Copyright
California. Dept. of Fish and Game.

California fish and game (Volume 55, no. 2) online

. (page 1 of 6)
Online LibraryCalifornia. Dept. of Fish and GameCalifornia fish and game (Volume 55, no. 2) → online text (page 1 of 6)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


CALIPORNIAj

FISH-GAME

"CONSDVATION OF WILDLIFE THROUGH EDUCATIOIT



California Fish and Game is a journal devoted to the conser-
vation of wildlife. If its contents are reproduced elsewhere, the
authors and the California Department of Fish and Game would
appreciate being acknowledged.

The free mailing list is limited by budgetary considerations
to persons who can make professional use of the material and
to libraries, scientific institutions, and conservation agencies. In-
dividuals must state their affiliation and position when submitting
their applications. Subscriptions must be renewed annually by
returning the postcard enclosed with each October issue. Sub-
scribers are asked to report changes in address without delay.

Please direct correspondence, except regarding paid subscrip-
tions, to:

LEO SHAPOVALOV, Editor
California Fish and Game
1416 9th Street
Sacramento, California 95814

Individuals and organizations who do not qualify for the free
mailing list may subscribe at a rate of $2 per year or obtain
individual issues for $0.75 per copy by placing their orders with
the Office of Procurement, Documents Section, P.O. Box 20191,
Sacramento, California 95820. Money orders or checks should
be made out to Office of Procurement, Documents Section. In-
quiries regarding paid subscriptions should be directed to the
Office of Procurement.



1
J









b



VOLUME 55



APRIL 1969



NUMBER 2




Published Quarterly by

STATE OF CALIFORNIA

THE RESOURCES AGENCY

DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME



STATE OF CALIFORNIA

RONALD REAGAN, Governor



THE RESOURCES AGENCY

NORMAN B. LIVERMORE, JR., Secretary For Resources



FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

JAMES Y. CAMP, President, Shaffer

C. RANSOM PEARMAN, Vice President JOSEPH RUSS III, Member

Huntington Park Ferndale

SHERMAN CHICKERING, Member PETER T. FLETCHER, Member

San Francisco Rancho Santa Fe



DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME

G. RAY ARNETT, Director

1416 9th Street
Sacramento 95814



CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME
Editorial Staff

LEO SHAPOVALOV, Editor-in-Chief Sacramento

PAUL M. HUBBELL, Editor for Inland Fisheries Sacramento

CAROL M. FERREL, Editor for Wildlife Sacramento

HERBERT W. FREY, Editor for Marine Resources Terminal Island

DONALD H. FRY, JR., Editor for Salmon and Steelhead Sacramento



CONTENTS

Contributions to the Life History of the Piute Sculpin, Cottus
beldingvi Eigenmann and Eigenmann, in Lake Tahoe

Verlyn W. Ebert and Robert ('. Summerfelt 100

Observations on the Biology and Behavior of the California Spiny
Lobster, Panulirus interruptus (Randall)
Charles T. Mitch* II, Charles II. Turner, and Alec /.'. Strachan 121

Bluefin Tuna Migrate Across the Pacific Ocean

Harold />'. Clemens and Glenn A. Flittner 132

Tuna Schooling Terminology James Michael Scott 136

First Reporl of Anchovy Tagging in California

Richard Wood and Robson A. Collins 141

Notes

First California Record of the Guadalupe Cardinalfish, Apogon
guadalupensis (Osburn and Nichols) Edmund S. Hobson 14!)

Migrations of Striped Bass Occurring in Tomales Bay

Richard Plant 152

New Northern Record for the Threadfin Shad, Dorosoma
petenenst (Giinther), in Coastal Waters of California

C. /•'. Bryan and T. li. Sopher 155

Additional Record of a Troll-Caughl King Salmon, Oncorhy-
nchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), With Spawning Features

■I oh n M . Jackson 1 57

Book R( r'n ws 158



ERRATA

Chadwick, Harold K. Mortality rates in the California striped bass population.
54 (4) : 22S-246. 1968.

In equation S on page 233 the superscripl in the first term of the denominator
should range from to li — 2i instead of to li — 1 ).

In equation 9 on page 233 the factor after the first + sign should lie:

A

Al (i _ 1) <°+ - -+»- 2 >)
A
(M (i _ 1) («H - -+«-2)) + M (i _ 1) )



(99)



Calif. Fish and Game, r,r, (LM : 1(K) 120. 1969.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE PIUTE

SCULPIN, COTTUS BELDINGII EIGENMANN

AND EIGENMANN, IN LAKE TAHOE 1

VERLYN W. EBERT- and ROBERT C. SUMMERFELT ::

Department of Zoology, Kansas State University

Manhattan, Kansas

Certain facets of the life history of the Piute sculpin in Lake Tahoe
were studied. Data on diet, age and growth, reproduction, and para-
sites are presented. The most common foods of the sculpin were ostra-
cods, green filamentous algae, chironomids, plecopterans, amphipods,
cladocerans, moss capsules, and oligochaetes. Diet varied with size of
fish, season, depth of capture, and collection sites. Examination of an-
nuli on otoliths from 92 scuipins collected in November and December
1963 revealed five age groups, O, I, II, II, and IV. The calculated mean
TL in mm at the end of each year of life were 33.3, 48.9, 64.7, and
69.0 for age groups I through IV, respectively. The mean coefficients of
condition were 1.05 for 417 males and 0.99 for 382 females. The length-
weight relationship was log W = -5.244 + 3.166 log L. Analyses of
gonosomatic ratios and egg diameters, coupled with field observations
of nests, indicate that most scuipins spawn in May and June. The mean
number of eggs per female was 123. Scuipins do not spawn until their
second year of life. Three kinds of parasites were found: a large
plerocercoid larva of the genus Ligula (Cestoidea: Diphyllobothridae)
in the abdominal cavity, metacercaria of a strigeoid trematode in the
liver, and a microsporidian of the genus P/istophora (Cnidosporidia:
/Vticrosporida) in the body wall.

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this report is to describe certain aspects of the
life history of the Piute sculpin in Lake Tahoe, with emphasis on diet,
age and growth, reproduction, and parasites. It is the first published
report on the life history of this fish. However, three unpublished
theses (Dietseh, 1950; Miller, 1951; Jones, 1954) have contributed
to our knowledge of the life history of the species. Also, in a yet un-
published manuscript, Phillip H. Baker describes its distribution,
size composition, and relative abundance.

Descriptions of physical-chemical features of Lake Tahoe can be
found in Kemmerer, Bovard. and Boorman (1923), Juday (1907), and
McGauhey et al. (1963). Weidlein, Cordone, and Frantz (1965), and
Cordone and Frantz (1966) present maps of Tahoe and information
on the sport fishery. A check list of Tahoe invertebrates was presented
by Frantz and Cordone (1966).

1 Accepted for publication May 1968. This work was performed as part of Dingell-
Johnson Projects California F-21-R and Nevada F-15-R, "Lake Tahoe Fisheries
Study", supported by Federal Aid to Fish Restoration funds.

- Present address : Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, Hays, Kansas 67601.
Part of this paper was presented at the 96th Annual Meeting- of the American
Fisheries Society, September 12-14, 1966, Kansas City, Missouri. Mr. Ebert
shared the Society award for the best paper delivered by a student at the
meeting.

3 Present address : Oklahoma Cooperative Fishery Unit, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074.

(100)



PITJTE SCULPIX LIFE HISTORY 101



METHODS



From September 1963 through September 1064, 6,424 seulpins were
collected with otter and sled trawls; and Prom shoreline rotenone treat-
ments. Most were collected with the otter trawl. Baker (1967, and
MS) describes the collection methods. All specimens were fixed in 10%
formalin soon after collection and later preserved in 40% isopropyl
alcohol.

From the total collection of preserved seulpins. 851 were randomly
selected for study. Total lengths were measured to the nearest mm
and body weights and gonad weights were determined to the nearest
0.001 g. Stomachs and otoliths wen' removed and stored in separate
vials of 40% isopropyl alcohol. Each fish was examined externally
and internally for parasites. These were preserved in vials of 40%
isopropyl alcohol.

LIFE HISTORY

Diet

The contents of all S51 stomachs were analyzed. The results besl
represent the diet of seulpins in relatively deep water, since about 89%
of the specimens were taken in bottom trawls at 100, 200, 'M)0. and
100 ft. .Most of the remainder were collected from rubble areas in the
littoral zone. The objectives were to determine the kinds of organisms
utilized and differences related to collection site, depth of capture,
season, and size of fish.

The volume of each taxa was determined by alcoholic displacement
to the nearest 0.001 ml in a graduated centrifuge tube. The category
"detritus" includes sand, diatoms, desmids, mud. and unrecognizable,
partially digested organisms.

In terms of frequency of occurrence, ostracods were the most pop-
ular food item, with about 50% of the stomachs containing them. 4
Other popular foods, occurring in about 20 to 40%- of the stomachs,
were filamentous green algae, chironomid larvae, plecopterans, amphi-
pods, and cladocerans. Virtually all of the amphipods were the deep-
water scud, Stygobromus. The plecopterans were apterous forms of
the genus Capnia. Of lesser importance and in decreasing order were
moss capsules, oligochaetes, gastropods, pelecypods, water mites, cope-
pods, Cham, and seulpins. No fish eggs were found in the stomachs,
and the only fish remains consisted of an occasional sculpin.

Nearly 50% of the total volume of sculpin stomach contents was con-
sidered detritus. Most of it probably represents partially digested food,
and bottom material accidentally taken while ingesting prey organisms.
Next, in importance were green filamentous algae, which may also be
consumed accidentally (this may be true for all types of aquatic plants
found in sculpin stomachs). Stygobromus comprised an average of
about 7% of the total volume of stomachs examined. In decreasing
order, the next most significant food items were seulpins, gastropods,
oligochaetes, moss capsules, plecopterans, and chironomid larvae. Al-

4 Numerous bottom fauna collections taken from widely separated areas and depths
ranging from the shallows to the lake floor revealed only a single species of
free-living ostracod (Frantz and Cordone, 1966). It was described by Ferguson
(1966) as Candona tahoensis.



1 1 12



CALIFORNl \ PISB WD GAME



though ostraeods occur tnosl frequently in sculpiu stomachs, they sup-
ply very little of the total volume because of their small size The op-
posite is true for the few sculpins which enter the diel of oilier sculpins.
Stygobromus, ostraeods, gastropods, and chironomid larvae were nu-
merically the most abundant organisms in stomachs which contained
i hem.

There was strong similarity in the diel of sculpins from the north and
south ends of Tahoe (Table 1 i. Sculpins apparently consumed nearly
the same amounl of food in each habitat, since the percentages of
empty stomachs were similar. Bowever, there was a greater frequency
and volume of cladocerans, gastropods, and the amphipod Hyallela
in the stomachs of sculpins from the south end. Moss capsules and
oligochaetes were more importanl volumetrically and numerically in



TABLE 1
Diet of Piute Sculpins at Two Locations in Lake Tahoe



Food item



Oligochaeta
1 lastropoda_



Pelecypoda

I ' ' idium sp.) .

Cladocera



Ostracoda

(Candona tahoensis) .

Copepoda



Amphipoda

Stygobromus sp.
II ijnlb hi sp



Acari .



Plecoptera
(Capnia sp.)_



Diptera

Chironomid larvae^
Chironomid pupae .



Coitus beldingii

Musci (moss capsules)

Charophyceae (Chara sp.).

Chlorophyceae

Detritus

Mean volume of food (ml)_

Empty (% of total)

Xo. stomachs examined



Percentage frequency
of occurrence



North



10.17
t . 22

. 74
16.38

50. 02
0.99

27.05

0.99

31.76

35 . 73

8.44

0.25

13.15

45.15



4.50
450



South



0.38
5.77

1 . 52
20.14

51 .97
0.91



27.90
3.64

0.91



38.30

34.04
10.94

0.30

5.47

0.91

43.10



6.80
370



Mean number of
organisms



North



2.28
3. 17

1 . 00
2.39

5.70
1.67

11.31

1.00

3.40

3.30
2.00

1.00

3.40



South



1.87
3 . 73

1 . 10
3.88

5.51
1.00



7.44
2.00

1.00



3.07

3.40
2.12

1.00

2.94



Percentage of
total volume



North



4.45
0.02

0.01
0.02

1.20

7.39

2.05

2.22
0.51

4.84

4.04

0.01

10.35

45.70

0.048



South



3.04
9 . 33

0.23
0.43

1 . 16



0.80
0.29



3.17

2.33
0.39

5.40

1.88

0.01

11.58

53.80

0.042



* In stomachs containing them.



PIUTE SCULPIN LIFE HISTORY 103

samples from the north end. These area differences probably reflect dif-
ferences in availability of the organisms in the two areas. Miller (1951)
found pronounced variations in the diet of sculpins from three widely
separated areas in Lake Tahoe.

Some obvious changes in diet with depth were noted, suggesting
qualitative and quantitative zonation of the food organisms (Table 2 .
The percentage of empty stomachs varied inversely with depth, whereas
the total volume of food in stomachs containing food varied randomly.
There was a well-defined decrease in the percentage occurrence of cla-
doeerans with increasing depth. Eowever, the mean number and per-
centage of total volume of cladocerans in sculpin stomachs varied ran-
domly with depth. Gastropods tended to decrease with depth, except
for a slight increase at 400 ft. A few sculpins from depths of 100 and
200 ft contained Hyallela, but these were absenl from fish collected at
300 and 400 ft. Both Stygobromus and oligochaetes tended to increase
with depth. A single sculpin taken from 700 ft contained 15 Stygo-
bromus. The frequency of copepods and chironomid larvae and pupae
in sculpin stomachs varied randomly with depth of capture. Oslracods
plecopterans. moss capsules, and filamentous algae tended to be more
frequent in sculpins taken a1 the intermediate depths of 200 and 300 f1
than at 100 or 400 ft. This pattern is xrvy likely directly related to

the depth distribution of aquatic plants. Frantz and CordN (1967

describe these extensive beds of deepwater plants (Chara, mosses, and
filamentous algae) in hake Tahoe. The plants attain their greatest den-
sities at depths from 200 to 350 ft and rapidly diminish at greater and
lesser depths.

Sculpin food habits also varied seasonally 'Table 3). As indicated h\
the mean volume of stomach contents, sculpins consumed the least
amount in the fall and winter and greatesl amount in the spring and
summer. This same pattern generally held true for the frequency of
occurrence of cladocerans. but the average number and the percentage
of total volume of cladocerans varied randomly. The percentages of
empty stomachs were relatively similar for the four seasons, however.
Occurring much more frequently in the summer than in other seasons
were ostracods. chironomid larvae and pupae, plecopterans, amphipods,
cladocerans. oligochaetes, and moss capsules. No marked seasonal
changes could be detected for frequency of occurrence of gastropods
and green filamentous algae. Mean numbers of plecopterans and Stygo-
bromus present in sculpin stomachs exhibited pronounced peaks in the
spring, whereas mean numbers of most other food items varied ran-
domly or showed seasonal maxima in the summer. On a year-round
basis, the largest percentage of total volume of sculpin food was fila-
mentous green algae, which were particularly important in the summer
and fall. Volumetrically. gastropods were an important food item in
the summer, with Stygobromus the most important in the spring. Scul-
pins were significant items in the diet of other sculpins during all but
the spring season, although they occurred with low frequency through-
out the study. Variations in seasonal utilization of food by sculpins
were also reported by Miller (1951).



1"}



c \l.!Foi;\ I \ PISH A\I> Q V.ME




a.

4)
Q
v.
3
O






e


b




3


Q.






C


3


-, ,


w


c


</>


>.






41








3


3


a.


O


«^


O





fc£






01








a








CO ~1



n — —



c — «c









CO O — *3






— t -












fc



5



■a

-J



-? ?T r~ S ? ~ .tr S. ts



a. e



I



3 8 1 -^ =£ 2, •— H



o
gg c o



a ^



O



<



PL, C



t>



4 £



H



PIUTE SCULPIX LIFE HISTORY



II).-.



'a.

3
w
«/»

l>

*-
3

a

4>

o

X

a
a>

a



.2J

s

41



O
>

"5

e
o

in



«/>





Ctf
































X












\n




<M


CI




c —







uC —












ȣ?








*s


o


-r








r-


1


x —


1


— '


•-O -r




in




re













C-


-r


d








_




ua —




ce


— —




a




X


r-


— '








CO































»o








B






















































































































„z:


t-l
































/






O


<u


iC








c.




'-O t-




y








I-


iC




ei






>


o


i-


s


o





OS




re _


'


93


CO


:e







f


•H








*c3


is


Cl


^1


3


£J







ci c:




_


~


re


_!


— "


t-


m


— '






■*3






























CO








o








































<—














































































o








































09


































;o






b0




ei












93






X M




TJ




n












IS


-r


*c




Q






I -

re







- i /




U^


'




r-


*






s































c^


~"








u,








































Oh
















































































La
-

s

£

3
































Cl








OS


T-l


re


Cl


~




— —







n -v-





CC




o;


93








CJ


X.


w


»C







re —




'-T


ue - ;


».e


cc


'















re


re


o


— '


o




c =




"I


-j ~


r -







I-


f











f.











































*C


m


c;


o.


•f


S


— —




-.C


t - i -




o


















re


Cl





Cl


re




i - c;





93


— Cl




CO






i


1










Cl


-r


_-


CI


CO


CI


c —


^_


re







re




























-i




re






















■/.






































-i —
















































































i_


in






CI












ci :e




Z)














I


^


*


r-





— ;


~





T O




?i


iC re


— _

















trt


.H











CI


»c


»-«


re ci




-i


~- —




















O


>














































































o








































CD













































o


_<




re


CI




s




t-e


*o c;





Cl

















a









iO




iC




i-


• e f





■o-


i






<






3


eo


CI


■*




CI


IC




»c







\ \




re






>
































































































































73






















































































































S)


-r


OS


<—


X








— —





.-


i - -





95
















E




c-j





33





C


I - —





o


Cl CO


3



















1


CN


-o





re


CO





'








re ci





re
















3








































V-








































&C


CC








iC
















Cl


t -






r








m


i6


»c


'O


CI


e


^5 »o


^C




co in




i






t




i -


— f














































to


-or


Cl


? i






?l —


•-C




Cl —






Cl


»o






-r




□Q








CI


ue




CI




71


Cl








re


















































03








































3














































































u


k.


•n


/





i-





_


— —




cc


-





_


_


93






Cl


X


c




eo


CO


r -


i -


ce


-T-


rj -r




X


— —


in


i -


1 -





i


\


CO


-


1*H

C


:-


-


*C


B


Cl




-


p "■







CC t-

in


~


3


=


in






-




>>


^














































































d














































































3








































3"
<D




— .


co




CI


93





OS




93


• - t


__





__


_






m


__


oz


•- ;


f-






CD


°°.






OS


Tl —


-.c


i-


-.


re


i
i


1
1




s

Cl




u:


t*







93




o


r -




to






i -


o


















"" ~


T




CI




ei


Cn»








^n










CO








































43








































e

CD














































































u








































^.


gj


as


re


O





r -


iC


-r re


re


i-


— —





— ;


~









__


rfl


Ch


s


cm


-r


*C


*


ce


UO


93 —


re


OS


i- i-e







r~


L.C






«


: ^






CO


ue>






X




— *si


c^


iC
















x






3









in


3C




»c




t-


t- re




re

















'X2








































=








































Cj










^^-^






























.t2










. 00






























-D






•-!.


































O
O






d

X

E

-2




03

a
a








CO


- —






d






X)




-a

r_-










J3

u




C3

1




en '




.a


> a.

b 3




CO


S






t2


-S


x






ea

03
rJ


?3

S


as

c
p.


r5
CD


1

rj

-3
O


es'

-3
O


CD




ri


I \


s


a


CD
CD


CD


X




o


X






O


O

x

=8


>>

o

"3


O
"3
r3


OQ


O
O


"3 =t ^


S3

o


a

o

Q


il c c
0,0 O


«

Q




J3


-2


*1_


eg





X

d






o


o


Ch


o


O


a


<


•<


2h


Q


£


S


o


6


Q


2


H


S:



106



CALIFORNJ \ PISH AM) GAME



-i



— = —



- ifl c






■JZ -Z. OD



• -. — o



O — -r O



— a-.






u

0)



e

-
o



■o

II

ft

S

B '"
• - — i

a. k

a
u
</>

0)

*-
3



o
o















/


r^.


_


. .


o


_


_ ._




TJ




kO






X










i - TT :


D CO I 1 1 I 1
































Tl


I -










t-




■'


Ti rr






-J


























J
































































































































V.




























— .










X


lO


.- —


— I


Tl


IC CO


is


§


S


IC


TJ


*^


-


1-


Tl


f ~ -





-


■*" -;


T-l r i i 1 1
i ( 1 1 1 1


l_


Tl


*M


Tl





C i


re





~ ~ j





re


'"■ —


CO





CO






































































































t-




























































»o


?1




I-








— X


C:










?l








— X




s


ti m


if — t i t *




























~







EC





CO


-,r





I





Tl


tt r j


TO




































































































































S



























































— .




— .


*C


!


~\ "^


!


r-




1 • 1 1 1 1




~



















































— 'S_



x —

~1 —



X






-I — — I-~






~ - T






— X






4)

S



— x



:: X



a



s

3



£ >.



_, ^ DD


1 3 4 5 6

Online LibraryCalifornia. Dept. of Fish and GameCalifornia fish and game (Volume 55, no. 2) → online text (page 1 of 6)