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Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) online

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Training School has been changed to Training Department, and the
dignit}^ and influence of the Principal of that department has been
enhanced by change of position on the list of the Faculty and by
increase of salary.



Hitherto it has been the custom of the Trustees of the Normal
School to elect the teachers for a year only at a time. Thus at the
erid of each school year the whole body of the teachers was dropped,
and it was always a question who would be reengaged. This could
not but have a demoralizing effect on the teachers ; it made every one
dependent upon the good will of the Trustees, rather than upon a
good record of zeal, ability, and success.

Soon after entering upon the duties of my office I brought this
matter to the attention of the Trustees of the Normal School, and I
am happj^to report that, animated by an enlightened sense of justice
and appreciation of the good of the schools under their charge, they
unanimously resolved that henceforth no teacher who had been once
regularly elected to the Faculty should be removed except for cause,
which cause should be ascertained by a fair and impartial trial before
the Board of Trustees, the accused having the right to appear and
be heard in his defense.



It was found that in many instances the labor was too exhausting
upon pupils and calculated to break down their health. In recasting-
the schedule of studies so as to give more time and attention to the
normal features in the schools, the Faculty have made arrangements
to greatly diminish the strain upon the pupils. They have arranged
to have an hour for study at the school buildings in the daytime and
thereby diminish night study by one hour.

They have further determined to do away with close individual dis-
criminations as to the comparative standing of the students, making
the upper third of the class lionorary students without individualizing
those of that kind, or those that were below the line of demarcation,
and also abolishing the positions of salutatorian and valedictorian.
This w^ill keep down a competition for honors too sharp and keen.

The several reforms above noted : the emphasizing of the technical
feature of the schools, the improvement in the status of the Faculties,
the diminution of the overburden of labor, and the prevention of an
unhealthy competition for honors, it is hoped and believed will
result in a signal benefit to the Normal Schools and thereby to the
schools of the State.

I append some extracts from the register of the Normal School for
the year 1883-84:


For admission to the Junior Class, the following qualifications are requisite :

1. Age. — Sixteen years.

2. Certificates. — A valid certificate, State or county, of any grade.

3. A diploma of graduation from some public Grammar or High School in the State.

Those wanting tlie last two qualifications, can be admitted only on examination, and none
will be admitted to the examination who have not completed the Grammar School course as
prescribed in the counties of the State, or a course of study equivalent thereto. Pupils holding
the Grammar School diploma are entitled to admission to the Junior Class without examination.
Candidates for admission to advanced classes are examined in all the studies of the preceding

It will be observed that the diplomas specified are those issued by Boards of Education to
students completing the County Grammar School course. In the large towns and cities of the
State, where High Schools exist, the Grammar School course is not so extensive.

Those expecting to enter any class in the school should examine carefully the " Conditions
of Admission" and the "Advice to those who wish to enter the school," and they must not
expect to enter until they are prepared to meet all requirements.

Pupils may enter any course for which they are qualified, but a great advantage will he
derived from taking the full elementary course, to secure that thoroughness of drill necessary
to the skillful teacher.

AH pupils are examined frequently, and if they show either incapacity' or unwillingness to
do the required work, are assigned to lower classes, or excused from attendance.

None are admitted to the Senior Class under seventeen years of age.

By a resolution of the Board, adopted May 15, 1883, pupils will, hereafter, be admitted only
at the beginning of the terms of the schools. The Faculty have, however, power to suspend
this rule in cases which, for good and sufficient reasons, they may consider exceptional. .None
are, under any circumstances, admitted to the Senior Class after the Jirst examinations each term,
as none are graduated who have not been one year in attendance at the school.

Applicants for admission are required to make and sign the following declaration: "I hereby
declare that mj' purpose in entering the school is to fit myself for teaching, and that I intend to
teach in the Public Schools of California;" and to make a deposit of five dollars, which will
be refunded when thej' leave, if clear of the books of the Librarian, and if there are no charges
for injury to reference books, building, or furniture.

Those who are unable to pass the preliminary examination for admission to the Normal School
can enter the Preparatory Class until qualified. In this class a tuition fee is required.

Pupils completing the course of study, training, and practice, prescribed by the Board, to the
satisfaction of the Faculty, will receive a diploma equivalent to a first grade certificate. This is
perpetual, and requires only the requisite experience to entitle the holder to an educational or
life diploma.

By a resolution of the Board, adopted April 25, 1884, provision was made for honorary jiro-


motion and graduation. The action of tlie Board was as follows: "Pupils enterinsj any class
without conditions, either on examination or by promotion, who show in all their studies excel-
lent scholarship, shall be entitled to and receive honorary promotion. This promotion shall be
for acknowledged and obvious good scholarship, and need not be expressed in figures denoting
a grading."

New pupils entering with not to exceed two conditions, who fully remove the conditions
within ten weeks of their admission, may also earn honorarj- promotion.

Those pupils who maintain the honorary grade through the Senior year, including their prac-
tice work in the training department, shall be entitled to honorary graduation, and their diplo-
mas shall be so indorsed.

Any irregularit}' of deportment, incurring the censure of the Faculty, shall exclude the pupil
from the honorary grade for that term.

Grailuates, before receiving their diplomas, are required to sign the following obligation :

" I hereby agree to report to the Principal of the school from which I graduate, at least twice
a year for three years after my graduation, and once a year thereafter, so long as I continue in
the profession of teaching; and when I shall leave the profession I will repoit the fact to him,
with the cause therefor. A failure to make such reports may be considered a sufficient cause for
the revocation of my diploma."

For the information of applicants to higher classes, we append the following detailed state-
ment of requirements in Chemistry, Zoology, and Botany, and a few General Suggestions.

Chanistiy. — Candidates for admission to the Senior Class are examined on the first twenty-
two chapters of Mead's Primer of Chemistry, which may be obtained at any San Francisco

Zoo/o^^.— Candidates must be able to write a complete tabular synopsis of the branches, classes,
and orders of the animal kingdom, with examples of each order; also, to describe the character-
istic differences of the several orders, and essential points of structure and function, as given
by Tenney or Orton. They will also be examined upon the more destructive fruit pests of
California, especially including the various Coccids and Aphides, Codlin Moth, and the family
of Borers. Much information upon these points may be obtained by addressing with stamp,
Matthew Cooke, Sacramento.

Botany. — The elements of structural Botany, with dissection and sketching of all parts of
plants, trom the embryo through the stages of development to the fruit and seed.

Independent work in analysis or classification of our local flora is also required, together with
the arrangement of an herbarium of twenty-five specimens, including five ferns, mounted and

Examinations will include dissection, sketching, and analysis, and candidates for the Senior
Class are expected to show that they have collected and dried the required number of plants,
but are not required to mount them.

Students in Botany are invited to donate at least ten plants each to the herbarium of the
school, as a small expression of gratitude to their Aliiia Mater.


First — It is useless to attempt to complete the severe course of study required, unless the
pupil has good bodily health.

Second — The advantages to the pupil of having taken a general course of reading before
entering on the work of higher classes, are so apparent that candidates for admission to the
Middle or Senior Class will be examined with reference to what standard works of literature
they have read. The result of this examination will exert a strong modifying influence upon
the final acceptance of the pupil, and his assignment to a class in the school.

Note. — Those who expect to complete the course should be prepared to meet an expense of about four dollars
for an Herbarium and other appliances in Botany, in the Middle year, and about the same amount for Chemical
apparatus and Laboratory practice in the Senior year.



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The Normal School has a well orEcanized Training Department, and in this the pupil teachers
will find ample opportunity to apply practically the instruction received in methods of teach-
ing; and members of the Senior Class will be required to demonstrate to the Faculty of the
Normal School their ability to leach well, before being recommended for graduation.


This institution of higher learning is the apex of the pyramid of
the system of public instruction. It enjoys an admirable organiza-
tion, having a group of colleges constituting one university. Each
of these colleges is addressed to a particular line of learning and to
a specific object, while the mastering of the course of study of any
one of them confers a liberal education, and in most of them in addi-
tion thereto a preparation for a particular profession. At Berkelej'^
are found the College of Agriculture, the College of Chemistry, the
College of Mines, the College of Civil Engineering, the College of
Mechanical Engineering, and the College of Letters. The latter is
again subdivided into three distinct yet complete courses: those of
the Literary Course, Course in Letters and Political Science, and the
Classical Course.

The instruction in these colleges takes place in the commodious
and handsome buildings at Berkeley, admirably equipped with appa-
ratus, laboratories, museum, machinery, furnaces, art gallery, and
library. Seated on one of the finest sites in the world, and enjoying
a view of an unrivaled land-and-water-scape of the City and Bay of
San Francisco, with its islands and forts, its numerous sail and steam
vessels in perpetual activity to satisfy the demands of local traffic,
wdiile they penetrate or emerge from the forests of masts at rest in
front of the city; the numerous ancl lofty messengers of commerce,
bound to or from foreign ports, which conduct the eye to the famed
Golden Gate, through which are seen the angry billows or else the
ceaseless heaving swells of the vast Pacific, which shuts down the
distant horizon.

In the City of San Francisco are situated the College of Pharmacy,
the College of Dentistry, the Toland College of Medicine, and the
Hastings College of the Law.


Thus it will be seen that the University, endowed as it has been
by several handsome benefactions from private donors and the United
States, steadily and liberally supported by the Legislature of the State,
well equipped and wisely organized, is prepared to meet the wants
and tastes of almost any student. Consequently, we should naturally
expect that its halls would be crowded by the young seekers for
learning. I regret to say that such is not the case. The instruction
in the colleges located at Berkeley is practically free to all, and abso-
lutely so to residents of California. There should, then, be a thou-
sand students, at least, at Berkeley, and yet the Register for 1882-83
shows only one hundred and thirty-nine regular students, supple-
mented by seventeen students at large, eight special students, and
fifty-one partial course students. And this list contains, as I sup-
pose, all of every kind who have studied at Berkeley at any time,


however short, during the year. During 1883-84 there were one hun-
dred and forty-nine regular students, with eleven at large, seven
special, and forty-three partial course students.


A serious defect in the constitution of the Board of Trustees is that
it is too large, and the term of office of the majority is too long.
There are seven ex officio Regents, to wit: The Governor, Lieutenant-
Governor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Speaker of the
Assembl}', President of the Universit}'', President of the State Agri-
cultural Society, and President of the Mechanics' Institute of San

In addition to these are sixteen Regents appointed by the Gov-
ernor of the State and holding office for sixteen years. Thus the trus-
tees or managers of this institution are twenty-three in number, of
whom seven constitute a quorum. There are three quorums in the
Board and one member to spare. The singular spectacle is possible
of three bodies calling themselves, with equal justice, the Board of
Regents, sitting at the same time, and taking action at cross pur-
poses or diametrically opposed. Such a thing should not be possible.
And while it has not as yet happened that two or more Boards of
Regents sat simultaneously, it is thus constantly happening that
meetings, consecutive or not far apart, are largely composed of dif-
ferent members. This leads to wavering and vacillation in the

It may even happen, in fact has happened, that a measure of grave
importance, and special in nature, should be taken up and disposed
of in the absence of the member who introduced it to the attention
of the Board.


For many years past there has been a standing committee of the
Board of Regents which has had diverse names at different times:
such as Executive Committee, Advisory Committee, Committee on
Instruction, etc. This body assumed and was allowed pretty much
all authority over the Faculties of instruction, the shaping of the
courses of instruction, the appointment and compensation of the pro-
fessors and instructors of the colleges at Berkeley and their removal:
indeed all the powers of the management of the institution were
absorbed by it, save preliminary inquiries into questions of law or
those concerning the property of the University. The knowledge
that all power was in the hands of a small junta of men had a demor-
alizing effect, and could not fail to have such effect upoh the Faculties
and employes of the University. The timid and time-serving were
drawn to an undue observance of and subservience to the numbers
of this overawing committee; while the more sturdy, who would not
truckle, knew that they stood in jeopardy every hour.

The effect of this committee was unfortunate also upon their fellow
members of the Board. It stood like a screen between them and their
duties, cutting off all personal knowledge of the things of their trust.
If there were any who did not feel disposed to take a great deal of
trouble to gain an accurate knowledge for themselves concerning the
main affairs of the University, they felt excused because there was a
standing committee to attend to those things, while others may have


refrained from looking into those things from motives of delicacy, as
not desiring to trespass on the domain of a particular committee. I
am happy to report that this standing committee no longer exists; it
was abolished by the Regents more than a year ago, and the most
salutary results to the institution are confidently anticipated as the
fruits of this abolition. Henceforth all the members of the Faculties
will feel that they occupy a dignified position and have a secure
tenure of office; while each Regent will not gain his knowledge of
the University after it has been strained through the reports of a
standing committee, but he will be face to face with his duties and
his responsibilities. There are other reforms and changes sorely
needed and confidently expected in the near future; but it would be
premature at this time to discuss them.


The completion of any one of the eight following courses usually requires four j'ears :

The Classical Course leads to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and corresponds to the usual
academic course of the leading American colleges. It is designed to furnish a liberal education,
and to offer preparation for professional study. Both Latin and Greek are required for this

The Literary Course leads to the degree of Bachelor of Letters, and has the same general
purpose as the Classical Course. It is designed for students who wish to study Latin, and to
enjoy a fuller course in English, French, and German than that offered by the Classical Course.
Greek is not required for this course.

The Course in Letters and Political Science leads to the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy,
and in it special attention is given to the English Language and Literature, to modern lan-
guages. History, and Political Science. It provides for a liberal course in general culture, and
is designed to afford suitable preparation for the duties of citizenship, for the study of the law,
and for journalism. Neither Latin nor Greek is required for this course, but either or both
may be taken.

The Colleges of Agriculture, Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, and Chemistry, offer the
following courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science; they are designed to give to the
student a good English education, and an introduction to the principles of modern science,
together with special instruction preparatory to a fuller course of professional study in the par-
ticular department he may choose. Neither Latin nor Greek is required for these courses, but
a preparatory course in Latin is recommended.

The Course in Agriculture is designed for students who wish to familiarize themselves with
the sciences underlying the farmer's calling, and with the best practice of its several branches,
as a preparation for the intelligent and successful exercise of their profession, whether as prac-
tical farmers or as agricultural experts.

The Course in Mechanics is designed for students who wish to become mechanical engineers
or machinists (so far as they are constructors of machinery), or to devote their energies to such
technical and industrial pursuits as involve a knowledge of machinery.

The Course in Mining is designed for students who wish to become mining or metallurgical
engineers, or to engage in one of the many pursuits connected with the mining industries, such
as the surveying and mapping of mines, the assaying and working of ores, the designing and
use of mining machinery, or the exploitation of mines.

The Course in Civil Engineering is designed for students who wish to adopt civil engineering
as a profession, and to engage in such work as the survey of lands, leveling, topographical
engineering, triangular or geodetic surveying; the location and construction of roads, railways,
and canals; the designing and construction of bridges of wood, iron, or stone; the building of
dams, reservoirs, and systems of water supply, drainage and sewerage; and the improvement
of rivers, harbors, and seacoasts.

The Course in Chemistry is designed for students who wish to become professional chemists,
either as teachers, investigators, or manufacturers in chemical industries, and for those who
wish to become expert chemists preparatory to the jDursuit of medicine, pharmacy, etc.


An applicant for admission to either a partial or a special course must obtain from the Presi-
dent permission to take the necessary examinations, from the proper instructors, certificates of
having passed such examinations, and from the Faculty permission to take the studies desired.
Certificates of admission signed by the Recorder, who will furnish blank forms for the purpose,
must be presented before the applicant will be admitted to recitations. A student pursuing a
partial or special course will not be allowed, without the consent of the Faculty, to omit any of
the studies he has selected, and he shall be subject to all the regulations governing regular stu-
dents with respect to examinations and conditions.


An acceptable schedule of studies must be filed with the Recorder during the first week of
every term by every student pursuing an irregular course.

A student pursuing an irregular course is not enrolled in any of the college classes. Students
who wish a thorough and systematic education are advised to take one of the eight regular

Courses at Large. ^A course at large is a full but purely elective course, and may include
auy study pursued in the University. A student at large who has satisfactorily completed
studies equivalent to those pursued in one of the regular courses, may, by vote of the Faculty,
he recommended to a degree, or he may, upon leaving the University, receive a certificate of
proficiency in the studies he has pursued and in which he has attained marked scholarship. A
candidate who wishes to take a course at large must pass the examinations for admission to
some one of the courses leading to a degree, and he must, by further examination, satisfy the
Faculty of his fitness to take such advancer! studies as he may elect. He must also elect such
a schedule of studies as will make up the full number of hours required of a student pursuing
a regular course. A student who fails to maintain his standing as a regular student will not be
admitted to a course at large.

Special Courses. — A special course does not lead to a degree, but a special student may,
upon leaving the University, receive a certificate of proficiency in the studies that he has pur-

Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) → online text (page 53 of 83)