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as required by Section 1532 of the Political Code.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WILLIAM T. WELCKER,
Superintendent of Public Instruction.



REPORT.



The following statistical summaries show the condition of the
public schools of this State for the school years commencing July 1,
1882, and July 1, 1888, and ending June 30, 1883, and June 30, 1884.



STATISTICAL SUMMARIES.



The actual and comparative condition and progress of the public
schools of California for the years commencing July 1, 1882, and
July 1, 1883, and ending June 30, 1883, and June 30, 1884:



I. CENSUS STATISTICS.



(a.) Enumeration of Children.



Number of white boys between the ages of 5 and 17 years.
Number of white girls between the ages of 5 and 17 years



Number of white children between the ages of 5 and 17 years..

Number of white children between the ages of 5 and 17 j'ears,

in 1882



Increase



Number of negro boys between the ages of 5 and 17 years.
Number of negro girls between the ages of 6 and 17 years.



Number of negro children between the ages of 5 and 17 years-.

Number of negro children between the ages of 5 and 17 years,

in'18S2 -..



Increase



Number of Indian boys between the ages of 5 and 17 years

Number of Indian girls between the ages of 5 and 17 years

Number of Indian children between the ages of 6 and 17 years.

Number of Indian children between the ages of 5 and 17 years,

in 1882



Increase



Total number of census children between the ages of 5 and 17
years

Total number of census children between the ages of 5 and 17
vears. in 1882



Increase



Number of white children under 5 years of age

Number of negro children under5 years of age

Number of Indian children under 5 years of age.

Number of children under 5 years of age



111,497
109,457



220,954



576
627



1,103



441

348



222,846



86,135
396

178



86,709



117,304
115,105



232,409
214,368



18,041



635



1,304
1,120



184



47'2
381



853
842



11



235,672

216,330

19,3 42

87,104
350
189

87,643







OU,'±3U


Increase - _ - _




1,153








Total number of children under 17 j^ears of age _


309,555


323,315


Total number of children under 17 years of age in 1882


302,820












20,495









The percentage of increase of census children from 1866 to 1879,
and of decrease from 1879 to 1881, and increase from 1881 to 1884:

From 1866 to 1867. - - 10.80 percent

From 1867 to 1868 8.30 per cent

From ISfiS t(i 1869 8.28 per cent

From 1869 to 1870 10.04 per cent

From 1870 to 1871 6.84 percent

From 1871 to 1872 5.56 per cent

From 1872 to 1873 3.10 percent

From 1873 to 1874 No comparison possible

From 1874 to 1875 7.42 percent

From 1875 to 1876 7.71 percent

From 1876 to 1877 8.27 per cent

From 1877 to 1878 2.70 percent

From 1878 to 1879 5.32 per cent

From 1879 to 1880, the decrease was 0.20 per cent

From 1880 to 1881, the decrease was 2.19 percent

From 1881 to 1882, the increase was 2.41 percent

From 1882 to 1883, the increase was -•— 3.01 percent

From 1883 to 1884, the increase was 5.31 percent



(1.) At Public Schools.



Number of white children who attended public schools at any
time during the school year

Number of negro children who attended public schools at any
time during the school year

Number of Indian children who attended public schools at any
time during the school year



Average number of children belonging to the public schools —
Average daily attendance of children 1

Bercentage of total number enrolled I

Percentage of total number enrolled in 1882 1



Increase.



Percentage of average number belonging

Percentage of average number belonging in 1882.



Decrease



Percentage over daily attendance

Percentage over daily attendance in 1882.

Increase



155,956
710
205



122,251
112,594



78.53



54.85



50.52



163,383
839
191



126,133
124,714



72.00
70.36



.64



53.52
53.64



.12



53.09
49.54



The following table exhibits the percentage of daily attendance,
average number belonging, and enrollment, from 1866 to 1884:



Ykar.



Listed on
Census.



Enrolled
in Public
Schools.



Per-
centage
Enrolled.



Average
Number
Belonging
to Public
Schools.



Per-
centage.



Average

Daily

Attendance.



Per-
centage.



186fi
1867
1868
3 869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
188.3
1884



85,152
94,349
102,183
110,642
121,751
130,116
137.351
141,610
159,717
171,563
184,787
200,067
205,475
216,404
215,978
211,237
216,330
222,846
235,672



37,906

54,726 I

60,946 I

67,834

70,030

83,628

92,255

97,681

105,890

116,896

126,220

1.35,335

138,597

144,806

148,885

149,870

152,217

174,611

179,801



44.51
58.00
59.64
61.31
57.44
64.27
67.55
68.96
66.29
68.14
63.80
67.64
67.45
66.91
68.93
70.95
70.36
78.53
72.00



28,232

41,411

45,667

54,168

50,155 I

65,949

71,481

71,170

70,279

77,350

91,784

97,257

103,006

105,837

110,279

114,486

116,047

122,251

126,133



33.15
43.89
44.69
47.15
41.19
50.68
51.04
50.26
44.00
45.08
49.66
48.74
50.13
48.95
51.06
54.19
53.64
54.85
53.52



64,375

63,063

63,651

69,658

83,391

89,539

94,696

98,468

100,966

105,541

107,177

112,594

124,714



46.86
44.53
39.85
40.60
45.13
44.75
46.08
45.50
46.75
49.96
49.54
50.52
53.09



(2) At Private Schools.



Number of white census children who attended only private
schools at anv time during the school year


15,891
29
37


17,903
40


Number of negro census children who attended only private
schools at any time during the school year ."_.


Number of Indian census children who attended only private
schools at anv time during the school year __


10






Total number of census children who attended only private
schools at any time during the school year .


15,957 i 17.Q.1.'?






'


Percentage of census children who attended only private schools-
Percentage of census children who attended only private schools
in 1882....


7.11


7.10
6.74









Increase.



.36



Percentage of census children attending private schools from 1866
to 1884:



Yeab.



Listed on
Census.



Enrolled

in Private

Schools.



Percent-
age.



1866.. 85,152 : 25,475

1867 94,349 18,182

1868 102,183 17,654

1869 110,642 17,344

1870 121,751 24,654

1871 130,116 17,029

1872 137,351 13,787

1873 141.610 12,507

1874 I 159,717 14,149

1875 . i 171,563 15,021

1876 184,787 14,625

1877 :. i 200,067 15,344

1878 ' 205,475 15,310

1879 216,404 15,432

1880 215.978 14,953

1881 ' 211,237 13,898

1882... I 216,330 14,572

1883 222,846 i 15,957

1884.. I 235,672 I 17,953



29.92

19.38

17.28

15.68

20.33

13.50

10.04

8.84

8.86

8.75

7.90

7.67

7.45

7.14

6.97

6.58

6.74

7.11

7.1(>



(3.) At No Schools.



Number of white census children who did not attend any school
during the school year

Number of negro census children who did not attend any school
during the school year

Number of Indian census children who did not attend any school
during the school year '.

Total numberof census children who did not attend any school
during the school year

Percentage of white census children who did not attend any
school during the school year

Percentage of white census children who did not attend any
school in 1882 .. ._



Decrease




By the above table it appears that 53,552 census children did not
attend school during the year ending June 30, 1884; or almost one
fourth of the children would seem to be growing up without educa-
tion. But so disastrous a conclusion is by no means warranted by
the real facts. Census children are those between ^'I'f and seventeen;
but the law empowers Trustees to exclude all under six years of age.
But few under seven years attend ; many parents do not send their
children until they are nine, ten, and some even twelve years of age.
Again, vast numbers of children who have attended from seven to
fourteen years of age are withdrawn mostly because of the necessities
of their parents, and to learn trades or business of some kind; and
these, although still census children for three years, have already
attended during seven years. Others are withdrawn for a year or
more at a time from ill health, who have attended and will again.



9



Moreover, there are some who expect to attend after they shall be
seventeen years old.

Since 1866 the non-attendance of census children has been as fol-
lows :



Listed on
Census.



Attended
no School.



Percent-
age.



1866. 85,

1867 94,:

1868 102,

1869 110,

1870 121,

1871 130,

1872 135

1873 141,

1874 159,

1875 : 171,

1876 j 184,

1877 200,

1878 205,

1879 ' 216,

1880 215;

1881 211,

1882 I 216,

1883 222,

1884 235,



,152


21,771 :


25.57


349


21,441 i


22.62


,183


23,583


23.08


642


25.464


23.01


751


27,067 i


22.23


,116


29,459


22.64


351 1


30,781 1


22.41


610


31,422 '


22.19


717


39,678 ,


24.84


563 :


39,646


23.11


787 '


43.023


23.29


067 i


49,035 j


24.61


475


50,674 !


24.66


404


56,369


26.05


978


52,140 :


24.17


237 '


47,469


22.42


330 i


49,541


22.90


846 '


49,537 1


22.23


672


53,552 1


22.72



To recapitulate:



1883.



Total number of census children who attended public schools

at any time during the school year 156,871

Total number of census children who attended only private

schools at any time during the school year 15,957

Total number of census children who did not attend any school

during the school year 49,537


164,413
17,953
53,452


Percentage of census children enrolled in public schools 78.53

Percentage of census children enrolled in private schools 7.16

Percentage of census children who did not attend any school. _ 22.23


76.29

7.61

22.68



Still, to make a true exhibit of the extent to which the public schools
are utilized by the children of the State, we must not take the num-
ber enrolled, which is too great, because some attend a day, or a veiy
few days, and never come again. Neither should we take the aver-
age daily attendance, for the number of those who may fairly be
considered as pupils of the school is greater than the average daily
attendance; so we must take the average number belonging, a number
which is calculated in a peculiar manner. Thus we have the follow-
ing table:



Number of census children belonging to public schools ..

Number of census children attending private schools

Number of census children not attending any school

Percentage of census children belonging to public schools
Percentage of census children attending private schools.-
Percentage of census children not attending any school



....


122,251
15,957
49,537


126,133
17,953





53,452




54.86

7.16

22.23


53.52

7.61

22.68



10



(C.) NATIVITY OF CENSUS CHILDREN.

For 1883, the Census Marslials reported the nativity of 322,094
children, not more than seventeen years of age. According to these
reports, we had in this State in 1883 :



Native bora children, both parents native born
Native born children, one parent foreign born _
Native born children, both parents foreign born
Foreign born children



158,722

44,341

113,160

5,871



Or, expressed in percentage, in 1883:



Per cent of our children of native born parents

Per cent of our children who had one foreign parent
Per ceiit of our children who were of foreign parents



49.27
13.77
35.13



For 1884, the Census Marshals reported the nativity of 319,286
children not more than seventeen years of age. According to these
reports, we had in tliis State in 1884 :



Native born children, both parents native born
Native born children, one parent foreign born .
Native born children, both jiareuts foreign born
Foreign born children



157,835

44,805

112,359

4,287



Or, expressed in percentage, in 1884 :


,




.•.^




1884.



Per cent of children of native born parents

Per cent of children who had one parent for^^n born
Per cent of children who were of foreign parents



49.43
14.03
35.19



II. SCHOOL STATISTICS.






18S3.


1884.


Number of school districts _


2,379


2,395


Number of school districts in 1882 .


2,177








Increase.- .. _. _.




216








Number of grammar schools


1,191
1,971


1,155


Number of primary schools


2,042




Total number of schools _


3,232


3,262


Total number of schools in 1882 .


3.036








Increase.. .




226















11





1883.


1884.


[b.) School Attendance.
Whole number of boys enrolled on register


90,237
84,374


92,933
86,868








174,611


179,801


Tot'^l number enrolled in 1882


168,024








Increase




11,777




122,251


126,133




116,047








Increase..




10,086






112,594


124,714




107,177








Increase .




1,587


Number enrolled in High Schools or advanced grade

Number enrolled in Grammar Schools

Number enrolled in Primary Schools


4,035

44,829

122,212


4,351

48,415

126,681


Percentage of pupils in High Schools

Percentage of pupils in Grammar Schools


2.37
26.18


2.43
26.98


Percentage of pupils in Primarv Schools


71.45


70.59






(c.) Length of School Terms.


31


53




35








Increase




18


Districts maintaining schools six mouths or over, but less than
eight months __ _.


738


800


Districts maintaining schools six months or over, but less than


820












20








Districts maintaining schools eight months or over


1,564


1,515


Districts maintaininsr schools eight months or over iu 1882


1,246



Increase -



Average number of months schools were maintained for all the
schools of the State

Average number of months schools were maintained for all the
schools of the State, in 1882



7.55



Decrease



(d.) Teachers.



Number of male teachers

Number of male teachers in 1882.



1,114



Increase.



Total number of teachers

Total number of teachers in 1882.



3,930



Increase.



269



7.60

7.77



.17



1,108
1,156



Decrease . _ _




48








Number of female teachers

Number of female teachers in 1882 _ ._


2,816


2,964
2.621



343



4,082
3,777

305



12





1883.


1S84.




$79 30


$81 38




79 67








Increai5e




$1 71




$64 95


$65 37




64 84








Increase




$0 53




3,179


3,385




3,298








Increase




87


Number of teachers who subscribed for some educational journal.
Number of teachers who are graduates of California State


1,624

348
234


1,729

472




261


(e.) Count)/ Superinicndents.

Number of school visits made by County Superintendents

Number of school visits made by County Superintendents in 1882.


3,401


3,771
5,138


Decrease




1,367


Number of schools not visited by County Superintendents

1882


314


180
161



Increase



Number of city and county certificates granted to males__
Number of city and county certificates granted to females.

Number of certificates renewed

Number of a2:)plicants rejected



Amount of salaries paid County Superintendents

Amount of salaries paid County Superintendents in 1882.



Increase



Average annual salary paid County Superintendents

Average annual salary paid County Superintendents in 1882.

Increase



Number of new school liouses erected

Number of new school houses erected in 1882.



399
933
397
769



$50,045 50



$961 25



104



19



364
1,002

935
1,012



$52,030 50
49,530 00



$2,500 50



$1,000 59
952 52



$48^

96
111



Decrease



15



13



1884.



Districts having suitable accommodations for all pupils attend-
ing school

Districts not having suitable accommodations for all pupils
attending school

Districts whose schools are provided with water-closets

Districts whose schools are not provided with water-closets

Districts having sufficient grounds

Districts not having sufficient grounds

Districts whose school grounds are suitably improved

Districts whose school grounds are not suitably improved

Districts whose school houses are well ventilated

Districts whose school houses are not well ventilated

Districts whose schools are supplied with good furniture

Districts whose schools are supplied with passable furniture

Districts whose schools are supplied with poor furniture

Districts whose schools are well supplied with apparatus

Districts whose schools are passably supplied with apparatus —
Districts whose schools are poorly supplied with apparatus



ITumber of school visits made by Trustees

Number of school visits made by other persons-



2,183

230
2,131

272
2,272

139
1,026
1,386
2,261

142
1,550

449

416
1,195

800

420



11,807
80,231



2,128

• 360
2,231

257
2,227

164
2,078
1,409
2,256

231
1,616

496

376
1,340

806

337



11,590
87,794



Teachers' Institute.®



Number of Institutes held ] 41

Number of Institutes held in 1882 ;

Increase

Number of teachers who attended Institutes 1 3,179

Number of teachers who attended Institutes in 1882 ,

Increase I



42
41



3,385
3,298



* Several counties held no Institute within the school year by changing from Spring to Autumn.
III. FINANCIAL STATISTICS.



1883.



(a.) Receipts. I

Balance on hand at beginning of school year j $648,541 76

Received from State apportionments 1,850,834 64

Received from county apportionments j 747,947 98

Received from citj'and district taxes 567,870 98

Received frona miscellaneous sources (sale of bonds, rents, etc.) - 32,462 71



Total receipts-



Percentage of school funds from State apportionments-..
Percentage of school funds from county apportionments
Percentage of school funds from city and district taxes.-
Percentage of school funds from other sources



Amount of State apportionments per census child

Amount of State apportionments per census child in 1882.



Decrease.



Amount of county apportionments per census child

Amount of county apjJortionments per census child in 1882.



Increase



,847,658 07




$587,958 06

1,893,011 34

789,901 23

621,642 33

27,715 40



$3,920,228 36



$8 74



$3 31



$0 23



$3 35
3 25

$0 10



14



Total receipts per census child


$17 31


$16 63


Total receipts per census child in 1882 -


17 52








Decrease .




$0 89


(b.) Expenditures for School Purposes.
Amount paid for teachers' salaries .


$2,511,078 40

419,760 85

61,032 26

26,504 11


$2,573,623 54


Amount paid lor rents, repairs, fuel, and contingent expenses

Amount paid for school libraries _.


415,587 39
59,642 08


Amount paid for school apparatus


23,204 69






Total current expenses


$3,018,375 62
293,839 66


$3,072,057 70


Amount paid for sites, buildings, and school furniture


292,165 85








$3,312,215 28


$3,364,223 55








$83 18

13 92

2 02

88


$83 66


Percentage of current expenses for contingent expenses, etc

Percentage of current expenses for school libraries


13 75
1 84


Percentage of current expenses for school apparatus.


75






Cost of tuition per scholar enrolled in the public schools

Cost of tuition per scholar enrolled in the public schools in 1882.


$14 38


$14 36
14 32






Increase per scholar __




$0 04








Cost of tuition per scholar, average number belonging


$20 54


$20 40


Cost of tuition per scholar, average number belonging in 1882


20 74








Decrease per scholar




$0 34








Cost of tuition per scholar, average daily attendance


$22 30


'S20 60


Cost of tuition per scholar, average daily attendance in 1882.


22 45








Decrease per scholar




$1 85








Total cost (current expenses) per scholar enrolled in the public
schools _. _ _ __ _ _


$17 28


$17 08
17 27


Total cost (current expenses) per scholar enrolled in the public
schools in 1882








Decrease per scholar




$0 19






Total cost (current expenses) per scholar — average number
belonging .


$24 85


$23 56
$25 00


Total cost (current expenses) per scholar — average number
belonging in 1882 .






Decrease per scholar




$1 44








Total cost (current expenses) per scholar — average daily attend-
ance .


$26 81


$24 61
27 07


Total cost (current expenses) per scholar, average daily attend-
ance in 1882








Decrease per scholar




$2 46






Valuation of School Property.
Valuation of sites, school houses, and furniture


$6,866,577 51
373,254 48
167,083 00


$7,346,276 00
403,883 00
186,461 00




Valuation of school apparatus .




Total valuation of school property ._


$7,406,914 99


$7,936,620 00
7,237,669 00


Total valuation of school property in 1882






Increase




$698,951 00







15

GENERAL CONDITION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

The foregoing summaries display, in a condensed shape, the actual
condition of the public schools of California, and the signs of con-
tinual progress towards a better condition. The numerous tables
following later in the report show these matters more in detail.

I am able to state that our public schools are in good condition, and
are continually reaching forth towards a betterment.

The influence of the Normal Schools is being felt more and more ;
and the graduates of the State University are becoming more and
more frequently members of the teaching profession. Although
there is room for much improvement in this direction, still it grati-
fies me to believe that the people are evincing greater interest in the
schools where their children are being educated. There is much
lilDerality and enlightened foresight displayed in the manner in
which local taxes are self-imposed, and in the cheerfulness with
which they are paid for "additional school facilities."

More attention is also paid to the election of proper men for the
highly responsible office of School Trustees. The most upright and
the wisest men in a district should be chosen to fill those offices.

A glance at the extracts from the reports of the County Super-
intendents will show, with a very few regretable exceptions, an
announcement of good condition, and progress so constant as to
be monotonous; but it is a blessed monotony, and that single tone
is one of sweet music, which we would not wish to disturb.

The one great want in the public schools is a greater attention
on the part of teachers and other authorities to moral instruction —
to character building. To turn out good, honest, clean-living men
and women, is that which should be, not merely acknowledged, but
felt to be the principal end and aim of the public schools; that
nothing should come before or be allowed to interfere with this good
design ; that intellectual education should be subordinated to it, and
that this instruction should be not merely incidental, coming to the
front on all suitable occasions, but that it should have its regular
and frequent place on the programme of exercises. It should never
be omitted or postponed in favor of anything else.

SOURCES OF SCHOOL REVENUE.

The public sources of revenue to support the schools are three :
the State fund, the county fund, and the district or local fund. The
State fund is derived mainly from a property tax, but is supplemented
by a poll tax, and by interest on certain bonds held in trust by the
State for the benefit of the public schools, and also by interest on
balance yet due for school lands purchased from the State.

In the school year beginning July 1, 1882, and ending June 30,
1883, there was received from interest on bonds, |127,523 35; from
interest on school lands, $76,140 85; and the following year, from
interest on bonds, $126,836 10 ; and from interest on school lands,
$40,227 26.

In the school year ending June 30, 1883, the fund from poll tax
w^as $271,703 15, and in the next year, $289,584 37.

It is to be feared that the poll tax is not so fully collected as it
should be; it is a disagreeable tax to collect, and the opportunities of
escape by unconscientious individuals, are great. And yet, every



16

effort should be made to secure a complete collection, since it forms
an important element in the school revenue.

By the latest report of the Controller to this office, the securities
held in trust by the State Treasurer for the School Fund, were as



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