California. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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interrupted business, which covered a period of some two months.

Since its establishment, also, two dissatisfied members have withdrawn from the com-
pany, and their stock has been purchased by those more recently allied with the company.
This change has been fortunate for the institution, as it has gained good and willing
co-workers, and lost the only element which threatened its disruption.

In the month of December, 1887, the company increased its capital stock to $20,000,
divided into twenty shares of $1,000 each. It, at this time, took in seven new members,
each purchasing a share of the company's stock. Within the history of the company,



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28 BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

thus far, no insuperable obstacles have been met with, and its advancement has been con-
tinuous and uninterrupted. No institution of its kind anywhere can point to the record
of its past with more pride, or scan its future with less fear or with ereater assurance of a
rich reward for the arduous labors the projectors sufTered during tne first few months of
its existence, and for their heroic self denial, which has, after all, been the chief factor in
the solution of this problem.

The oflBcers of the company consist of a President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treas-
urer, and Board of Directors of ten members. The officers are elected at the annual meet-
ing of the stockholders in January of each year.

The corporate power of the company is vested in the Board of Directors, who have f nU
control of the business of the company, and employ a manager, who has charge of the
manufacturing portion of the business, and has full control of the factory. The manager
employs all cigarmakers, packers, strippers, etc., and has power to discharge any such at
any time when their worK is not satisfactory. Stockholders who may be working in the
factory have tiie right of appeal to the Board of Directors in all cases where they have
any grievances, and the decision of the Board of Directors is final.

The manner of paying up the shares is perhaps best described by the following articles
from the By-laws:

Abticle I. All stock of this corporation shall be subject to assessment until fully paid
up.

Art. II. The assessment upon each share of stock shall be twenty dollars per month
until fifty per cent of the par value of said share of stock shall have been paid, and there-
after the assessment upon each share of stock shall be ten dollars per month, until the
par value of each share of stock shall be fully paid up.

Abt. III. Stockholders who are engaged in laboring for or in conducting the business
operations of the corporation may pay assessments upon their stock either m said laJbor w
in cashf as they may prefer.

Upon the failure of anv stockholder to pay his assessment within thirty days after it is
due and payable, he shall be deemed delinquent, and his share of stock shall be disposed
of in accordance with the statutory provisions as laid down in the Civil Code of Cahfor-
nia, at any time after such delinquency, as the Board of Directors may choose to order.

TYPE, WOOD CUTS, AND PRINTEBS' SUPPLIES — GENERAL CONDITIONS.

Number of women, 45; boys, 10; and men, 30. All time workers. Wages paid to type
casters (weekly average), $15; stereotypers, |15; wood engravers, $15; women engaged m
breaking and rubbing, $7 50; boys are paid from |3 to $9 per week. Hours of labor from
7 A. M. to 6 p. M.; an hour for lunch. Wood engravers work only eight hours per day.
Workroom large, well lit, and well ventilated.

TYPE FOUNDERS— GENERAL CONDITIONS.

Three women, 3 boys, and 10 men employed. Apprentices are paid from $3 to $7 per
week; electrotypers and stereotypers average $21 per week; women earn about $9 per
week.

TENTS, DUCK, BAGS, ETC. — GENERAL CONDITIONS.

No. 1. Sixty-two women employed. Time workers get $7 50 per week ; piece workers
average $9 per week. Many of the females are mere children, aged from 9 to 11 years.
Work nine nours in winter, and ten hours in summer. Children get $2 50 per week ;' they
are merely helpers. Workshop is large, occupyine third floor of building ; the fire escapes
are very poor'; separate water-closets are providea for the girls.

No. 2. Fifty girls employed. Average about $6 50 per week; mostly piece workers.

MANUFACTURE OF UNDERWEAR, OVERALLS, ETC.— GENERAL CONDITIONS.

No. 1. Seventy-five girls and women employed. Wages all piecework; 60 cents a dozen
for lowest class of shirts ; average from $3 to $10 per week. Hours from 7:30 a. m. to 5:30
P.M.; lunch, one hour. Workroom on top floor; well lit and ventilated; no separate
water-closets ; fire escape, stairs, and elevator.

No. 2. Let out work (sewing). Boys' blouses, 80 cents per dozen, and aprons 25 cents
per dozen. Three women sewing for him now. One woman and hej mother together
manage to make 80 cents per day on above work. Store cold and dirty, and sewerage bad.
One girl worked seven years as operator on machine; gets $8 per week.

No. 3. Three girls employed ; ages, 16 to 23. Wages : one who has worked seven months
at trade gets $3 50 per week ; another experienced hand gets $3 per week ; highest wages

Said, $6; lowest wages paid,$l. Hands must work a weeK gratis before wages are paid,
'ne Japanese operator and one new operator. Hours from 7:30 a. m. to 6 p. m. ; one hour
for lunch. Workroom small and dirty; tobacco smoking all day; boss lives in rear;
smell of cooking very bad.

No. 4. Four girls employed. One girl gets $8 per week ; does fine work ; the others get
from $3 to $5 per week. Ten hours' work per day. Workroom small and dirty.

No. 5. Seven girls employed ; ages, 14 to 35. One girl apprentice; must work four weeks
gratis. Necktie department has 5 girls. Piecework, 30 cents per dozen. One girl who has
worked six weeks receives $3 50 per week; one woman gets $3 per week. In a department
where bed comforters are made there are two women; piecework, seven for $1; earn
about 85 cents to $1 or $1 25; work very laborious. Hours from 8 a. m. to 6 p. m.; one



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GENERAL CONDITIONS OF WORKING ESTABLISHMENTS.



29



hour for lunch. First room badly ventilated ; fairly lighted ; second room dark and dirty.
Closet lilthy ; no washing facilities.

WAITER GIRLS— GENERAL CONDITIONS.

No. 1. Girls working, 10: nine waiters and one cash girl. Hours of labor, 7 a. m. to
8 p. M.; two hours and a half off every other afternoon. Wages average $6 per week and
board.

No. 2. Two girls working ; one receives |6 per week, and the other $7 and board. Work
from 6:30 a. m. to 6:30 p. M.; they have one half day off once a week. Girls iron napkins.

No. 3. Three girls working. Wages, $6 per Week and board. Work from 6:30 a. m. to
6:30 p. M. Girls do all the cleaning.

No. 4. Twelve girls working. Hours of labor from 6:30 a. m. to 6:30 p. m. Wages average
$7 a week and board.

No. 6. Three ^rls. Ten hours work. Wages |6 a week and board.

No. 6. Nine girls. Twelve hours work. Wages, $6 a week and board. Wash and iron
napkins.

WOODEN BOX FACTORY— GENERAL CONDITIONS.

No. 1. Manufacturing fruit, berry, grape, and all kinds of packing boxes. Number of
employes: Men, 40; women and girls, 20; Doys^ 30. Hours, 7 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.; half hour
for lunch. Wages, foreman, $4 per day; machine, $3; men, $2 25 per day ; boys, 75 cents
to $1 50 per day; girls are paia by the piece, and average $1 50 per day; experienced
women earn $2 per day. A^es of ooys from 15 to 18.

No. 2. Make boxes for fruit, and all kinds of merchandise, also washboards. Number of
employes: Men, 30; girls, 5; boys, 15; Chinamen, 3. Hours, 7 a. m. to 6 p. M.; half hour
for lunch. Wages or men from |1 50 to $2 75 per day ; girls from |3 to $5 per week ; boys
from 75 cents to |1 25 per day, average $1. Boys are from 12 to 16 years of age. Firm
connected with Towle Bros., of Placer County, where lumber comea^rom.

WOOLEN FACTORIES— GENERAL CONDITIONS.

No. 1. All kinds of woolen goods are manufactured in this establishment. Employes :
One hundred females, 15 boys, 300 men, and 200 Chinese. Hours of labor, 7 a. m. to 12 m.,.
and from 12:30 to 6:30 p. m. Saturday they work until 4:15 p. m. Hours employed for
entire week, 63 hours 45 minutes. Rate of wages as follows :



Occupation.



Class of Worker.



Bate per Day.



Carders

Carders

Carders (white men)

Carders (Chinese and boys ; boys, 15 to 18 years of age).

Dressers

Dressers (Chinese)

Dressers (white men)

Spoolers (white girls, 15 to 18 years of age; piece work).

Spinners

Spinners

Spinners

Spinners (white men; pieee work)

Spinners (white boys. 15 to 18 years of age)

Spinners (Chinese)

Weavers

Loom fixers

Weavers (fancy looms ; all piece work)



First overseer ...
Second overseer .

Cleaners

Tenders

Overseer

Tenders

Tenders



Overseer

Second overseer
Fixers



II



Overseer.



$5 00

3 00
1 50
1 00

4 00
1 25
1 75

1 00

4 00
3 00

2 50
200

tol 25

1 00

5 00

2 50
2 00



This is for weaving cassimeres for men's wear, and is done by both n>en and women.
Plain goods, such as blankets, flannels, and ladies' dress goods, are done both by white and
Chinese, by piece work.

No. 2. This factory is laree, well lit and ventilated; sanitary conditions and surround-
ings very good arid healthy. In cleaning and scouring wool Chinese are principally
employed. In the weavingroom, the Chinese are on one side, and white girls on the other.
The number of employes, and wages paid, are classified as follows :



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BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.



Occupation.


Number of Employes.


Average Daily Wages.


Males.


Females.


Chinese.


Males.


Females.


Chinese.


Bobbin carriers __ - - - .__._..


1
3












Burlers <


25
9






$0 90

to
1 00

90




Carders <

Drawers in


7
3


$1 50
to

1 75


$1 00
1 00


Dressers


1

4

1
1

13

1




2 50

, 2 00

to

2 60

6 00

2 50
1 25

to

3 00
3 50






Dyers <

Engineer - .


















Firemen










Finishers <










Fullers




2

7




1 10


Oiggers


1 00


Laoorers - _ - _


1
1

1

6




2 00

3 00

3 00

4 00
to

5 00






Loom fixers .. __ - ..










Machinist






Overseers . ..\










Packers > - -




1

1
5




1 00


Pressers .. _ - - - -










1 00


Scourers


6
1

6

1
1
2




2 00
2 75

1 00


85
to
90


1 10


Shearers




Spinners mule <

Spoolers <

Spool carriers


5


4


80
to
90


1


1 25

2 60
2 60

""2"56"


90


Teamsters




Watchmen










Weavers


20


6
2


1 50


1 00


Wool sorters ._


3


1 20






Total number of workers


64


69


39

















No. 3. Employes, 40 men and 40 women. Weavers paid by piecework, and average $35
per month ; lowest wages paid, 75 cents per day ; burlers, 90 cents per day. Profit shar-
ing exists here, and details are posted in the workshop. The first $24,000 of profit goes to
the company; the next $4,000 is to be distributed to employes; all profits above the $28,-
000 go to the company ; one girl said she received in this way $56 in one year. Only two
^irls, out of the forty employed, board; the rest live at home. Rent and fuel higher than
m the East ; food and clothing about the same ; wood, $9 per cord. If any employe leaves
without notice he loses all profit sharing.

No. 4. Number of girls, 12; ages of girls, 16 to 24; wages, 75 cents to $1 45; spooling
girls get 75 cents per day. Weavers get from $1 25 to $1 45, by piece. Hours, 11 per day,
or 65 per week. Boys, about 10 in number; ages, 13 to 15; work 11 hpurs per day; on tHe
carding machine, boys get 75 cents per day ; on the second brake and on the third, or fin-
isher, boys get 60 cents per day, worK 11 hours ; boys helping around get 75 cents per day ;
the spinners (boys) get 18 cents for 100 runs, and average 600 or 700 runs daily, $1 10 for
work of 11 hours. The dyer gets $2 50 per day; finisher, $3; second hand, $2; third
and fourth, $1 75; scourers, dyers, preparers, etc., get $1 75 per day. Hours, 6 a.m. to 5
p. M. Weavers are the only ones paid by the piece; average $35 per month.

No. 5. Number of men employed, 12; women, 12. The following are the rates of wages
paid : In the sorting and scouring department, males earn from $1 to $1 50 per day ; females
earn from $1 25 to $1 50 per day ; in the carding and picking room, men get $1, $1 25, and
$1 50 per day; in spinning and* spooling, one man gets $2 50, and women and girls get $1
per day ; in weaving department, employes are paid by the piece — women average $7 60
per week; overseer is paid $2 60 per day; dressers (women), $1 60 per day; finishers
(men), $2 per day; assistant, $1 50 per day. Hours of labor, 11 hours per day.



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GENERAL CONDITIONS OF WORKING ESTABLISHMENTS.



31



No. 6. Number of men employed, 9; women, 8; boys, 4; and one girl; no Chinese. Wages
•of men, from $1 60 to |4 per day; women (piecework), from $33 to $47 per month; boys
get $1 and $1 25 per day. Hours of labor, 11 hours per day. Mill is small, and well lit and
ventilated, but not kept clean.

No. 7. There are about 50 women employed in the weaving department who can earn
from $1 25 to $1 50.per day. It takes a girl three or four wecKS to learn suflBcient to earn
wages. The factory buildings and grounds cover two blocks. The main building is four
stories hi^h, and has a frontage of 383 feet and a depth of 65 feet. The machine shop is
complete m all its appointments. The wings are 100 feet in depth. All the work rooms
are well lit and ventilated. Separate water-closets are provided for the sexes. There is
room for improvement in the way of cleanliness, but this is invariably the case where a
number of Chinese are employed. Access to the factory is difficult, and the surroundings
are not pleasant. There are but few cottages and tenements in the neighborhood, and
they are neither clean looking nor desirable. Employes complain of the shortness of time
{half an hour) allowed for lunch, and say it should be extenaed to three quarters in order
to give them time to reach their homes. Otherwise no complaint has been made against
the management. As an evidence that it must be satisfactory to the employes, nearly all
the foremen at present have been advanced to their present positions from the lowest

frades. Employes have to pay for rent of rooms and cottages from $15 to $25 per month,
n the neighbornood of eastern woolen mills they could rent the same accommodations
for half that sum. Wages paid are classified as follows :



OcCrPATION.



Claas of Workers. Rate per Day,



Weavers (white girls and boys) make from.

Weavers (Chinese) make from

Wool sorters

Wool sorters (white men), piece work

Wool sorters (Chinese), day work

Wool scourers (Chinese)



Overseer .



Finishing Department



Shear tenders (white)

Cloth menders (girls)

€loth burlers (girls)

Fullers

Common help (White men) ,

Oiggers

Scourers

Dyers ^

Dyers ,

Help (all white men)



Overseer .



Overseer .



Overseer

Second overseer.



Engine Room.

l^ng^neer and machinist

Ordinary machinists-

Blacksmith

Blacksmith helper

Outdoor day laborers

Firemen r



Overseer ,



$1 25to$l 50
1 to 1 25
4 00
2 50
1 00
1 10



4 00
1 50
1 25
90tol 00
4 00

1 50tol 75
1 50
1 50
7 00
4 50

1 50tol 75



5 00
3 00to3 50

3 75

200
1 50tol 75

3 00



EXPLANATORY.

Subdivision 1, Table " A," Subdivision 2, Table " B," and Subdivision 3, of this Chapter,
are correlative and show conditions of three different kinds of the same female wage earn-
ers.

For instance, the workingwoman No. 1, in the first Table (A), is the same person under
the same number in the second Table (B), and is the same person under the same num-
ber in Subdivision 3.

So that in any line of business here enumerated, if in reading the "working" conditions
of any female, you want to know the ''personal and financial" or the "home" conditions
of the same person, you must turn to these subdivisions and see corresponding trade and
number.



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Online LibraryCalifornia. Bureau of Labor StatisticsBiennial report → online text (page 5 of 50)