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held its annual encampment at Oakdale, Stanislaus County, resulting in great benefit to the
men. The most rigid discipline was maintained throughout, officers and men alike giving
their attention strictly to all the duties of a soldier. It gives me great pleasure to report the
Stockton Guard in a most satisfactory condition in all respects.

In the year 1879, an independent military organization known as the " Emmet Guard" was
forru^d in Stockton. By private subscriptions, the men provided themselves with a neat uniform
and with arms. Application was made by this company to be admitted into the N. G. C. Their
request was granted, and on the twenty-first day of May, 1884, the Etnmet Guard was mustered
into the State service. The command has struggled along under adverse circumstances, never
having, as yet, received any aid from the State. Under the command of Captain J. J. Nunan,
a retired officer of the N. G. C, the men have been faithful in the performance of their duties,
and are rapidly attaining efficiency. This company is sixty-five members strong, and at present
is fully provided with caps and blouses, furnished by private subscription. The company owns
about twenty-eight dress uniforms, provided by its friends during its existence as an independent
organization, but which are not now suitable as a uniform for a company of the N. G. C. The
Emmet Guard is armed at present with the old condemned muzzle loaders, used merely to drill
with, and even for this purpose they are not entirely suitable, as the instructions given by Gen-
eral Upton in his tactics are for a differently formed gun. At the time of the calling out of this
company by the Sheriff" to perform duty on the " Moquelemos Grant," the Emmet Guard were
compelled to face what danger might arise with these weapons, neither useful nor ornamental.
On that occasion, however, they received breech-loaders from Sacramento after the first day in
the field. The Emmet Guard is now waiting patiently for the time to arrive when the command
shall receive proper arms. The company hopes to have a new uniform during the coming
Spring.

On July 8, 1884, the Sheriff of San Joaquin County applied to the Brigade Commander (on
account of the impossibility of immediately communicating with the Commander-in-Chief and
the absence of the Major-Geueral Commanding Division), for troops of the National Guard of
California, to aid him in executing a legal process issued out of a Court of competent jurisdic-
tion within this State, threatened resistance having been offered by an armed body of men, and
the civil power of the county not being deemed adequate to successfully overcome the same.
Orders were thereupon issued, and within a few hours thereafter the Stockton Guard, sixty
strong, and the Emmet Guard, fifty-four strong, reported to the Sheriff upon the " Moquelemos
Grant." The presence of the troops proved sufficient to prevent the anticipated resistance, but
it was deemed best that the troops should remain present to aid the Sheriff in executing the legal
process placed in his hands. After this purpose was accomplished, the ^troops were dismissed.
Too much praise cannot be given the officers and men of these two companies for their ready
and cheerful answer to the call to duty. There was no shirking, no excuses offered, but the
men presented themselves promptly, even though called from their homes at the midnight hour.
This experience has taught our people that there is something more than holiday parades and
glittering show to be obtained from our National Guard. It has most conclusively shown them
by actual occurrence that when duty calls, though danger, and perhaps death, is before them,
they answer with a readiness that commands the highest respect and commendation. I am
pleased to express the great satisfaction and pride I feel in being the commander of a brigade
comprised of two such companies as the Stockton Guard and the Emmet Guard.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES A. SHEPHERD,
Brigadier-General Commanding Third Brigade, N. G. C.



HI
REPORT OF BRIGADIER-GENERAL JOHN T. CAREY.



Headquarters Fourth Brigade, National Guard of California, ]
Sacramento, California, November 27, 1884. j

Major- General Geo. B. Cosby, Adjutant- General of the State of California :

General : I have the honor to submit the following report of the condition of my command :
Since the last biennial report of my predecessor, Company " E," located at .Camptonville,
Yuba County, has been mustered out of the service. This was done upon the application of
its commander, Captain J. P. Brown, the veteran Captain of the Brigade, he having held a
commission as Captain of Company " E" for over twenty years. The Board of Location and
Organization having approved Captain Brown's application, in pursuance of Special Order, No.
76, curi-ent series for 1883, issued from General Headquarters, and General Orders, No. 9, current
series for 1883, issued from these Headquarters, Company " E " was mustered out of the service
on or about November 12, 1883. The result upon the First Artillery Regiment, Fourth Brigade,
would have been to reduce its organization to that of a battalion, so that it was a matter of no
small importance to replace Company " E " by the organization of a new company at some
point within the limits of the Fourth Brigade. Fortunately an active interest was taken in the
matter — a roll was opened in Sacramento City for recruits — the necessary enlistments were
made, and by the same order from General Headquarters by which Company " E," at Camp-
tonville, was mustered out, authority was given to muster in a new company, at Sacramento
City, to be known as Company " E," which was done on the twenty-sixth day of November,
1883, in pursuance of Special Order, Nd?76, current series 1883, General Headquarters, and Gen-
eral Orders, No. 9, current series 1883, from these Headquarters. This new company has not
made the progress it should have done and that was hoped for it. Indeed, it looked for a time
as though it could not possibly maintain itself in the service. I am gratified, however, to be
able to state that it has but recently received new life and vigor, and at this writing promises
to become in the near future one of the very best companies in the National Guard of California.
It has recently in a manner undergone reorganization, and has now, for its commander, a
prominent business man of indomitable energy, possessing the necessary military knowledge
and qualifications, who, though but recently commissioned, has recruited the company up to the
necessary numbers, and Company " E " has now upon its roll names of the best and most sub-
stantial citizens of Sacramento.

There are now six companies and one cadet company in the Fourth Brigade, named and
located as follows: Companies " A," " B," " E," " G," and Governor's Guard (cadet company),
located at Sacramento City; Company " C," located at Nevada City; and Company " F," located
at Woodland. They are all uniformed with regulation uniforms for artillery, full dress and
fatigue, save Company " E," which has only the fatigue uniform.

The entire strength of the Fourth Brigade is 464 men, including officers, field and staff.

The above named companies compose the First Artillery Regiment, Fourth Brigade N. G. C,
Colonel T. W. Sheehan commander. Company "A" has 58 names upon its roll, is armed with
54 Springfield rifles and two Gatling guns; Company " B " has 68 names upon its roll, is armed
with 60 Springfield rifles and two twelve-pound Napoleon guns; Company " G" has 65 names
upon its roll, is armed with 60 Springfield rifles and one 3-inch Parrott gun; Company " E "
has 61 names upon its roll and is armed with 70 Springfield rifles ; Company " F " has 61 names
upon its roil, is armed with 58 Springfield rifles and one twelve-pound howitzer; Company
"G" has 61 names upon its roll, is armed with 66 Sptingfield rifles, and the Cadet Company
has 59 names upon its roll and is armed with 50 Springfield rifles — all rifles of modern pattern
and caliber 45. The two Gatling guns belonging to Company "A" are both loaned to General
McComb, Warden of the State Prison at Folsom. One of these guns has been at the Folsom
prison for some time; the other was loaned to check a threatened outbreak last Spring. In this
connection I would urge upon you the necessity for the efficiency of the service to exchange the
heavy unwieldy field pieces for lighter guns of some character that can be operated with greater
ease and facility, and with less expense. The arms and uniforms of the various companies are
in good condition and repair. The companies located at Sacramento City have excellent quar-
ters with complete arrangements for the care and preservation of their arms and uniforms.
Each company has its own quarters with lockers for each man, and their uniforms and arms
are kept in a neat orderly condition. Most of the company headquarters are nicely furnished,
all of them nicely kept, and are being popularized as places of social rendezvous for the men.



The weekly drills in Sacramento are not as well attended as they should be, yet, under all the
circumstances surrounding a volunteer service, the companies, composed as they are of men
from all walks in life, much more oould not be expected. Battalion drills are held in Sac-
ramento City once a month. These drills are generally well attended, and are of great benefit,
not only in the way of maneuvers, but discipline of the men, and excite a healthy competi-



112

tion between the various companies. It is not to be expected that the militiaman should attain
to that standard of discipline that is secured in the regular service; yet the nearest possible
approach to it should be the aim of every officer and man. The regulations are not as closely
observed as they should be, and officers are not as careful to read and enforce, nor comply with
orders as they should be. To secure discipline in the obedience to orders and enforcement of
orders, as defined by the General Regulations, I would suggest that Section £095 of the Politi-
cal Code be amended so that each commanding officer, through whose headquarters quarterly
allowances are required to pass, be required to certify that such company, or officer, whose claim
for quarterly allowance was presented for allowance, had complied with all orders from General
Division, Brigade, and Regimental Headquarters, and that until such orders affecting such com-
pany, or officer, were fully complied with, such company, or officer, should not be entitled to
iis, or his, quarterly allowance. I feel well assured that such a provision would at least secure
an improvement in military discijiline in reference to orders, and proper discipline in one direc-
tion heli:)s to secure it in others. The service has suffered because of the failure to have the
usual annual encampments. Each encampment gives new life and vigor to the men, and is
inspiring in effect on the entire service. This school of active service for a few days in the
camp and field is of vital importance to the service in point of drill, discipline, and general
efficiency. I would therefore urge upon you the importance of a liberal appropriation for this
purpose. I would further suggest that the laws be changed so as to require annual encamji-
ments by Division and Brigades. That once in every four years, at least, there be a Division
encampment, and that the first one be held in the year 1885. That there shall be Brigade
encampments annually thereafter, when there shall not be Division encampments. That the
forces at such times be considered in active service for the time being, and governed by the
United States Army regulations, including allowances, rations, etc., and the actual expense
of such encampments, including pay for officers and men at $2 50 per day each for the time
they are in such service, be paid by the State. There are but few men in the service who can
afford to give their time to the State without compensation, and yet they of necessity do give
much time to it in drill and military duty, and are subject to be called into active service at a
moment's notice. I sincerely hope every effort will be made to secure this much needed and
deserved change. Our State is prosperous and wealthy ; it can afford to do it, and ought to do
it. In many of the Eastern States such provisions obtain, why should they not in California?
In concluding I must thank my predecessor. General Lewellyn Tozer, for the very kind and
courteous manner with which he treated me when I relieved him of his command, and com-
pliment him upon the very excellent and orderly condition in which I found the records and
property of the Fourth Brigade, and the harmony, spirit, and condition of the Brigade.

Thanking you for the many kind courtesies extended to me through your department, and
the many favors my command has received at your hands, I have the honor to remain,
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN T. CAREY,
Brigadier-General Fourth Brigade, K. G. C.



113



REPORT OF CHAS. SON NT AG, INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF
RIFLE PRACTICE.



Inspkctor-Generai.'s Department of Rifle Practice, )

State of California, San Francisco, December 2, 1884. J

Major- General Geo. B. Cosby, Adjutant- General of California :

General: I have the honor to herewith present my report for the years 1883-84. Rifle Prac-
tice, as a rule, has been pursued by the National Guard of this State quite generally, and in
some few instances with more than ordinary zeal. The Fifth Infantry Battalion, under the
efficient command of Lieutenant-Colonel H. D. Ranlett, several companies of the First Artillery
of the Fourth Brigade, prompted b^' the untiring energy of Colonel T. W. Sheehan, command-
ing that regiment", the First Infantry, notably Company C, of that regiment, and the Second
Artillery of the Second Brigade, have all made fine progress in this important branch of mili-
tary instruction, and have exhibited the right spirit in improving the efficiency of our National
Guard by instructing the troops in and accustoming them to the use and handling of the rifle.
Though considerable has been done, yet more ought to be done, until every member of our State
troops becomes proficient in the use of the weapon with which he is armed.

By the Code target practice is required annually. I am sorry to admit that this practice
results in almost absolutely nothing, but a waste of ammunition, and a loss of time and labor.
It is unreasonable to expect men to become skilled marksmen by firing in a sort of perfunctory
manner annually five shots, which, if they be regular in their attendance in the three years of
their enlistment, wiH make a total of fifteen shots fired at these compulsory practices. In
instances where progress has been made, it was simply owing to the interest the soldier had in
the practice, and his willingness to pay the expenses attending the same out of his pocket. In
the United States Army each man is entitled to fire two hundred and forty cartridges per annum,
or six hundred and twenty-two reloaded ones for the rifle, the cost being about the same, while
four hundred rounds per annum are allowed to each man for the carbine or the pistol. Besides
these allowances the expenditure of all ammunition required in preliminary practice, and com-
petition for prizes, etc., is authorized. Even to the casual observer it is quite plain that Cali-
fornia has done little or nothing to increase the effectiveness of her troops, when considering
what other States are doing, as well as the General Government. The supply of ammunition
allowed has been so meager that it is hardly worth mentioning. The National Guardsman ought
to be encouraged to become an expert shot, and in view of so little encouragement having been
given b}' this State, it is a surprise, though a pleasure, that so much, though comparatively little,
has been done.

The law authorizes the appointment of Inspectors of Rifle Practice, defines their duties, but
omits to furnish the material with which to make their offices of particular service to the National
Guard. The State should furnish ammunition, suitable rifle ranges, transportation to and from
the ranges, targets, and markers, free to her troops.

In addition to individual practice, volley and file firing ought to be regulaj'ly pursued. Men
should be accustomed to firing by platoons, or companies, with coolness, precision, and eflfect.
It is folly to expect a body of troops, inexperienced in firing in ranks, to present an elfective
front to a determined enemy.

I attended both of the annual target practices of the National Guard, and regretted to find so
many making clean scores of misses, or very low percentages. I am pleased to note the remark-
able skill exhibited with the rifle by some of the officers and men ; and the fine shooting of Ser-
geant Carr recently, when he scored at 200 yards 471 points, out of a possible 500, is worthy of
mention. Lieutenants Kellogg, Klein, Kuhnle, and Mangels, Private Kuhls, and many others
who have not come under my personal observation, have exhibited wonderful accuracy and pro-
ficiency with the rifle.

The question to be considered is, in what way can rifle practice be encouraged and advanced.
Certainly not by requiring men to pay from their private purses for ammunition, use of range,
etc. As I said before, the State ought to furnish all of these free. Officers and men shouldbe
classified into three classes, according to certain percentages of proficiency they attain in shoot-
ing, the highest class being designated as Sharpshooters, the next, Marksmen, and the next.
Third Class. Buttons, badges, or other similar insignias should be given, to be worn on the
coat, or collar, indicating the class to which the shooter belongs. Prizes and trophies should be
offered, and no medals but those donated by the State, or authorized by the Adjutant-General,
should be worn by a member of the National Guard when wearing his uniform, the buttons or
badges of veteran soldiers excepted. Rifle practice should be made a part of the regular drill,
and men should be taught that it is just as essential to their efficiency in the service to be good
rifle shots as ft is to be well up in the manual of arms, or tactics.

A suitable rifle range for the Second Brigade, adjacent to San Francisco, to be used exclusivelv
by the National Guard, should be provided. This is a great necessity.

I respectfully recommend that an allowance of at least 100,000 rounds of cartridges, freshly



114

loaxled and reliable, be expended annually in rifle i>raotice; that a rifle range be constructed ;
that prizes and trophies be oftered by tlie Slate for competition in marksmanship; that the
various commands be required to practice rifle firing at least six times in each year; that the
troops be classified according to the progress made in shooting, and insignias be distributed for
the two highest classep; and that Subdivision 2, of Section 2018, of the Political Code, requiring
annual target practice on September ninth of each year, be repealed. I furthermore respect-
fully recommend the appropriation of $7,600, to be exj)ended by the Adjutant-General, for
ammunition, a range for the Second Brigade, prizes, trophies, etc. It is of vital importance to
the service that the soldier be experienced in the use of his weapon, and failure in that respect
places him under great disadvantage when opposed by those with whom this practice and
instruction has not been neglected.

"Those officers who habitually and persistently neglect the instruction of their men in the
use of the rifle, are thoughtless of the great responsibility which rests on those in whose hands
the lives of men are placed."

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. SONNTAG.
Colonel, and Inspector-General of Rifle Practice.



REFORT



SUEA^EYOR-GENERAL



STATE OF CALIFORNIA,



From August 1, 1882, to August 1, 1884.




SACRAMENTO :

STATE OFFICE JAMES J. AYERS, SUPT. STATE PRINTING,

1884.



REPORT.



State of California, Office of Surveyor-General,

Sacramento, August 1, 1884.

To his Excellency George Stoneman, Governor of California :

Dear Sir : In accordance with the requirements of the law relat-
ing to the duties of the Surveyor-General, I have the honor to sub-
mit the following report of the transactions of this office from August
1, 1882, to August 1, 1884.

H. I. WILLEY,

Surveyor-General and ex officio Register of the State Land Office.



AREA OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.

The following statement, kindly furnished by the United States
Surveyor-General for California, shows that the estimated area of the
State of California is 100,500,000 acres, apportioned as follows :



Subdivision.



Agricultural and mineral lands surveyed to June 30, 1

Agricultural and mineral lands unsurveyed

Private grants patented

Private grants not settled.

Indian military reservations

Lakes, islands, bays, and navigable rivers . -

Swamp and overflowed lands surveyed

Swamp and overflowed lands unsurveyed

Salt marsh and tide lands around San Francisco Bay -
Salt marsh and tide lands around Humboldt Bay

Total



,887,392
,211.501
,383,375
341,650
318,631
,531,700
,635,227
85,524
100,000
5,000



100,500,000



4

GENERAL OFFICE BUSINESS.



From August 1, 1882, to August 1, 1884, applications to purchase
school lands have been received and filed as follows :



In the Los Angeles district fi4,059.36

In tiie Visalia district I 16,200.00

In the Stockton district 13,500.37

In the San Francisco district 1 84,90fi.64

In the Sacramento district ' 17,968.98

In the Bodie district 9,119.92

In the Marysville district 13,614.29

In the Susanville district 9,027.84

In the Shasta district 33,303.36

In the Humboldt district 30,398.50

For swamp and overflowed lands 196,677.58

Approvals of applications have been made as follows : For School

Lands, covering 210,865.53 acres, and for Swamp and Overflowed
Lands, covering 71,423.73 acres.

LANDS LISTED TO THE STATE.

From August 1, 1882, to August 1, 1884, the following amounts of
land have been listed to the State of California by the United States:



Laxps Listed.



Swamp Land grant 117,883.09

Five Hundred Thousand Acre grant 14,713.75

Lieu grant .' 49,107.11

Agricultural College grant ! 11,005.03



CONTESTED C.1SE8.

From the office of Surveyor-General and the office of Register of
State Lands one hundred and twenty-five orders of reference to the
Superior Courts have been issued.

CERTIFICATES OF PURCHASE ISSUED.

From August 1, 1882, to January 8, 1883:

, , Number of ,

<"'^^"''- Certificates. | -^'=""«-

Sixteenth and Thirty-sixth Sections 111 IS.958.87

Five Hundred Thousand Acres I 17 5,206.42

Swamp and Overflowed Lands 1 266.63



Totals 129 24.431.92



From January 8, 1883, to August 1, 1884



Number of j
Certificates.



Sixteenth and Thirtj'-sixth Sections

Five Hundred Thousand Acres

Swamp and Overflowed Lands

Totals -



770



130



905



160,336.49

1.440.00

56,191.42



217,967.91



PATENTS ISSUED.



From August 1, 1882, the date of the last report of this office, to
the beginning of my term, January 8, 1883, the following number of
patents have been issued :



Number of
Patents.



Salt Marsh and Tide Land .. - .

Swamp and Overflowed Lands 1 —

Sixteenth and Thirty-sixth Sections School Lami
Five Hundred Thousand Acres School Land

Totals



3
19

128
19



2.-?4.26

2,780.20

40,811.92

8,555.43



169



52,381.81



From January 8, 1883, the beginning of my term, to August 1,
1884, the following number of patents have been issued :



Number of
Patents.



Salt Marsh and Tide Lands.

Swamp and Overflowed Lands

Sixteenth and Thirty-si.xth Sections School Land
Five Hundred Thousand Acres School Land

Totals



142

662
63



1,535.32

79.344.38

179,040.30

27,234.68



875



287,154.68



SWAMP LAND DISTRICTS.



Since August 1, 1882, and up to January 8, 1883, the commence-
ment of my term of office, Swamp Land Districts have been organ-
ized and reported to this office as follows :



Number of
Pistrict.



421 Lassen

422 Merced

423 Merced

424 Merced

425 Lassen

42ti Modoc

427 I Lassen



Number i
District.



,_, o . ( Part of original Dis-

428 .Sacramento j trict No. 3

429 Plumas

430 Kern

431 Sacramento

432 Sacramento

433 '. Sacramento

I •



Since January 8, 1883, and up to August 1, 1884, Swamp Land Dis-
tricts have been organized and reported, as follows:




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