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the ordinary apprentice left to find out the right way by personal hard
experience; but in an instruction shop, where the only duty of the expert
is to teach the pupil, he learns to be a good workman much quicker than
in an ordinary shop; and not only does he make more rapid progress in
the right direction, but he is saved from falling into clumsy habits and
methods of work."

The apprentice in a shop, under a " boss," is made to do the chores — ^the
dirty work of the establishment. He is the fag end, the least important,
and the least considered there. But in the manual training school he is
the peer of his fellows. It is for him the school exists, and he is the mate-
rial that must be turned out finished, and not the articles in wood, plaster,
or metal, which surround him. Instead of being left to himself to pick up
what he can he has competent teachers, who feel a pride in his advance-
ment because the credit of the school is at stake.

COST OF MANUAL TRAINING.

But then what about the cost, and the many other difficulties, such as
providing suitable teachers, and equipment, etc. ?

The difficulties are not so great as they appear at first sight. Tool instruc-
tion is what is needed, and not how to make any particular articles — ^instruc-
tion in the nature, theory, and use of tools. There are only seven hand
tools: the ax, the saw, the plane, the hammer, the square, the chisel, the
file. Besides, there are the machine tools, which are chiefly employed in
mechanical pursuits. The modest ambition of the advocate of manual
training is to make pupils acquainted with the use of these tools, so as to
become useful to themselves and lay the groundwork for future develop-
ment. Anything beyond this must be looked for in some polytechnic or
scientific school especially designed for the purpose.

In the St. Louis school it costs from $5 to $7 per pupil per year for



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MANUAL TRAINING. 235

materials. The working sections of this school have from twenty to twenty-
four students each, and there is a teacher for each section, but the Director
" strongly insists that no community in which a manual training school
has once been established would allow its expense to be an argument
against it."

Taking into consideration the vast sums expended to erect and maintain
State Universities, Normal Schools, and institutions for the higher order
of education, the amount required to equip and support manual training
schools in connection with our high schools, would appear very small,
indeed. It may be well to remind those who may cavil at the expense
that the common school is at the root and foundation of our national
advancement, that it is for the benefit of the masses and not of the classes,
and that for one who enters the university, or similar institution, ninety-
nine must be content with the education afforded in the public school.

The expense incurred in establishing and running a manual training
school in connection with the High School of Springfield, Massachusetts,
may be taken as fairly typical of what it would be in other places. The
following particulars are taken from the report of the school committee of
that city for 1886. An appropriation of $1,000 was made by the city gov-
ernment of Springfield for manual training by way of experiment. The
basement of the high school building was selected for a workshop, and a
competent teacher was engaged.

Thirteen benches designed for wood working were obtained and equipped
with suitable tools for the class of work to be taught. Three large cup-
boards, each containing thirty-two compartments, were provided for th
convenience of the pupils. The school opened on July 12, 1886, with two
vacation classes of twenty-two scholars. The fall term opened with an
enrollment of ninety-one scholars, which number soon increased to ninety-
six, and these were divided into eight classes of twelve scholars each. It
was arranged that each class should receive one lesson a week of one and
one half hours' duration. The course of instruction arranged consisted of
fifteen lessons, covering the use of the hammer, nail driving, measurement,
use of the try-square, gauging, sawing to line, cutting to length, cutting to
vridth, shelf making, box making, use of dividers, boring, use of bradawl,
use of chisel, examples in construction, and the general use of carpenters'
tools, their parts described and defined, their adjustment explained, and
the pupils taught to keep them in working order. On November ninth, an
additional class was organized for Saturday afternoons, consisting of twelve
scholars from private schools.

The Saturday morning class has among its members four of the gram-
mar school principals and the drawing teacher. This fact is mentioned
to show the interest manifested in manual training by many of our most
accomplished instructors.

The cost of the experimental training school, from its establishment to
January first, is as follows:

Cost of equipment $503 19

Cost of material 60 11

Salary of instructor .^ 231 14

Balance of appropriation, not used 205 66

Total $1,000 00.

The remainder of the appropriation will carry the school, on the present
plan, until March, 1887.

One thousand dollars were sufficient to pay the cost of equipment and



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236 BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

material and the salary of the instructor for nine months in this experi-
mental attempt in manual training.

One statement in the report is very significant: " It is the testimony of
the principals of the high school and the grammar schools that the time
given to manual training has not retarded the pupils in their regular
studies." Another is that four of the grammar school teachers were in the
manual training class. From a careful estimate made by the committee,
$50 per capita yearly ought to pay the expense of maintaining in a proper
manner a manual training school of one hundred pupils.

BALTIMORE TRAINING SCHOOL.

The cost of maintaining the Manual Training School of Baltimore (one
of the most successful schools in the country and connected with the pub-
lic schools), for the year 1887, is given as follows:

To five per cent of $12,569 53, value of plant $627 98

To twenty-five per cent of $2,520 91, value of books 630 26

To lumber and metal for lessons 480 00

To engine castings and wrought iron for sepior class 115 00

To wood and coal 270 00

To salaries of instructor and janitor 6,567 50

Total $8,690 74

Number of students on the roll during the year, 352, and $8,690 74 divide^ by 352—
$24 69, the cost per student. Leaving out the percentages on plant and books, we find
the actual runnmg expenses to be $7,132 50, making the cost per student $20 26.

THE SAJ^ FRANCISCO HIGH SCHOOL.

The number of boys enrolled in the High School of San. Francisco,
according to t)ie Secretary's report for 1886-7, was two hundred and
niaety-one.

The salaries of the teachers in the Boys High School of San Francisco
are as follows:

Principal $250 00

Head of English Department 160 00

Head of Scientific Department 160 00

Head of Mathematical Department 160 00

Head of Classical Department 160 00

Teacher of mechanical drawing 30 00

Assistant teachers 140 00

Total $1,060 00

Or $12,720 per year. ^

As the number of pupils on the rolls is given at two hundred and,
ninety-one, the cost per capita for teachers' salaries alone (leaving out all
other expenses of the school) amounts to $43 71, while the cost of the
Baltimore training school, for all the running expenses, amounts to only
$20 26.

The staff of the Baltimore school consisted of a principal, four teachers
ii^ different branches of education, four instructors in different branches of
manual training, one engineer, one fireman, and one janitor.

Professor Woodward, who is an excellent authority on the subject, gives
the following information concerning cost of materials:



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MANUAL TRAINING. 237

KIT OF COMM.ON TOOLS.

One 20-inch rip-saw, costing $1 60

One back-saw, costing 1 00

One claw-hammer, costing 40

One mallet, costing 26

One small steel square, costing 80

One 6-inch try square, costing 25

One marking gauge, costing 26

One T-bevel gauge, costing 26

One pair compasses, costing 20

One oil stone, costing 50

One oil can, costing 16

One screwdriver, costing 20

One bench brush, costing 30

Total 16 16

KIT OF INDIVIDUAL TOOLS.

One 20-inch panel cross-cut saw, costing %0. 80

One jack plane, costing 60

One smoothing plane, costing 60

Four chisels, |-inch, i-inch, |-inch, 1-inch, costing 90

Three gouges, J-inch, i-inch, 1-incn, costing , 70

Two turning gouges, f-inch, J-inch, costing 66.

Two turning chisels, |-inch, |-inch, costing 46

One parting tool, costing 40

One round-nose tool 40

One pair 6-inch calipers, costing 26

One 2-foot rule^ costing 16

One oilstone shp, costing 16

Total $5 86

OCCASIONAL AND SPECIAL TOOLS.

One lar^e steel square, costing |1 26

One 24-mch cross-cUt saw, costing ^ 1 35

One 24-inch rip-saw, costing 1 60

Two Jointer planes, 22 inches long, costing 2 20

Two lore-planes, 18 inches long, costing 1 60

Two bit-braces, costing 2 60

• Two sets countersinks and screwdriver, costing 8 20

One hatchet, costing 60

Two nail sets,costing 30

Two J-inch screw taps and dies for wood, costing 1 60

One drawshave, costing 90

One spokeshave, costing 40

Two monkey wrenches, costing 1 00

One compass saw, costing 36

One full set of twelve wood carving tools with handles, costing 4 75

One glue pot complete, with lamp or steam connection , costing 150

Total $30 10

From the foregoing estimates it will be seen that the cost of the entire
outfit of the shop (excluding j)ower and power attachments) for seventy-
two boys may be given approximately as follows:

Twenty-five benches at $16 $376 00

Twenty-five sets " common " tools at $6 15 153 76

Seventy-three sets " individual" tools at $5 85 427 06

Setof special and occasional tools 30 10

Grindstones, with attachments 40 00

Wash-trough, dishes, plumbing, etc., say 70 00

Total $1,105 90

WHERE TEACHERS ARE TO COME FROM.

Afl to the diflSculty of procuring suitable teachers, that, in time, would
regulate itself. The attempt to establish manual training schools in con-



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238 BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

nection with our high schools, would necessarily be slow and gradual, and
the necessary time would be given for the proper training of teachers in
our normal schools. No doubt a sufficient number of teachers, graduates
of polytechnic schools, could be found to fill all present requirements.

ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF MANUAL TRAINING.

The following brief sketch of the origin and growth of the manual
training element in the educational system of the United States is taken
chiefly from Professor Woodward's excellent work on " The Manual Train-
ing School:"

In 1865, John Bo3mton, of Templeton, Massachusetts, gave $100,000 for
the endowment and perpetual support of a free institute for the youth of
Worcester County, Massachusetts. He thus explained his objects: "The
aim of this school shall ever be the instruction of youth in those branches
of education not usually taught in the public schools which are essential
and best adapted to train the young for practical life."

It was opened in 1868 as a technical school of about college grade, and is
known as the " Worcester Free Institute."

In 1870 a wood working shop was added to the appliances for the course
in architecture, and an iron working shop to the course in mechanical
engineering, in the Universitjr of Illinois.

In 1871 the Stevens Institute of Hoboken, munificently endowed by
Edwin A. Stevens as a school of mechanical engineering, fitted up a series
of shops for the use of its students.

In 1872 a large shop in the Poljrtechnic School of the St. Louis Uni«
versity was equipped with work benches, two lathes, a forge, a gear cutter^
and full sets of carpenters, machinists, and forging tools.

In 1879 the St. Louis Manual Training School was established.

In 1883 the Baltimore Manual Training School, a public school on the
same footing as the high school, was opened.

In 1884 the Chicago Manual Training School, established as an incor-
porated school by the Commercial Club of that city, was opened.

In 1884 manual training was introduced into the high school of Eau
Claire, Wisconsin.

In 1884 the Scott Manual Training School was organized as a part of
the high school of Toledo.

In 1884 manual training was introduced into the College (High School)
of the City of New York.

In 1884 the Lincoln Grammar School, Oakland, introduced manual
training.

In 1884 the Grammercy Park Tool- House, of New York, was opened.

In 1885 the Philadelphia Manual Training School, a public high school^
was opened.

In 1885 the Omaha high school introduced manual training.

In 1885 the Manual Training School of Denver University was opened as
a preparatory school, and in 1886 tuition in it was made free to Colorado
boys.

In 1885 the Cleveland Manual Training School was incorporated and
opened, in connection with the high school of that city, in 1886.

In 1886, New Haven, which had for some time encouraged the use of
tools by the pupils of several of its grammar schools, opened a regular shop
and furnished systematic instruction in tool work.

In 1886 the West Side High School of Chicago added manual training
to its course.



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MANUAL TRAINING.



239



In 1886 the Technical School of Cincinnati was opened. It is in all
but name a manual training school.

In 1887 manual training was introduced into the high school of Minne-
apolis.

Swatmore College, near Philadelphia, has had for three years regular
manual training.

Dr. Adler's Workingman's School for poor children has for several years
taught manual training to the very lowest grades.

The Tulane High School, a preparatory department of the Tulane Uni-
versity, New Orleans, has been established as a regular manual training
school.

In 1888, August 6, the Cogswell Polytechnic College, in San Francisco,
was opened.

REPORT OP UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION.

The report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1885-86
rives tabulated statistics relating to fourteen manual training schools as
follows, but not in the order of their foundation:



TABLE F F.

Statistics of Manual Training Schools for 1885-86.



Name.



Industries Taught.



Year Estab-
lished.



Haish Manual Training School,
Denver, Col



Chicago Manual Training School..
Manual Training School of Tulane

University, New Orleans

Baltimore Manual Training School.

Manual Training School of Public

High School, Boston, Mass

Artisans Training School (Univer-
sity of Minnesota)

Manual Training School of Wash-
ington University, St. Louis, Mo..
Industrial Department, College of

New York Cfity

Workingraan's School (Heb. Soc.

Ethic. Culture), New York

Cleveland Manual Training School-
Scott Manual Training School (To-
ledo University)

Manual Training School, Philadel-
phia



Mechanical drawing, blacksraithing,
carpentering, wood turning, and

W pattern maKing
ood and metal work and drawing.. _



Drawing, carpentry, wood turning,
drilling, planing, pattern making, etc,



Wood and metal work

Wood and metal working.



Carpentry, wood turning, pattern mak-
ing, forging, and machine shop work.



Course in Manual Technology
Vanderbilt University, Nashville,
Tennessee

Miller Manual Labor School, Cro-
zet, Virginia



Carpentry, smithing, forging, molding,
pattern making, wood turning, wood
carving, study of steam engines, etc..



Mechanic arts and agriculture .



-1886
.1883



.1884
.1885



.1879
.1883
.1880
.1886
.1886

.1886

.1884
.1878



BUSINESS COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS.



Heretofore we have devoted much attention to the training of youth for
mercantile and commercial pursuits. The system of instruction in our



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240



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.



public schools seems specially designed for the benefit of those who intend
to follow such pursuits. Besides the public schools, a large number of
private schools, colleges, and institutes have been established for special
instruction in penmanship, bookkeeping, accounts, banking, telegraphy,
shorthand, type writing, etc. The following is a comparative exhibit of
schools for business training, as reported to the United States Bureau of
Education at Washington, for each year from 1876 to 1886, inclusive:

Business on Commebcial Colleges.



»


1876.


1877.


1878.


1879.


1880.


Number of institutions _ .____. - . - .


137

699

25,234


134

568
23,496


129

527

21,048


144

535

22,621


162


Number of instructors


619


Number of students


27,146






1881.


1882.


1884.


1885.


1886.


Number of institutions .


202

794

34,414


217

955

44,834


221

' 1,015

44,047


232

1,099

43,706


239


Number of instructors -


1,010


Number of students


47,176







The same report from the United States Commissioner of Education
gives the following summary of the number of pupils, etc., in all kinds of
industrial and manual training schools:

TABLE G G.

Industrial training in various forms. Summary of the statistics of schools giving industrial

trainiTig in various forms.





!25

■fl


1

1


Students.


if

' If


!


3


1




^


i
i


5


i


9


P.


For white youth


26
11
12
14

63


321
59

139
63


9,530

782

1,444

1,544


3,223
280
924

1,328


6,041
502
520
216


8,343

16,903

• 3,684

4,450


: $266,032

38,418

236,068

133,980


$320,590
37,107

208,565


For colored youth

For Indians


Manual training schools.


123,950


Totals . ..


582


13,300


. 5,755


7,279


33,380


$6744ftft


$690,212









The number of students in business colleges is, according to this exhibit,
nearly four times greater than the number receiving industrial and ms^n-
ual training. In other words, we have four pupils being trained to become
clerks to the one trained to become a mechanic in schools.



WHERE MECHANICS COME FROM.



In the chapter on appprenticeship it can be seen by reference to the
table showing the number of immigrants by occupations, that the average
number of skilled artisans arriving in the United States is about fifty
thousand per annum.

The total number of students receiving industrial training in the United^



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MANUAL TRAINING. 241

States is thirteen thousand. From this number should be deducted one
thousand five hundred and forty-four manual training scholars, for they
are not taught trflJdes, and we find the number of students who are taught
trades in the industrial schools of the country amounts to eleven thousand
four hundred and fifty-six. Taking three years as a minimum course for a
scholar to learn a trade, it will be seen that these schools turn out about
four thousand skilled laborers per year. But these include both sexes.

It was shown in a former chapter that less than 5 per cent of the skilled
class of immigrants were females, so that the average number of mechan-
ics arriving in the United States would be in the neighborhood of forty-five
thousand per annum.

The number of male students receiving instruction in the industrial
schools of the United States is only five thousand seven hundred and fifty-
five. Deducting the number of -manual training pupils, one thousand
three hundred and twenty-eight, and we find there were, in 1886, four
thousand four hundred and twenty-seven boys learning trades in our
industrial schools.

The latter would therefore turn out about one thousand five hundred
mechanics every year, or one thirtieth of the number we receive into this
country from Europe. It can be seen by these figures what little ground
there is for the fear entertained by some mechanics that the establishment
of manual and industrial schools will deluge the labor market and injure
the trades. Thirty times the present capacity of turning out mechanics
in this country will be required before we can equal the number that are
added to the body of mechanics yearly by immigration.

Instead, then, of protesting against the establishment of manual training
and technical schools in the United States, would it not be more profitable
for this class of objectors, or " growlers," to turn their attention to the immi-
gration problem? It is the old story of trying to stop a leakage at the
spigot hole and allowing it to run at the bung.

OBJECTIONS OP TRADES UNIONS TO MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOLS.

The strongest, most reasonable, and most pointed objections on the part
of the trades unions are well summed by one of them in these words:

We believe that a training such as a boy would receive there must, of necessity, be
largely theoretical, and that the boy when turned out from the schools, owing to the lack
of actual practice in the application of the theories they had learned, would, for a time,
form a goodly proportion oi that curse of all trades, incompetent mechanics.

They would form a factor that could be readily utilized by unscrupulous employers in
their never ceasing eflforts to crush the workmen, as they would be compelled by their
necessities to work for a lesser remuneration than the standard wages of the trade they
had studied.

There is much force in these objections. It is most likely that in every
manual training school some drones will be found who will not finish the
course, or, if so, get through by some cramming or sneaking process.

Others will drop off before half through. They are likely to fulfill the
predictions above referred to, by becoming barnacles on a trade of which
they acquired a smattering knowledge at school.

From the statements of all who have had experience in manual training
and its results, the contrary effects to those apprehended by some unions .
actually occur. Scholars who have passed through the whole course of the
manual training school creditably, from the education they have received,

?uickly advance themselves to positions of credit in the craft they join,
nstead of degrading or dragging it down they try to elevate it. It must



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242 BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

be evident that a young man, with a good, solid, grammar or high school
education, who also is a good draughtsman, and has received a practical
training in the use of tools and general mechanism, wil^ not be content to
fall into the class of mere "helpers" and be looked upon as a "scab" by
mechanics inferior to himself in mental acquirements. The probabilities
are, and time will so prove, that the establishment of manual training
schools will have the effect of elevating and dignifying mechanical labor.
It will mix more brain with muscle, and the class of mechanics that will
there receive their initiatory or fundamental knowledge will be men who
will not be likely to allow themselves to be kept under heel.

As Professor Woodward well says: "The boys educated in manual train-
ing schools will never become mere machine men. They will never be
content, whatever the vocation to which circumstances and their own fit-
ness may call them, to put their brains away like a piece of ornamental
toggerv for which they have no daily use. They have many chances in
their mvor. They have fast hold of a ladder, which, with vigorous climb-
ing, will carry them to the top."

Besides, it must be borne in mind that the manual training schools do
not teach trades, nor do all their graduates become mechanics after they
leave the school. As many, if not more, become professional and busi-
ness men. A large number become farmers.

In a manual training school which graduates, say, fifty students a year,
it is probable that not half that number will become mechanics. The
lawyer, the banker, the merchant, and the farmer who had graduated from
a manual training school, may sometimes interfere with the business of
the carpenter, plumber, blacksmith, etc., by being handy with the tools
they have learned to use in school, in doing odd jobs about the house, the
store, or the farm. Under the new dispensation we may expect to see the
lawyer, doctor, or clergyman, with coat off and shirt sleeves tucked up, beads
of sweat rolling down his face, using hammer, saw, and plane as deftly as
a. mechanic. In this direction manual training may to some extent mili-
tate against the interest of the mechanic.



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