lines bj his intimate acquaintance. Sir
Aston Cokain, we learn tbat he was a student at the
University of Oxford, by the support, as it is said, of
Sir Henry Goodere ; though it does not appear that he
took any degree there. It has been suggested, from a
passage in the third book of his poem on " Moses his
Birth and Miracles," descriptive of the Spanish Armada
in 1588, tbat he might possibly have been at Dover at
that critical period, in a military capacity ; be that as it
may, it is certain that he had seduloasly cherished and
cultivated his propensity and talent for poetry, in which
he became eminent ten years before the death of Queen

In 1593 he published a collection of Pastorals, &o.
and, soon after, his Barons Wars ; England's Heroical
Epistles ; The Legends of Robert, Duka of Normandy ;
Matilda; Pierce Gavestun ; and Great Crotnwdl: lor
which latter pieces he is slyled by a contemporary,

Part of his Poly-Olbion, the first eighteen songs of
which were not published till 1613, is said to have been
written before 1593.

For these admirable prodactions, and Lis personal
deserts, he was highly celebrated, not only as a great
genius, but a good man ; not only for the sweetness and
elegance of his words, but of his actions and manners ;
for his humane and honourable principles, as well as his
refined and polite parts. The Poly-Olbion he enlarged
by the addition of twelve songs, and it was published
complete in 1622.

The curious and important geographical descriptions
with which this singular and noble poem abounds, will
furnish much information to every antiquary who has a



regard for his country ; bis great display of knowIt;dgc
and observation in both political and natural history,
cannot fail to please, if not instruct, every researcher
into those departments of science ^ and the general strain
of benevolence which pervades his works, endears him to
readers of every class : thus was he characterised, not
only by Poets, or the more florid and panegyrical writers
of his time, but also by Divines, Historians, and other
scholars of the most serious and solid learning. On
subjects connected with Scripture very few have, in any
degree, succeeded ; there Milton reigns unrivalled !
yet there is much real poetry and true sublimity in
Drayton's David and Goliah, The Flood, and The Birth
of Moses.

But it is in the Pastoral and Fairy styles of writing
that Drayton eminently excels — may I be bold enough to
say? — every other English poet, ancient or modern!
Withers and William Browne approach him nearest in
the former, Shakspcare in the latter ; Spenser and Gay
follow Withers and Browne : Ambrose Phillips and Pope
bring up the rear. Dramatic Pastoral is not here adverted
to ; if it were, Jonson's Sad Shepherd, and Fletcher's
Faithful Shepherdess might, like the first created pair,
walk hand in hand, with simple majesty, as paramount
to all !

Drayton's earliest patron, of whom we have any infor-
mation, was Sir Henry Goodere, of Polesworth ; Sir
Walter Aston, ofTixhall, in Statioidshire, was also his
long and approved friend, to whom many of his choicest
productions are most gratefully dedicated.

On the accession of King James to the throne of
England (to which Drayton had been, perhaps, in some
degree instrumental), he felicitated that first monarch of
Great Britain on the occasion, by '• A Congralulatmij
Poem to King James, 6^c. 4to. 1603," which, in the Pre -
face to his Poly-Olbiun, and elsewhere, he hints to us, ho
was but ill-requited for. In the same year he was chosen
by Sir Walter Aston, one of the Esquires who attended
him when he was created Knight of the Bath at the coro"


Draylon;" and tradition Las named kim as the AulLor of
the following Epitaph, copied literatim from the monu-
ment in Westminster Abbey, where our Poet was buried.

• •' Michaell Draiton, Esq. a memorable Poet of this Age, ex-
changed his laurell for a Crowue of Glorye, anno domini 1631 :

Doe, pious marble, let thy readets knowe
What they, and what their children owe
To Draiton's name, whose sacred dust
Wee recommend unto thy Trust:
Protect his mem'ry, and preserve his storye :
Remain a lasting monument of his glorye;
And when thyruines shall disclame
To be the treas'rer of his Name ;
His Name, that cannot fade, shall be
An everlasting Monument to thee."

S2IE ssAs^s mi^s-®^.


One of the greatest mathematicians and philosophers
that ever lived, was born on Christmas Day, 1642, in
Lincolnshire. Having made some proficiency in the
classics, &c. at the grammai* school at Grantham, he
(being an only child) w^as taken home by his mother,-*
who was a widow, to be her company, and to learn the
management of his paternal estate : bat the love of
books and study occasioned his farming concerns to be
neglected. In 1660 he was sent "to Trinity College,
Cambridge : here he began with the study of Euclid,
but the propositions of that book being too easy to arrest
his attention long, he passed rapidly on to the Analysis
of Des Cartes, Kepler's Optics, &c. making occasional
improvements on his author, and entering his obser-
vations, &c. on the margin. His genius and attention
soon attracted the favourable notice of Dr. Barrow, at
that time one of the most eminent mathematicians in
England, who soon became his steady patron and friend.
In 1664 he took his degree of B. A. and employed
himself in speculations and experiments on the nature
of light and colours, grinding and polishing optic glasses,
and opening the way for his new method of fluxions and
infinite series. The next year, the plague which raged
at Cambridge obliged him to retire into the country ;
here he laid the foundation of his universal system of
gravitation, the first hint of which he received from
seeing an apple fall from a tree ; and subsequent reason-
ing induced him to conclude, that the same force which
brought down the apple might possibly extend to the
moon, and retain her in her orbit. He afterwards ex-
tended the doctrine to all the bodies which compose the


solar system, and demonstrated the same in the most
evident manner, confirming the laws which Kepler had
discovered, hy a laborious train of observation and
reasoning ; namely, that " the planets move in elliptical
orbits," that " they describe equal areas in equal times ;''
and that the squares of their periodic times are as the
cubes of their distances. Every part of natural philo-
sophy not only received improvement by his inimitable
touch, but became a new science under his hand : bis
system of gravitation, as we have observed, confirmed
the discoveries of Kepler, explained the immutable laws
of nature, changed the system of Copernicus from a
probable hypothesis to a plain and demonstrated truth,
and effectually overturned the vortices and other imagi-
nary machinery of Des Cartes, with all the improbable
epicycles, deferents, and clumsy apparatus, with which
the ancients and some of the moderns bad encumbered
the universe. In fact, his Philosophic^ Naturalis Prin-
cipia Mathematica contains an entirely new system of
philosophy, built on the solid basis of experiment and
observation, and demonstrated by the most sublime
Geometry ; and his treatises and papers on optics supply
a new theory of light and colours. The invention of the
reflecting telescope, which is due to Mr. James Gregory,
•would in all probability have been lost, had not Newton
interposed, and by bis great improvemeots brought it
forward into public notice.

In 1667, Newton was chosen fellow of his College, and
took his degree of M. A. Two years after, his friend
Dr. Barrow resigned to him the mathematical chair ; he
became a member of parliament in 1688 ; and through
the interest of Mr. Montagu, Chancellor of the Exche-
quer, who had been educated with him at Trinity Col-
lege, our author obtained, in 1696, the appointment of
Warden, and three years after that of Master, of the
Mint : in 1671, he was elected a fellow of the Royal So-
ciety ; in 1699, member of the Royal Academy of Sci-
ences at Paris ; and in 1703, President of the Royal
Society, a situation which he filled during the remainder


of his life, with no less honour to himself than benefit to
the interests of science.

In 1705, in consideration of his superior merit, Queen
Anne conferred on him the honour of knighthood.

For some years prior to his death, he was troubled
with an incontinence of urine. On Saturday morning,
March 11, 1727, he read the newspapers, and discoursed
a long time with Dr. Mead, his physician, having then
the perfect use of all his senses and his understanding;
but that night he lost them all, and not recovering them
afterwards, died on the Monday following, March 20,
1727, in his 85th year.

This illustrious philosopher's illness was supposed to
be occasioned bj a stone in the bladder, which at times
was attended with such paroxysms of pain, as to cause
large drops of sweat to run down his cheeks. During
these attacks, he was never heard to utter the least com-
plaint. His corpse lay in state in the Jerusalem Cham-
ber, and on the 28th was conveyed into Westminster
Abbey, the lord chancellor, the dukes of Montrose and
Roxburg, and the earls of Pembroke, Sussex and Mac-
clesfield, holding up the pall. He was interred near the
entrance into the choir on the left hand, where a stately
monument is erected to his memory with the following
inscription, written by Pope :


Quem Immortalem

Testantur, Tempui, Natura, Coelum :


Hoc marmor fatetur.

Nature, and Nature's laws, lay hid in night,
God said let Newton be! and all was light 1

This grand and expressive monument is every way wor-
thy of the great man to whose memory it was erected,
who is sculptured recumbent, leaning his right arm on
four folios, thus titled, Divinity, Chronology, Opticks and


Phil. Prin. Math., and pointing to a scroll snpported by
winged cherubs: over him is a large globe, projecting
from a pyramid behind, whereon is delineated the course
'of the comet in 1680, with the signs, constellations and
planets. On this globe sits the figure of Astronomy, with
her book closed, and in a very thoughtful, composed and
pensive mood. Underneath the principal figure is a
most curious has relief, representing the various labours
in which Sir Isaac chiefly employed his time : such as
discovering the canse of gravitation, settling the prin-
ciples of light and colours, and reducing the coinage to a
determined standard. The devise of weighing the sun by
the steelyard, has been thought at once bold and striking,
— and indeed the whole monument does honour to the

VVhat reason mortals had to pride themselves in the
existence of such and so great an ornament to the haman
race !

Sir Isaac Newton was of a middling stature, and
somewhat inclined to be fat in the latter part of his life.
His countenance was pleasing and venerable at the same
time, especially when he look off bis peruke, and shewed
his white hair, which was pretty thick. He never
made use of spectacles, and lost but one tooth during
his whole life. Bishop Atterbury says, that in the whole
air of Sir Isaac's face and make, there was nothing of
that penetrating sagacity which appears in his com-
positions ; that he had something rather languid in his
look and manner, which did not raise any great ex-
pectation in those who did not know him. He was of
a very meek disposition, and a great lover of peace ;
he would rather have chosen to remain in obscu-
rity than to have the calm of life ruffled by those storms
and disputes which genius and learning always draw
upon those that are too eminent for them. In contem-
plating his genius, it becomes a dgubt which of these
endowments had the greatest share — sagacity, penetra-
tion, strength, or diligence; and after all, the ninrk
that seems most to distinguish it is, that he himself made


the justest estimate of it, declaring, that If he had done
the world any service, it was due to nothing but industry
and patient thought ; that he kept the subject under con-
sideration constantly before hira, and waited till the first
dawning opened gradually, by little and little, into a full
and clear light. He never talked either of himself, or
others, or ever behaved in such a manner as to give the
most raalicioBS ceusurers the least occasion ever to sus-
pect him of vanity. He was candid and affable, and
always put himself upon a level with his company. He
uever thought either his merit or his reputation sufficient
to excuse him from any of the common offices of social
life ; no singularities, either natural or affected, dis-
tinguished him from other men. He is represented as
an Arian by Whiston, who, however, tells us, that he
was so angry with him, that he would never suflfer him to
enter as a member of the Royal Society while he sat at the
head of it. Amidst the great variety of books which he
had constantly before him, that which he studied with the
greatest application was the " Bible." He did not neglect
the opportunities of doing good when the revenues of his
patrimony and a profitable employment, improved by a
prudent economy, put it in his power. When decency
upon any occasion required expense and show, he was
magnificent without grudging it, and with a very good
grace ; at all other times, that pomp, which seems great to
low minds only, was utterly retrenched, and the expense
reserved for better uses. He never married, and perhaps
he never had leisure to think of it. Being immured in pro-
found studies during the prime of his life, and afterwards
engaged in an employment of great importance, as well
as quite taken up with the company which his celebrity
drew to him, he was not sensible of any vacancy of life,
nor of the want of a companion at home. He left 32,000^
at his death, but made no will, which Fontenelle tells us
was because he thought a legacy was no gift. As to his
works, besides \vhat were published in his life-time,
there were found, after his death, among his papers,
several discourses upon the subjects of antiquity, history.


divinity, and mathematics. They were collected aiid
published in 1784, with a valuable commentary, in 5
volumes, by the Rev. Dr. Horsley, Bishop of Rochester,
afterwards of St. Asaph.

Sir Isaac Newton, a little before he died, said — " I
rdon't know what I may seem to the world ; but as to my-
self, I seem to have been only like a boy playing; on the
sea-shore, and diverting myself now and then finding a
smoother pebble, or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst
the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."

The house in which Sir Isaac lived in St. Martin's-
street, Leicester Square, is still standing : it is on the
east side, and very distinguishable, by the observatory
on the top.

Dr. Johnson said, ** that if Newton had flourished in
ancient Greece, he would have been worshipped as a

m^m, :s2i^? iLAwiEmsr®!. giEi3Esni,M,A.


Was the son of an Irish oflTicer, and born in 1713, in the
barracks of Dublin ; but, though nurtured among soldiers,
he was a son of the church ; and, if we may take the opi-
nion of a bishop on his sermons, not unworthy the title.
His great grandfather was an archbishop, and his uncle a

From school, young Sterne passed to the university,
where he spent the usual number of years; he read a
good deal, laughed more, and sonielimes took the diver-
sion of puzzling his tutors. He left Cambridge with the
character of an odd man, who had no harm in him, and
who had parts, if he would use them.

Upon leaving the university, he was presented with
the living of Sutton, on the Forest of Galtrees, a small
vicarage in Yorkshire. Here he Avaited patiently till
time and chance should raise him to what they pleased.
While here, there happened a dispute among some of the
superiors of his order, in which Mr. Sterne's friend, one
of the best men in the world, was concerned : a person
who fdled a lucrative benefice was not satisfied with
enjoying it during his own life time, but exerted all his
interest to have it entailed upon his wife and son after
his decease. Mr. Sterne's friend, who expected the re-
version of the living, had not suflieicnt influence to pre-
vent the success of his adversary. At ihis critical period,
Mr. Sterne attacked the monopolizer in joke, and wrole
" The history of a good warm watch-coat, with which
the present possessor is not content to cover his own
shoulders, unless he can also cut out of it a petticoat fot
his wife, and a pair of breeches for his son."

What all the serious arguments in the world could not
have eft'ected, Sterne's satirical pen brought about. The
intended monopolizer sent him word, that if he would
suppress the publication of this sarcasm, he would resiga
his pretensions to the next candidate. The pamphlet was


suppressed ; the reversion took place ; and Mr. Sterne
was requited, by the interest of his patron, with the pre-
bendarjship of York.

An incident, much about the same time, contributed
exceedingly to establish the reputation of Mr. Sterne's
wit. It was this : — He was sitting in the coffee-house at
York, when a stranger came in, who gave much offence
to the company, consisting chiefly of gentlemen of the
gown, by descanting too freely upon religion, and the
hypocrisy of the clergy. The young fellow at length ad-
dressed himself to Mr. Sterne, asking him what were his
sentiments upon the subject ; when, instead of answering
him directly, he told him, that " his dog was reckoned
one of the most beautiful pointers in the whole county,
was very good-natured, but he had an infernal trick whick
destroyed all his good qualities. He never sees a cler-
gyman (continued Sterne) but he immediately flies at
him." "How long may he have had that trick, Sir?"
" Ever since he was a puppy." The young man felt the
keenness of the satire, turned upon his heels, and left
Sterne to triumph.

At this time Mr. Sterne was possessed of some good
livings, having enjoyed, so early as the year 1745, the
vicarage of Sutton, on the Forest of Galtrees, where he
usually performed divine service on Sunday mornings ;
and in the afternoon he preached at the rectory of Stil-
lington, which he held as one of the prebends of York,
in which capacity he also assisted regularly, in his turn,
at the cathedral.

His wit and humour were already greatly admired
within the circle of his acquaintance ; but his genius had
never yet reached London, when his two first volumes
of Tristram Shandy made their appearance : they were
printed at York, and proposed to the booksellers there
at a very moderate price ; those gentlemen, however,
were such judges of their value, that they scarce offered

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