Caleb Hopkins Snow.

A history of Boston, the metropolis of Massachusetts, from its origin to the present period; (Volume 1) online

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HISTORY OF BOSTON,



FROM ITS

ORIGIN TO THE PRESENT PERIOD;

WITH SOME

ACCOUSi'S' OF THB ENVIRONS.

BY CALEB H. SNOW, M. D.



Mons IdEUS ubi et gentis cunabula v "^sctl-




T.MBELHSHED WITH E:!<GKAVINGS



BOSTON :

PUBLISHED BY ABEL BOWEN, No. 2, CONGRE33-SQUARE,
CONGRESS-STREET.



...O^



PRINTED BY MUNROE AND FRANCIS,

128 WASHINGTON-STREET.

1S25.



UISTUICT OF -MASSACIIl'SETTS, TO WIT.

Dhtriel CU.lUOjnre.

BE it rciliriiil<*r«><l, llial on tlie twenty ei^litUilav of Novpmb,T, A. D. IRi'i, in'tlie fifti-
Mli yrai of tUe Iiidepeinleiice of the f'iiifrd Sltilt's uf Amirica, AUEL IIOWEN, of llie
saiil l)i-iiic-t, lias <lc|iosiir(i in this Oflicf tlie title ol a book, tlie right whereof lie claini<i
as Pni|>rii-tc>r, in the w nrils fullowiiiff, in uil •

A II18T<JKV (>1' UOSroN, the Metr(i|>olis of Mas>achnst>tis ; friun its orig-in to the nrcf-
cul prriiMl. With s.inir ariount of the Knvirons. Ilv lAl KH II. SNOW. M. D. Mone
Klii-u> ulii CI tr'-niij t-iiimljula nostra-.— /'iVyi/. Kinlx-liislK'il with Knpravinps,

In confunniiy to the .ict of the Congress of the United Stntes, entitled, "An act for
the encuurAt;enient oi leuriiinif, hv seruriiijj the copies of iua|. , charts nnd books, to the
HUlhork and |>ri>|<rieior!> of !>urh copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also
li an act. entitled. "An act snpiilenivnlarv to nn act. entitled an act for the enconrape-
menl of learning, liy securin;; the co|>ii'< of maps, charts, and Imoks, to the antlinrs and
propririor> uf such lojiirs duriiii,' the times therein inenliimed i and e:.leiulin<; the benefits
llitrreof to llie art* ol drsiguiiir. <ncra>in(; an<l etching:, hisluriral and other prints."
JOII.N W. I'AVIS, CUrkoftht Diihi.t of Miifinchiiidlt.



PREFACE.



The reader may expect to find in this book some account of the
persecutions, which drove the first settlers of New England from
their native country, and some brief notices of the settlements, that
were made or attempted to be made, in various parts of the United
States, befoi-e the arrival of Governour Winthrop and the compa-
ny under him, which laid the foundation of Boston. There taking
up our history, I have endeavoured to select from the mass of
records, which numerous hands have left to us, those facts which
appear to have excited any great or general interest among the
inhabitants of this metropolis.

To those who are aware of the disadvantages under which I
have composed this work, I need offer no apology for the imper-
fections they may discover in the execution of it. To others it
may be proper to mention, that Mr. Bowen, the publisher, was
disappointed in his expectation of the assistance of other gentle-
men, and that my engagements with him commenced at least four
weeks after his proposals of the I7th April, 1824, had been issued.
To enable him to fulfil the terms of those proposals, I was oblig-
ed to let the first number appear, on the first of July, before I could
possibly know what the succeeding number should contain. The
case has been similar with all the other numbers. I have con-
sequently found it necessary to put my notes to the press, almost
in the same form in which I had taken them, at the hazard of being
compelled afterwards to exclude other matter, perhaps more im-
portant. These cirtumstances, indeed, do not derogate from the
correctness of the work, or from its usefulness as a book of refer-
ence, so far as it extends, yet they may account for some peculiar-
ities, which might otherwise have been amended ; and the same
circumstances will, I trust, sufficiently apologize for any dispropor-



IV PREFACE.

tion between the importance of some of the subjects and the atten-
tion I seem to have bestowed upon them. It has been my aim to
be accurately minute and scrupulously correct : some errours are
marked in the errata, (into which also has crept the mistake of Bar-
ton^s for Purton's ;) and I am requested to rectify anotlier, which
occurs on page 356, attributing to Mr. Wallcut an agency in the
formation of the Historical Society, to which he makes no claim.

As iMr. Bowen is the proprietor of Shaw's Description of Bos-
ton, 1 have, sometimes without the formality of marks of quotation,
made such use of tiiat book as suited the purposes of mine ; how
much I have depended on it may be ascertained, if any have the
curiosity to compare the two. It is right, however, to state, that
this volume contains three times the quantity of matter contained
in Mr. Shaw's, and thirty-two pages more than were originally
promised, besides several extra plates.

"Wiiilf engaged in this pursuit, I have been particularly indebted
to the libraries of the Historical Society and the Atheuieum : the
records in the offices of the secretary of the commonwealth and
clerks of the city have been of much service to me : every facility
has been afforded at each of these places for the accomplishment
of my object ; and I have great reason to acknowledge my obliga-
tions to the gentlemen who have those invaluable archives and
collections in charge, and no h-ss to many private gentlemen, for
the patience and politeness with which they have attended to my
frequent calls for information and assistance.

CALEB IT. SNOW.

DosiOD, October 20, 1825.




SnUf*^ ^Av'J'<'v '' -'''' ^ (rf«/'wu« t^ J It,



JHoitrmS*



STAMES

OF THE

STREETS, LANES, PUBLICK EDIFICES, &c.

IN THE CITY OF BOSTON, JDLY, 1824.



N. B. To find any street on the plan, search for the number annexed, in the square given
by the letters following' the name ; thus, for School-street look in square F h, and you find
the number 123. Publick edifices, kc. not numbered, are located within the squares referred
to. The wards are designated by large figures, and the dotted lines show the boundaries of
each. The ancient high-water mark is shown by the shading on the new plan.



Allen St. N.
Allen St. S.
Ann St.
Arch St.
Ash St.
Atkinson st.
Bangs alley
Bath St.
Battery alley
Battery-march st.
Beach st.
Beacon st.
Bedford St.
Bedford place
Belknap st.
Bennet st. S.
Bennet st. N.
Berry st.
Blossom St.
Bowdoin St.
Bowdoin place
Bowdoin square
Boylston st.
Boylston court
Boylston square
Brattle St.
Brattle sq.
Bread st.
Bridge st.
Brighton st.
Broad st.
Bromfield lane
Bulfinch St.
Bulfinch place -
Bumstead place
Butolph St.
Butlers row
Cambridge st.
Carnes court
Carver st.
Castle St.



C d

C e

I e

Fj

D n

Hj

H h

H i

Jc

H h

El

E h

Ek

Fk

Cg

Fn

Id

Hj

C f

»g

D h

Ef

DI

Dl

Dl

Fg

Gg

Ih

B f

B c

Ih

Fi

Eg

Eg

E i

Cg

He

Cf

Ff

C m

Do



52
53

24
138
162
110



10

95

150

124

142

73

156

9

111

53

77



198
99
57
47
102
122



160
165



Causeway st.
Central St.
Central court
Centre st. N.
Centre st.
Chamber st.
Charlestown st.
Chardon St.
Charles St.
Charter st.
Chauncy place
ChesBut St.
Clark St.
Columbia st.
Common st.
Congress St.
Cooks court
Copeland laue -
CornhUl court -
Court St.
Court square
Crab alley
Crescent court -
Cross St.

Custom house st.
Custom house -
Deacon st.
Derne st.
Devonshire ?t.
Distill-house square
Doane st.
Dock square
East St.
Eaton St.
Elliot St.
Elm St.
Essex St.
Exchange st.
Federal st.
Federal court S.
Federal court N.



Ec


SO


Hh


96


Ej




Hi


28


Bg


69


C f


60


G d


34


E f


64


Ah


129


H b


3


Fj


138


Bi


131


Id


14


F k


147


E i


134


G h


91


Fb




Ff




Gh




Fh


92


Fh




H h




Ee




H e


27


I h


98


I h


9o


F e


180


Dg


181


Gh


89


Fe


41


Hh




Hg




G 1


182


C e


56


D ro


152


G f


81


Ei


146


Gg


86


Gj


12«


Gj




Gf





HISTORY OF BOSTON.



Flag alley


- Gg


87


Lindall st.


- Hh


186


Fleet St.


Id


IS


Lowell place


Dl




Foster st.


Hb


18


Lynde st.


D f


61


Franklin st.


Fi


137


Lynn st.


lb


2


Franklin place


■ - Gj


121


Margaret st.


He


187


Franklin avenue


■ - Fg


183


Margin st. N. -


Gd


36


Friends st.


G e


36


Margin st. S. -


£ e


45


Front St.


Eo


164


Market St.


- Fg


84


Fruit St.


Be


54


Market row


- Gg




Gallop alley


He




Market place


- El




Garden st.


- - Cg


70


Marlboro' place


Fi




Garden court st. -


Id


22


Marlboro' row


Fi




George st.


B h


130


Medford st. - -


Ed


188


Gibbs lane


- - Ij


184


Marsh lane


G f




Oovernour alley -


Fi


185


Marshall st. - -


- G f


37


Gooch St.


Ee


44


Mason st.


D k


142


Gravel st.


C d


50


May St.


- Bg


125


Green st.


De


63


Merchants row -


- Hg


88


Gridley lane


- - Hj


109


Merrimacst.


Ee


32


Grove st.


- - Bg


68


Methodist alley -


J d


12


Haerlera place


Ek




Milk St.


G


119


Hamilton st.


li


103


Milton St.


Cc


189


Hamilton place


Ei


203


Millpoud St.


Gd


35


Hamilton avenue -


- - li




Moon St.


Id


23


Hancock st.


- - Dg


74


Mount Vernon -


- Cg




Hanover st.


- - He


29


Myrtle st.


Bh


126


Hartford place


- - Ij




Newbury place -


E k




Harvard st.


Em


155


North square


le


200


Harvard place


- - F i




North row


He




Hatters square


Hf




Norfolk place


Ek




Hawkins st.


Ff


42


Olive St.


Bh


128


Hawley st.


Fi


136


Oliver st.


Hi


lor.


Hawley place


Fi




Otis place


Fk




Haymarket place


Dk




Park St.


D i


135


Haj-ward place


Ek




Pearl st.


Hi


lOfi


Henchman lane -


Ir


19


Peck lane


FI


148


High sL


Hk


114


Pincknry st.


- Bg


127


HoUis St. - -


r»m


1.57


Pine St.


- Dn


163


Hospital square -


Be




Pitts St.


E e


4.S


Howard si.


- Kg


79


Pitts court


Ee




Hull St.


M .■


4


Pleasant st.


B ra


160


India si. - -


Ill


100


Poplar St.


C d


51


Jarvis row


E k




Portland St.


Fc


4ft


.Tefferson i)lacr -


E lu




Portland place -


Ff




ICingston st.


Fk


140


Prince st.


H c


ii


Kilby St.


Ilh


94


Prospect St.


Dd


190


Kueeland St.


Em


153


Purchase st.


- Ij


107


Langdon plai-f


lo




Quincy place


- Ij




Lev<-rett it.


C c


46


Hoe-buck passage


- 11 g




Levurett court


Dd




Kichmond st.


He


25


Leverett place -


De


179


Ridgeway lane -


- r>g:


75


Liberty squiirt" -


H h


201


Robinson alley -'


Ic


7


biui'olii <i


i; 1


117


Ilolibiiw rniift


He







HISTORY


OF BOSTON.








Russel St. S.


- - Cg


72


Sumner st.


_


Ch 128


193


Russel St. N.


C f


59


Sun-Court st.


-


le


25


Salem st.


Hd


17


Sweetser court


-


Ek




Sail lane


G f




Temple st.


- -


DS


76


Salutation alley -


- - I c


11


Thacher St.


-


Gd


195


School St.


- - Fh


123


Theatre alley




G i


196


School alley


- . Hd




Tileston st.


-


Id


8


Scotts court


- - Gg




Tremont place


-


Fh




Sea st


HI


115


Union St.


-


Gf


38


Second st.


C c


48


Unity St.


.


He


21


Sheafe st.


He


5


Vine St.


-


Be


55


Sheaf lane


Dk


143


Walnut St.


-


C h


132


Short St.


Fk


145


T\"arren st.


-


C ni


159


Sister st.


■ - Hj


112


Warren place


-


C n




Snow Hill St.


G c


16


Washington st.


-


D ra


154


Somerset st.


E g


124


Washington place


- Ij


104


Somerset place -


- Eg


131


Washington avenue -


Ji




Somerset court -


E h




Water st.


-


G h


118


South St.


G 1


116


Well St.


-


Ih


97


Southack st.


- Bg


67


West St.


-


- Ej


141


Spring St.


C d


49


WHiarf St.


-


Ih


101


Spring lane


G i




White bread alley


Id


13


Spruce St.


Bi


194


Williams st.


-


- Hj


113


Staniford St.


D f


62


AVilliams court


-


G h




State St.


H h


192


Wilsons lane


-


- Gg


85


Stillman st.


G e


199


Wiltshire St.


.


Cd


197


Suffolk place


Ek




Winter street


-


Ei


135


Sudbury St.


F f


SO


Winlbrop place


-


G k




Summer s(.


- Fj


139











PRINCIPAL WHARVES.



1. Wm. Gray's wharf - lb

2. Winnesimet ferry way - J b

3. Battery wharf - K c

4. Union wharf - .T d

5. Hancock's wharf - K e

6. Lewis's wharf - K e

7. Eustis"s wharf - I g
Canal, or Mill creek - 171 G e

". Philadelphia Packet wharf H g

Island wharves - J i



9. Town dock

10. Codman's wharf

11. Long wharf

12. Central wharf

13. India wharf

14. Liverpool wharf
15. Russia wharf

16. Wheeler's point

17. Baxter's wharf



Ig
Kg
Eh
Jh
Ik
I k
Gn
F n



NOTED BLOCKS.



Barristers' Hall
Colonnade Row
Congress square
Cornhill square
Hinckley's Buildins
Market square
Merchants' Hall
Parkman's Building



Fh
Djk
Gh
G h
Hh
Hg
G h
Hsr



Phillips's Buildings
Province House Row
Rogers' Buildings
Scollay's do.
South Row
Suffolk Buildings
Tudor's do.
West Row



Hh
Fi
Gh

Fg
Gi
Gh
Fh

Ef



UISTOUY OF BOSTON.



PUBLICK EDIFICES.



State house - - D h

Laboratory - C 1

Town bouse, or old State house G h

Old Court house I" h

County Court house - V h

Municipal Court house P d

Jail and House of Correction 1> d
House of Industry South Boston

Alms House - C c

Faneuil Hall - Kg

Ward Room, No. 3 G d

Eliot School, N. Bennet st. G d

Hancock School, Hanover st. G e

Mayhew School, Hawkins st. F e

Bowdoin School, Derne st. D g

High school, Pinckney st. - B i<

Latin School, School St. - F h

Adams Scliool, Mason st. - E j

Franklin School, Nassau st. D m

Boylston School, Fort Hill I j



South Boston School

Boylston Hall - D I

Medical College • D k

Massachusetts General Hospital B e

Province House - F i

Asylum for Indigent Boys H e

Female Orphan Asylum - F 1
City Market and Gallery of fine arts G g

Parkman's Market - B f

Columbian Museum - F h

New England Museum - F g

Atbeneum - H j

Theatre - - Jj

Concert Hall - F g

Exchange Coffee House G h

Green Dragon - G f

Washington Gardens - E j

Pantheon Hall - D 1

Marlboro' Hotel - F i

Custom House - I h



CHURCHES.



CONGREGATIONAL.



First, Chauncy place
Second, Hanover St.
Third, Old South
Founh, Brattle st.
Fifth, (lark st.
Sixth, Summer st.
Seventh, Federal st.



First, Stillman sU
Second, Salem st.



Fj


Eighth, Hollis St.


D m


He


Ninth, Lynde St.


Df


F i


Tenth, Park st.


Ei


82 Gg


Eleventh, Essex st.


E k


Id


Twelfth, N. Allen st.


Ce


Gk


Thirteenth


South Boston


Oj






BAPTIST.




II d


Third, Charles st.


Ah


Hd


African, Belknap St.


Cg



icing's Chapel, CommoD st.
Christ's ch. Salem st.
Trinity ch. Summer st.



EPISCOPALIAN.



Fh
H c



St. Paul's, Common st.

St. -Matthew's, South Boston



Di



Congress sU



QUAKER.
G h



first. North Bennel si.
Second, School »t.



DNIVERSALIST.



I d
Fi



Third, Bulfinch st.



Eg



First, Melhodisl alloy



METHODIST.
J c Second, Bromfield lane



ROMAN CAIIIOI.ICK. ^

"^liurch of the Holy Cross., Frankliu St. Fj St. Augu'tine"? Chapel, South Boston.








1. Tot^n Mtfuje .




2. <ret'ernor.r •'




J. Sortt/i (}ra7H7ri^


arScho


■f.JTffrffl


, ,


S. H'H/i/tff School





BOS TOIS j'lamf-dJ}. /6.W

B (>lii SW'rffl ii. 'fiM>

C Cl^ Scntm ^^..lfif'0

D ^na Ziap/ts (:.-.. J.I - Ifit'O

Schoo?. Y BraM,' St ..•..jeffff

GfuiiX^r. ^,...nf<>

'OJV'eu- JiTorih. ij.../7/-/

\2few Soum ...:,.-L.J7tfi

^FrcTicJi ij.^.17/6

L ..Yew Srick ...^.x.JTii



/"wAv^iv/ a^c^rt/in^ iV ^i-/ o/" Centres j hv ASt^u-eft.



U



HISTORY OF BOSTON.



INTRODUCTION.



The Cily of Boston owes its origin to a spirit of civil and
religious liberty, which was excited to action by the persecu-
tions that prevailed in England, during the reigns of Queen
Elizabeth, and Kings James and Charles the First. Most of
those who can properly be considered as first settlers arrived
here, and in other parts of New-England, prior to the year
sixteen hundred and forty-three. By that time, it is compu-
ted, the number of emigrants amounted to twenty-one thou-
sand two hundred souls, or thereabouts.*

Had this multitude been composed of barbarian hordes,
■vvho, in their wanderings for sustenance, might have chanced
to light upon this fair theatre in its wild and savage state, we
should have had no interest in tracing their history. The
wildci'ness they found, would have remained a wilderness
still, and their descendants have been dancing yet to the or-
gies of AVoonand and JMannit, or listening to the powaws of
Hobbamoc and Kiehtan. Not so with us : the hand of re-
finement has beautified the charms of nature ; monuments of
art in our own habitations and in the temples of our God, a
thousand endearments and ten thousand privileges enjoj'ed,
invite us on every side to inquire into the character of the
men that have preceded us, and to review the steps in which
our fathers and ourselves have been led from infancy to our
present state. To do this is the object we have now set be-
fore us ; and we are animated to the work by the persuasion.



* Neal, N. E. ch. V. states the number at 4000, and thinks the above computation very ex-
travagant, on the grround that only 298 transports were empK\ved. A little calculation, how-
ever, would have shown that if each of those had brought 72 persons, the number would be
accounted for -. whereas some of them were ships of good burthen that carried abo\it two
O



10 INTRODUCTION.

that a familiar acquaintance with the story of our early times
will tend to generate in the reader ' a love of country of the
best complexion, and of the highest order ; a love of country
chastened and improved by elevated sentiments and dignified
examples;' while the recapitulation of events more recent
may serve to gratify the pride, which springs from a con-
sciousness of having borne a part in transactions worthy to be
recorded.



humlred passcng^crs apiece. Besides, if any conSdence is to be placed in the following
estimate, which Ncal ciles without any doubts, the matter is almost certainly decided.

Johnson, in his Womler-Workiu'^ Providence, published in London, 1654, has thus stated
the. costs of the e.xpediiion. Chap. 13, 14.

The passage of the persons - - ..-. - -. - .- 95,0004.
The transportciiion of swine, goals, sheep, neate and horse, exclusive of

their cost - 12,000

Getting food for all the persons until they could get the wood to tillage - 45,000
Kayles, glasse, and other iron worUe for their meeting-houses, and other
dwelling houses, before they could raise any other meanes in the country

to purchase them -.-. -.....- . 18,000

Armes, powder, bullet, and match, w iib great artillery - -...- 22,000

192,000/.

"The whole sum amounts unto i;>2,000/. beside that wliioli tlif adventurers laid out in
England — neither let any man think the sura above expressed did defray the whole charge
of this army."

The charge for a passage was 5 pounds for a person ; — nursing children not to be reckon-
ed ; those under four years old, three for one; under eight years, two for one ; under twelve
years, three for Iwo.—Priucc, lee. 1. UC?.— Judge Davis' l>isc.



BISTOST •? BaSTfty. 11



CxL^JTER L



y "Ttf* 111 '.ti Tnr r^cS5 *T' 1^1 iiil'T :

■Rnosa seas jl lasr iwa luaa. aey titib.



The fediers of r
IXzabeib eDJkjTec
ihc lale of horsier p^?>
sake, h^r-'ibiv^

rrran:.. - ^ _^. _- - . . - ^-^ - .. ^-

tecanced ropery, b Ji esrabiisbei 2 C2:j:rci
. ; - " : eremonics i: : r : - :

• Mr E2s:;
b« Cocr.c;



will subscribe, write t~}io : rbcse iha: inil not scbscribe, wrce
Xslo : be ; ■ , - ,• - - __.....__ ,^ ^

refusal w:,^ oa

in case 01 nc-c , :^. 3ia::y 4 ere

accofdinir^T s. - . es wer« ecicied

which forbhi pnn:ers anc rs to pcblish xar appeal

the sudferers niUrh: desire ic
The wei^i cf this harsk
upon Doioisrers- Great cjizrrcrs c -

paihized wiih thea: ; iher abhorrec
irequent the churches where :hey w , ^^ver.

depriveti ministers, there rbre. and nds* as^

and resolved to break ojf inxa the p^biic criurches
assemble for worship in private hocses, or elsewhere ^ - .:-^
had opportucitT : this step b^s the era or date oi" the Se?wr»-
fKwi, ' 366, 5 ocedure : :: fail to he^hten jche

displeasure o: .aar.db. . > - ?, The c-omais^sioe-

ersweree - : :-, :o be still ntc-c^; severe:
iweniy-4'o.:r . ; ,~::d seven wociea were se
prison, tor attet:dia^ a sercon aud cc: -

private halL and having the boldness to ... -

before the bishop of Lontioa aod other aia^istrites. Buc
neither their -^^_ ? nor their su^rir^s ha«^ any itidviecce
to enect the. ecf the purir?.tts. As we apprcKxch



12 HISTORY OF BOSTON.

nearer to the period of our particular history, we find them
exposed to impositions less and less tolerable ; and as a nat-
ural result of persecution, more and more convinced, both of
the correctness of their own principles, and of the errors of
their persecutors. Most of their objections had hitherto been
made to the ceremoriits of the church : to these they came
by defrrees to add doubts concerning her doctrines. I'his
widened the c>:tent of their criminality, and the more certain-
ly to convict them, they were compelled to answer upon oath
against themselves.

In the midst of so much wrong, it is gratifying to discover
that there was a spirit in the parliament whicii convened in
1571, to attempt something in favour of the puritans. An act
was passed with that view, but no material benefit ever accru-
ed from it. The commissioners went on rigorously executing
the old laws against all opponents of the established church.
Among others, two anabaptists suffered under the act for burn-
ing of hereticks, in Smithficld, July 1575. The narrowness
of the terms of conformity reduced the number of able
preachers : most of the incumbents were disguised papists, or
such conformists as were incapable of performing the ministe-
rial duties. A fourth part at least of all the preachers in
England wei-e under suspension, and so many parishes were
vacated that persons who wished to hear a sermon must go
five, seven, twelve, and even twenty miles, and that too under
the penalty of a fine for being absent from their parish church,
where no service was performed. More effectually to distress
both people and ministers, the former were forbidden to em-
ploy any of the latter as instructers of their children.

'i'he people of London and Cornwall petitioned parliament
for relief: the whole country exclaimed against the bishops
for their high proceedings, but all to little purpose. Some
slight appearances of milder measures were now and then to
be seen, but the next day would dissipate all hope, and the
dissenters would be called to witness the public execution of
their friends on the gallows. The Queen continued resolutely
bent on perfect obedience to her re<]uirements, and in 1583
established a court of high cotmnissioti^ with powers to inquire
into misdemeanors by every way and means they could de-
vis?, and to punish b}^ fine or imprisonment according to their
discretion. The j)roceedings of this tribunal were as merci-
less as its powers were boundless : and when the Commons
inclined to remed}* some of the evils that arose from this and
other mca^-urcs of the Queen, they found out the iniquity of
the act of supremac3', which vested the whole power of re-
forming the policy of the church in the single person of her
Majesty, who would permit no infringement on her preroga-
tive from any quarter whatsoever.



HISTORY OF BOSTOy. 13

Under these circumstances the puritans could expect no
amelioration of their condition during her reign : they there-
fore looked forward with anxious hopes, to the probable ac-
cession of King James, who, having been bred a puritan,
they anticipated would redress their wrongs. Elizabeth died
on the 24th of March, 1603, and James came to the throne
only to disappoint these hopes. He had hardly been king a



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